Skip to main content


A Nebraska Game Farmer and His "Pets"

What Will 1936 Bring Us?

AS we enter 1936, the Nebraska sportsman may ask, "What will 1936 bring in the way of better outdoor recreation?"

The coming year looks brighter for a better outdoors than it has for several years. First and most important, the dry cycle seems at an end for the time being at least, and rain and snow are more abundant. This has a very great effect on waterfowl, fish and, in fact, all forms of outdoor life.

Secondly, there is greater cover and food for upland game birds than for a number of years. This means more pheasants and fur-bearing animals. In some parts of the state the cover is so dense it is almost impossible to see birds.

With the lakes and ponds of the state improved in their physical condition, the Commission is anxious to build up the fish population in them as quickly as possible. With that in mind and in order to get better coordination and stocking results, Mr. J. M. Merritt, superintendent of the Gretna Fisheries, has been put in charge of the several hatcheries and will supervise all stocking of fish. Each lake will be studied, and only fish planted which are adapted to such water.

A survey of the pheasant situation will be made in each county this winter, in order to get more information as to what counties should be opened to hunting. A quail experimental station is being established on one of the state reserves and this bird given more attention. State reserves for waterfowl will be stocked in the spring with breeding birds in an effort to increase the local crop of ducks. The crow and cat situation is being studied and a campaign in cooperation with clubs and organizations o f sportsmen carried on.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT Here, in a nutshell, is how the Nebraska Game Commission stood financially on December 81, 1935: Balances on hand Dec. 81, 1934 ................9 20,856.49 Receipts during 1935.. 170,641.35 Total income ....$191,497.86 Expenditures during 1985 ..............$150,186.47 Total on hand, Dec. 31, 1935 ................$ 41,311.39 Value of real estate, equipment, etc.....$800,000.00 The Commission is in better shape financially than for several years, and while they still must move slowly and cannot acquire additional holdings, it is believed that more funds will be available hereafter to carry on a number of important projects. The new badge is proving very popular and sportsmen generally are taking to the idea. The badge makes "every citizen a conservation officer" and in those states where used, it has been a great aid to law enforcement.

The Commission during 1936 hopes to make its enforcement of game laws much more effective than heretofore. New men are being tried out in the hope that high-type, well informed and hard working officers can be secured. All of these men are selected only after a rigid examination and without consideration of partisan politics. One of the things the Commission hopes to accomplish this year is a war on "illegal means of taking fish". Too many traps, nets and other illegal devices are being used. These rob the honest permit-buyer of his rightful sport and all rivers, streams and lakes will be carefully watched this year. Where persons are found using such means, courts will be asked to assess the full amount of fines and liquidated damages.

Another study the Commission will make during 1936 is that pertaining to food conditions for fish in the Platte River Sand Pits. Mr. George Bennett, who has been doing work in Wisconsin, will be in charge of this activity. Not only will the fertilization of sand pits be undertaken, but efforts will be made to introduce several species of fish with a view to getting a quick growth.

More attention will be given to publicity than in the past. A Park and Tourist Guide will be published this spring which will give a great deal of information about the outdoors of Nebraska, not only to the visitor who is stopping or passing through the Cornhusker state, but to residents as well. It is a fact that many citizens who reside in eastern Nebraska know very little about the scenic spots in the western part of the state. It is the plan of the Commission to make suitable literature available to all who care for the same. This guide will be ready for distribution April 1 and can be secured free of charge by writing the Secretary of the Commissipiii Mr. Frank B. "O'Conneil, State House, Lincoln.


A Scene from a Pond of the Gothenburg Hunting Club


Wanted 1,000,000 Crows

THAT the crow is causing considerable damage to game birds and is increasing rapidly in many sections of the state, is the belief of the Nebraska Game Commission. as well as that of many sportsmen. According to reports received by the Commission, crows are on the increase in all parts of the country, and in recent investigations have proved decidedly injurious to our game, poultry and to farm crops.

A recent bulletin from "More Game Birds in America, Inc."' shows that the crow is the worst natural enemy of the ducks on the breeding grounds.

The report in part is as follows:

"Seeking to ascertain the causes of duck mortality in the vast breeding grounds of Manitoba. Saskatchewan, Alberta, the Dakotas and Minnesota, questionnaires were distributed through state and Canadian game officials and organizations to farmers, hunters, trappers, game wardens and other volunteer investigators. Of an even 1000 cases of duck destruction by predators reported by 551 of the observers, 366 cases were blamed on Jim Crow.

"Hard-pressed for food early in the spring, crows are particularly destructive to duck eggs. Destruction of eggs and ducklings affects the early breeding species of ducks most severely, since they begin to nest at a time when vegetation is in early growth and too thin to conceal their nests.

"So persistent have crows become in their search for duck eggs that efforts of farmers to protect duck nests during the mowing season have betrayed nesting sites to the wily black birds. 'In many places it has been found that protective vegetation left uncut around nests in mowed fields forms conspicuous marks, easily detected by crows and other natural enemies which, in most cases, destroy the eggs the farmers endeavor to save', the report reveals."

The Nebraska Game, Forestation & Parks Commission is recommending a general clean up of crows in Nebraska, and is asking the assistance of all parties interested in the protection and increase of game. Our goal is to decrease the crow population by 1,000,000 birds.

Experience has taught that the best place to kill crows is at their roosting place when they come in to roost.

Various methods can be used but the method used will depend somewhat on the location and extent of the roost. On the larger roosts where it is possible to secure the assistance of an aeroplane, a great many crows can be killed with guns. The plane flying low over the roosting place, scaring the crows until they are afraid to leave the protection of the trees.

Bombs placed in the trees where they roost and exploded after the crows have gone to roost has proved successful in a number of cases but care must be used in the placing of bombs. In all methods used, permission should be secured from the owner of the land on which the shooting takes place. Shooting from a blind near the roost, using crows, or a mounted owl as decoys, will afford much sport and account for many crows.

Crows may be trapped in a large wire trap built from chicken wire and old lumber, in which is placed the carcass of a dead animal, or part thereof, for bait.

Blue prints giving size and dimensions of material to be used will be furnished free on application to this office.

Get in touch with your local deputy conservation officer for assistance in organizing your crow eradication program, or write the Nebraska Game Commission.

Any suggestions you may have to offer as to methods used in getting rid of the crows will be appreciated by the Nebraska Commission.

During the past few years Nebraska sportsmen have been holding so-called wolf hunts. The purpose of such hunts is to reduce the number of coyotes, but often about the only animal killed is the rabbit.

In the western part of the state where the Jack Rabbit is numerous, the organized hunt is necessary and should be encouraged. However, in eastern Nebraska most of these hunts are more harmful than of benefit. The Cottontail Rabbit is the worst sufferer, and in some localities this animal is almost, extinct. Reports indicate that these animals are generally vers, scarce.

In view of this condition, why not organize a crow shoot this year instead of the customary wolf hunt?

Crow shoots are as much fun as the wolf hunt, and it will do a lot more good. Any organization can organize, or a few individuals can get together and arrange for one.

Plans followed by most groups provide for a contest. This usually lasts over a period of several weeks and ends up in a big dinner. Two sides are usually selected, and the side that can get the most crows wins and is the guest of the losers.

Here is an outline for the organization:

Referee—This is usually the president or chairman of the organization that is putting on the contest.

Captain (2)-—The Referee selects two Captains from the group, each of whom will be in charge of his respective "Side".

Lieutenants (6)—Each Captain select three Lieutenants who will aid him. It is best to get lieutenants who are good hunters and know something about crow shooting.

Hunters—The Referee calls on the captains to draw straws. The winner has first choice in selecting members of his side from the group. The next choice is made by the other captain and they alternate thereafter. Both sides should be evenly divided.

As fast as the crows are killed, the heads are brought in to the referee who appoints tellers to count and destroy same so they cannot be used again in counting. At the end of the contest the side having killed the most birds wins.

In some cases prizes are given instead of a dinner.


The eyes of a human being do not reflect light in the dark. In the beam of a powerful headlight, the eyes of a deer, cow, horse, dog, cat, raccoon or opossum will shine brilliantly, while in the same dazzling light the eyes of a man will ordinarily show not the faintest reflection. The size of a human's eye apparently has nothing to do with light-reflecting properties, since the eyes of a kitten, which are much smaller, will shine at night when caught in a beam of a head-lamp.


Facts and Figures About Niobrara Big Game Reserve

By GENO A. AMUNDSON, .Management Agent

THE Niobrara Wild Lite Preserve contains 16,6 81 acres and under the present plans of Land Acquisition it is to be increased up to approximately 19,800 acres. It is located on the site of the former Niobrara Military Reservation which was established in 1879 for the purpose of keeping the Sioux Indians on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota, and was abandoned in 1906.

This Refuge is located in the sandhill region of Nebraska, about half way across the State east and west, and is about eight miles from the South Dakota line. The Niobrara River passes through the north one-third of the Refuge east and west. This stream is wide, shallow and very rapid, and travels at a rate of approximately four and one-half miles per hour through the Refuge. On the north side of the Niobrara River is table land which rises several hundred feet above the bed of the river, and on the south side of the river the rolling sand-hills are about one-half as high as the table land north of the river. The table land north of the river is very irregular and cut up with canyons, ravines, and creeks. Some Western Yellow pines grow along the rims and sides of these canyons. There are numerous creeks and springs running into the Niobrara River as it passes through the Refuge from the north and from the south. These creeks and springs run the year round and consist of pure water which has very little mineral content. It has been tested and is pure enough for putting in storage batteries of cars.

This Refuge is mainly administered to perpetuate the species of American Bison, and for the protection it gives other big game animals.

Wild life was first afforded protection on this area in 1908 when, through the instrumentalities of the then Deputy Chief Game Warden of Nebraska and the President of the National Association of Audubon Societies President Theodore Roosevelt directed the issuance of an order to prohibit shooting and trapping thereon. In 1911, an investigation of the area was made by a representative of the Bioiogiqal Survey to determine its suitability for refuge purposes, and by Executive order of January 11, 1912, approximately 13,000 acres were set aside as a preserve and breeding ground for native birds.

The original stock of big game animals was acquired by gifts from John W. Gilbert, then owner of a small game park at Friend, Nebraska. On November 14th, 1912, an Executive order was issued enlarging the area of the preserve and subsequently acceptance of the Gilbert herd was arranged and the animals were placed on the Refuge early in 1913. With the addition of land acquired by executive order, and purchases, the area now contains approximately 17,000 acres. The big game animals on the preserve now number approximately as follows: 126 buffalo, 88 elk, 12 antelope, and 4 white-tailed deer.

A large variety of wild life is found on the area and along the Niobrara River and on some of the small creeks and in some instances the beaver are found and under the protection afforded them they increase so rapidly and in such large numbers that they become destructive to the tree life growing along the river and creeks. In some instances the beaver have been known to travel ten and twelve rods back from the water's edge to cut down trees and saplings. In the timber and along the streams, all animals native to this country are found, including the coyote, bobcats, raccoon, skunk, possum, mink, civet cat, weasel, muskrat, and once in a while, a white poreupine. And there are red squirrels in the trees.

The preserve is maintained also as a bird refuge and the principal species frequenting and nesting on the area are sharp-tailed Grouse, Quail, Prairie Chickens, Upland Plover and Chinese Pheasants. A large number of insectivorous and song birds nest within the boundaries of the Refuge, and it is a pleasure to hear their songs from the Meadow-larks that come in the latter part of March to the Brown Thrasher and Cat Bird that come in the middle of May. A number of Turkey Buzzards nest on the Refuge, and during the winter months the Golden and Bald Eagle migrate from the north and stay on the Refuge feeding on Jack-rabbits mostly, and now and then mix in a Mallard Duck for a change of diet. Considerable numbers of waterfowl rest on the waters of the Refuge during the migration and a large number of Mallard Ducks winter on the Refuge each year. During the past two years the environment for waterfowl has been greatly improved. We have created twenty ponds on the Refuge by the construction of dams, and in these ponds we have planted aquatic plants of the kinds that afford the most suitable food for ducks. Quite a number of these ponds have been enclosed with a vermin proof fence, and the balance of them have been fenced to keep the game animals out of a large area surrounding the ponds. This year a number of Green Wing Teal, Blue Wing Teal and Mallard Ducks are nesting on the ponds within the Refuge.

There are numerous interesting sights to see on the Refuge. There are three very beautiful water falls formed by spring creeks dropping down over the brule clay cliffs through which the channel of the Niobrara River is cut. Over these falls crystal clear spring water flows, and at the foot of each fall during the hottest days of summer the air is cool and fresh because of the increased humidity in the air from the spray created by the falls. In several places the channel of the Niobrara River, which is cut approximately one hundred feet down in the brule clay, horseshoe bends are formed of a vertical wall. On top of these walls, on the south side of the river, there are sloping hills of sand and at the intersection of the brule clay and sand, spring water seeps out and trickles down over the cliff and during the winter months one of these places affords a vertical sheet of ice in a horseshoe shape that is very beautiful to see. Both deciduous and coniferous trees grow on the Refuge along the river and creeks, making a contrast of greens during the summer which is especially beautiful on the south side of the river where the steep hills slope to the north and these hills are covered with Birch, Oak, Elm, Cedar and Western Yellow Pine trees.

Truck trails and horse trails have been constructed over the Refuge dur

(Continued on page 12)

Turtles Harmful to Both Birds and Fish


ABOVE the surface of the placid pool everything was peaceful and serene in the bright afternoon sunlight. The almost perfect reflection upon the water of the drooping willows lining the shore, was marred only by widening ripples set in motion by the animated feeding of a brood of mallard ducklings along the shallows.

The mother duck stood upon the shore, preening new feathers and dislodging old ones for this was the moulting season in preparation for the southern flight. She watched her brood closely, altho seemingly absorbed in her plumage for they now numbered but four, while she had hatched and led to water ten black and yellow ducklings.

Here and there above the water projected arrowhead and water lilies while floating algae and duck weed gave evidence that the lush growth of the short, northern summer was at its height. From among the lily pads a dark grey spot moved almost imperceptibly. Leaden, reptilian eyes stared greedily at the brood as they had stared in turn at the missing six. It was the periscopic-like head of that ruthless killer of all bird, fish and animal life that comes within his weight and reach, the snapping turtle.

The U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey places the destruction of bird life by turtles as one of the foremost reasons for depletion of the migratory flocks. His destruction of fish and shore frequenting creatures is gauged only by opportunity to make the kill. His method of killing seems particularly cruel. Victims are dragged under and torn to bits by powerful claws and beak with no chance of escape or of resistance against his bony armor. I have seen a quiet lake in sudden turmoil as several turtles rushed to share the kill of one of their kind, but only rarely are they seen feeding, because they submerge their prey and are very wary.

The eommon snapping turtle, also called moss back and mud turtle is by far the most destructive. They live to a great age as do many reptiles, and sometimes weigh as much as fifty pounds, Altho sometimes caught on fish hooks, they are seldom landed because of their weight and strength.

The most successful way to take them is by shooting or by the use of baited traps of wood or wire construction wherein the turtle passes thru a narrow aperture into the larger part of the trap to secure the bait. Turtle traps can now be purchased from manufacturers or home made traps will serve.

Three other species of this reptilian order of Chelonia are common in our state. Two of them are called land turtles, terrapin or tortoise; the third, soft shelled or leather back turtle. Of the two land species, the red-bellied turtle is the more common. The back is dark olive with beautiful red, yellow and black lines underneath and on legs and head. They are less harmful than the "Snapper" but are distinctly carniverous and take heavy toll of young fish. The yellow bellied turtle is more common in the sand hill region. I have encountered them miles from water patiently waddling down a sand hill trail. They have a peculiar game-like odor and bird dogs will often point them to the disgust of the hunter. Their markings are dark olive brown above and yellow and black underneath. They are much deeper thru the back than the red bellied species and have a pronounced "hump". They are the least harmful of native turtles, feeding largely on insects and are to some extent herbivorous.

Land turtles, when small, make interesting and intelligent pets. The most curious of the native species is the soft shelled turtle. The flat and nearly round shell is covered with a leathery and gristle-like skin instead of the usual thirteen large plates of the other kinds. The three-clawed feet are broadly webbed and they are expert and powerful swimmers, easily breasting the swift river currents where they are usually found. The color is a clear brown with pinkish-white underpart. Pierce and voracious they subsist almost entirely on fish and are the bane of river fishermen whose bait they steal.

Few are the fishermen who have not had their string of fish eaten by turtles and did not discover their loss until ready to go proudly home.

All turtles are oviparious, that is to say, the young hatch from eggs incubated in the sand near water where the female buries them. The eggs are about the size of pigeon eggs, yellowish white, with a soft tough shell.

Nearly all turtles make excellent human food, especially the giant green turtle of the Gulf Stream which sometimes reach a weight of 1,000 pounds and the diamond back terrapin of the east and south. The hawks bill sea turtle is also sought for their beautiful shell from which the tortoise shell of commerce is made.

For these reasons, this order of reptiles is classed as the most valuable to man but we in the temperate zone and especially in Nebraska could get along very well without them to the distinct benefit of other and more desirable wild life.


If the "secret" can be kept from the wife of a certain official in the United States Biological Survey, the Bureau has agreed to tell how muskrats can be used to enliven the family menu.

Returning from an inspection trip in muskrat areas of Delaware, one of the Bureau's biologists carried to his Washington home some meat obtained from these fur animals and introduced the food as "marsh rabbit." The results, he says, were delightful, and the dish proved to be an interesting delicacy, but he hopes that in his own home "marsh rabbits" are not identified.

The flesh of the muskrat for human food is variously esteemed, with diversity of opinion as to its palatability. Muskrats are sold in some parts of the East and Middle West. In the retail markets of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wilmington, and other cities they are sold from about the middle of December to the middle of March as "marsh rabbits", but no attempt is made to conceal the fact that they are muskrats. They are bought and eaten both by well-to-do citizens and by people who seldom indulge in high-priced game.

The animals are trapped primarily for their pelts, but after they are skinned, the additional labor of preparing the meat for market is so slight that it can be sold very cheaply.

Buy your 1936 hunting and fishing permit now!


OBSERVE AM/ GAME LAWS —- Outdoor Nebraska

Official Publication of The Nebraska State Came Forestation and Parks /iSF^v Commission COMMISSIONERS J. B. Douglas, Chairman Guy R. Spencer M. M. Sullivan Frank Haskins W. J. Tiley EDUCATION & PUBLICATION COMMITTEE J. B. Douglas, Chairman Prank B. O'Connell EDITOR Frank B. O'Connell Vol. XI Feb. 15, 1936 No. 1 SUBSCRIPTION-Free to permit holders. Published at Lincoln, Nebr., quarterly, for entry as Second Class Matter pending. The Commission's Program Application migratory GAME: Statewide pheasant hunting. Rehabilitation of the quail. Stocking of Hungarian partridge. Reserves and feeding grounds for waterfowl. Public Shooting grounds. FISH: Fish for every angler. Reduced cost and common sense business in fish production. Good fishing at state-owned lakes where public can fish free. Preservation of lakes. RECREATION: A statewide system of recreation grounds for Nebraska citizens. Shade and picnicking facilities at fishing lakes. Conservation of Nebraska's outdoors. LAW ENFORCEMENT: Equality for all. Constant war against the despoiler and destroyer of wild life. Strict observance of game laws by all citizens. EDUCATION: Appreciation of Nebraska's outdoors through education. Make the boys and girls of tomorrow lovers of wild creatures and nature's handiwork. Cooperation of all citizens to the end that Nebraska shall have suitable recreation and wholesome outdoor activities. Program of forestation throughout Nebraska. GENERAL: Full value to the purchaser of hunting and fishing permits. Square deal to farmers and sportsmen. Stabilization of water in Platte River.


For some time the Nebraska Game Commission has felt that the citizens of Nebraska should get better service from its Conservation Officers in the enforcement of game laws.

With that in mind, a number of changes in personnel were made the first of the year; other changes will be made from time to time. Some criticism has come from friends of officers who were laid off or transferred to new districts or other work.

The Commission, most naturally, dislikes exceedingly to make changes of this nature. Yet, being charged with the proper expenditure of the sportsmen's money, and desiring to give the people of the state an efficient administration, such action becomes necessary from time to time.

A number of those who write critical letters some times do not understand how carefully conservation officers are now supervised and graded. Each officer is required to carry a diary in which is recorded a full and complete list of his activities for each day. He not only must state where he is, but if in uniform, arrests made, illegal devices or game confiscated, disposition of same, number of complaints investigated and permits checked. A list of the numbers of permits checked must be sent to the office. He must show his speedometer reading each day. He must make special suryeys for the Commission, carry on predator control, salvage fish, etc. At the end of each month a field supervisor checks his diary before sending it to the office, and makes a graph of each respective district which shows at a glance how thoroughly the district is being covered. At the end of the month six copies of a report showing accomplishments of the month are made out by each officer. One of these reports goes into a permanent record at the office and one goes directly to each Commissioner who studies the same and discusses it at meetings of the board.

All Conservation Officers are given a competitive written and oral examination which they must pass successfully before they are given employment. A list of the successful candidates is compiled and vacancies filled from the high grades on the list. The Nebraska regulations in this matter are similar to those of the state of Wisconsin, which is noted for its efficient game law enforcement.

It will be seen by the above that the Nebraska Commission is making a sincere and honest effort to give Nebraska sportsmen efficient and courteous law enforcement. If a change is made from time to time in the personnel, it is done for what is sincerely believed for the good of the service, and it is hoped that all interested citizens will keep that in mind when making protests.


Birds of a Feather


THE SCENE— Divorce Court on a bright spring morning in the month of April in almost any town in almost any State.

THE JUDGE— The Hon. Walter A. Mason, old settler and expert Usherman.

THE PLAINTIFF— Mrs. James E. Sands, middle aged, prim and neat, with a sharp eye and an equally sharp tongue.

THE DEFENDANT— James E. Sands, a hulking six footer, mild, easy going, and a fishing cronie of the Judge.

PLAINTIFF'S ATTORNEY— J. Chester Brackett, mustached, slick haired, young modern and very sure of himself.

DEFENDANT'S ATTORNEY— Capt. Thomas Lester, Spanish-American War veteran, just returned from a fishing trip in the Gulf.

BAILIFF— Henry Pelter, the Judge's man Friday.

AUDIENCE—, The usual partisan and curious Courtroom visitors.

PLAINTIFF'S ATTORNEY (In midst of lengthy statement)

"In addition, Your Honor, my client has been subjected to cruel mental stress inflicted by defendant. We shall prove that defendant is, at times, shiftless and lazy. That he spends much valuable time in merely fishing. That he has no regard for the truth, and, in support of this latter statement I site you to the well known saying that "Once a fisherman, always a liar." I shall—

DEFENDANT'S ATTORNEY— Your Honor! I object!


Objection sustained. Mr. Attorney will confine himself to facts rather than factitious remarks.

PLAINTIFF'S ATTORNEY (somewhat subdued by vehemence of Judge)

May it please the court, We, er, shall prove that the defendant, did, upon at least two occasions and without provocation, strike and curse the plaintiff; That he caused plaintiff anguish and mortification when he was arrested in her company for stealing; That at times he mutters to himself and is subject to apparent mental aberrations, this, particularly just before a fishing trip; That he exerts a harmful and unfavorable influence over their young son. Your Honor, I shall call as my first witness, the plaintiff. (Mrs. Sands is sworn and takes the witness chair.)


Mrs. Sands, will you tell the Court in your own language of the humiliations and distress you have experienced because of the actions of the defendant?


Judge, Your Honor, I can endure it no longer. Since James has taken up what he calls fly fishing he is a changed man. He locks himself in his room in the evenings and makes fantastic looking gadgets from silk, feathers and thread which he ties on fish hooks. He calls them flies and takes them with him when he goes fishing. I can hear him muttering when he makes them and I fear he is losing his mind. Then Judge, he snips, I mean he carries a small scissors in his pocket and snips off bright colored feathers and cloth wherever he finds them. He has ruined all my hats. He snipped feathers from the peacock's tail when we visited the museum and- was arrested altho the policeman let him go when he promised to show him where he could catch some trout. He struck me and nearly drowned me when I was foolish enough to go fishing with him. He struck me another time with one of his fishing poles. He is teaching our son to throw things tied to the end of a fish line and says he will ta"ke him fishing with him this spring, fie (our son) dug in my tulip garden f messy worms and put horrid black fish with horns in the bath tub. James takes the family car when he goes fishing and brings it back all muddy and scratched. And, Judge, (tearfully) I fear there is a woman. I heard him say he knew where he-could get;-a sweet Dolly Varden. He, Oh Dear! (breaks down and weeps).


That is all. Defense may have witness.


Witness is excused. I will call instead, James Sands to testify. (Defendant is sworn and takes chair).


Now Mr. Sands, will you tell the Court just what you do in your locked room?


Well, Your Honor, 1,-1 tied a few flies, shellacked my rods and got my tackle ready for the season. I made some keen Willow Nymphs, some Hackles and—


I object! Your Honor, no one can understand such,

JUDGE (coldly) —

Objection overruled. Defendant will proceed.


Well, Walt, er, Your Honor, as for snipping, I did collect some material for the flies of course and the cop who caught me working on the peacock was the same guy that gave you the bassoreno at the lake last summer. As for striking her Judge, (drops hang dog expression and speaks with spirit) I came home and found she had given my fishing hat and coat to the old clothes man and had used my best level wind Shakespeare for a kitchen clothes line and had made a flower trellis from two of my best fly rods. 1, well, I did switch her legs a little with the tips after I had pulled them from the flower bed. The other time she said I struck her and tried to drown her was when she went fishing with me last spring. We went up Boltons Creek, Judge, to where the twin rocks are and about a mile below where you hooked that big native the year before. I thot I might get a rise from a German Brown, a Steelhead or a Cutthroat in the pool below. First I tried a Royal Coachman but didn't get a strike so tied on a purple hackle, then—;


(With determination) May it please this court, I wish to interpose an objection! I submit that reference to German Brown Shirts, Steel Helmets Cutthroats and Coachmen, whether Royal or otherwise, has no place in this

(Continued on page 12)

Commission Field Activities

Douglas New Chairman

At a meeting of the Nebraska Game Commission held January 15, 19 36, J. B. Douglas of Tecumseh was elected chairman and Dr. M. M. Sullivan of Spalding vice-chairman.

It is the custom of the commission to select a new chairman each year, allowing each commissioner to serve the last year of his service. In this way each commissioner acts as chairman one year of his term.

Spencer Reappointed

Guy K. Spencer of Omaha was reappointed a member of the Nebraska Game Commission by Governor Cochran. Mr. Spencer's term is for five years, beginning January 15, 1936.

Commissioner Spencer has served since 1929, when the present Commission was organized. He has taken a prominent part in all outdoor activities and has been particularly active in planning and devising ways and means to increase fishing in the state. During 1935 he served as chairman of the Commission.

Our Cover This Month

Nebraska has a number of game farmers, but few who raise the large animals like those of J. C. Bremser of Gibbon. The large picture is a Nebraska winter scene.

Can Carp

The Nebraska Game Commission recently canned ten tons of carp meat. Small carp that were unsalable tor human consumption were canned for feeding trout and other fish at state hatcheries.

A number of other states are interested in trying out this method of feeding trout. The high price of liver, sheep plucks and other types of fish food have greatly increased the cost of raising fish. It is believed carp will replace part of this diet and thereby greatly decrease the coat.

8,000,000 Fish

Records are now being compiled which show the Nebraska Game Commission distributed over 3,000,000 fish during 1935.

Many of these fish were adults. With the improving physical conditions of our lakes and ponds, fishing should be good the coming year in all parts of the state.


Mrs. Jacob Rasmussen, North Platte, with trout she and her husband took from a drainage ditch near Hershey.

New Superintendent

J. M. Merritt, Superintendent of the Gretna Fish Hatchery has been promoted to Superintendent of Fisheries. This promotion was made in order to coordinate the activities of the several hatcheries, and to carry out a better plan of stocking lakes and streams throughout the state.

Mr. Merritt is an "old timer" in fish culture work, having served the state a number of years. He had charge of the Valentine Fishery at one time and, more recently, at the Gretna Hatchery. He will continue as superintendent of the Gretna plant and handle that work in addition to his other duties.

To Raise Quail

Efforts to raise Bob-white Quail in captivity, as well as other experimental work with bird life will be carried on by the Nebraska Game Commission the coming year.

Equipment will be installed at the Niobrara Game Refuge and the work will be done by L. F. Hunt who is in charge of the refuge at that place.

To Study Lakes

Why do not perch grow well In Sand Pits? Can ponds be successfully fertilized? What are the best fish to stock in the same pond?

These are some of the questions the Nebraska Game Commission desires to have answered in a scientific way, and in order to get the information, Mr. George Bennett of McCook, will make some water studies the coming year.

Mr. Bennett is well qualified for the work. He has studied under and worked with several of the best known authorities in the United States. Last summer he did similar work in the State of Wisconsin. Some of the first studies are as follows: Study of bottom organisms, temperatures, fish scales, collections of plankton, Crustacea, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

A great deal of information is now obtained from a study of fish seales. As the forester tells much about the life history of a tree from the rings, colorations and characteristics of the wood, so the fish culturist now learns about the age, history and characteristics of fish from the scales.

Carp Taken From Moon Lake

A seining crew has been engaged in removing carp from Moon Lake in Brown County this winter. Thousands of pounds of coarse fish have been removed.


The establishment of the Chinese ring-necked pheasant in North America followed a planting in Oregon in 1881. A shipment of ring-necked pheasants made by Judge O. N. Denny, American consul at Shanghai, China, was planted in Williamette valley of Oregon in that year and began to reproduce and increase. The first successful planting of pheasants In the east was made in 1887 in New Jersey. The pheasant now has an almost continuous distribution over the northern states from coast to coast.


60th ANNUAL CONVENTION Of the Nebraska State Sportsmen's Association

Nebraska was admitted to the Union in 1867. Prior to that time the central and- western part of the state, now a rich farming and stock raising country, was covered with herds of buffalo (bison) some few extending to the Missouri River, and were being killed by thousands for the hides in those days valuable for robes and coats. There being only a limited demand for the meat, the carcasses were usually left where they fell.

Nine years later, 1876, a few pioneer sportsmen met at Plattsmouth and organized the Nebraska State Sportsmen's Association, the primary object, being to protest the killing of the few buffalo that were left, but to no avail. Buffalo, like much of our other wild life has been sacrificed and in some cases driven to extinction ahead of the march of civilization.

At the time of this organization there was held a shooting contest, won by Mr. E. Hallett, who but recently passed away and the cup he received along with the gun with which he won are now relics in the museum in Nebraska's beautiful state capitol. Let me pause here to compare this cup with its present status to a few dollars which might have been paid to Mr. Hallett lor his winning on this occasion.

From that beginning the organization was sustained by an annual meeting and tournament, and is probably now the oldest continuous organization in the state next to the state government itself. First glass balls and live birds were used, later the Peoria Blackbird was substituted for the glass balls after which our present day targets were used instead of the Peoria Blackbird, with live birds discontinued when a state law was passed prohibiting the shooting of live birds from a trap around the first of this century.

The organization s interest in conservation of wild life is again shown by the minutes of the meeting in 1898 when it organized its forces to drive the market hunter from the state, something that could not be accomplished without laws. The fight was successful and in 1901 Nebraska passed its first restrictive law that could be enforced and we secured our first warden system. That year the shipment of prairie chickens alone by market hunters and commission houses was reduced from upwards of 100,000 birds to a very few smuggled out by poachers. And were some of these smugglers cunning? One shipment was offered to a railroad agent packed in hogsheads marked "sauer kraut" dest i n a t i o n St. Louis. Investigation showed sauer kraut when the bungs were pulled, but further investigation revealed it was only in cups tacked over the holes on the inside. The shipment really contained nearly 600 prairie chicken and quail. A picture was taken of these contraband birds and later by order of Governor Weaver was enlarged and hung on the wall of the office of the game conservation comncission in the state capitol as a reminder of the necessity for wild life conservation.

The association has selected dates for its 60th anniversary shoot on May 30th and 31st, June 1st and 2nd, to be

(Continued on page 12)



Sometimes when going through brush, etc., your Hunting & Fishing Permit Badge will come unpinned and be lost.

Here is a little "wrinkle" that will keep it from losing, even though it may come unpinned. Use a common safety pin, placing it through the eye of the pin on the badge on the INSIDE of your coat or hat, as shown in illustration above. That locks it in place.

We recommend that these badges be worn on the front of your hat while fishing. Next fall, if you hunt, you can change it to your hunting cap or coat. If you put it on your hat and lock it as shown above, you will always know where it is and will not lose it.

Efforts are now being made to provide a new safety device for the 1987 permits.



Picturing the dire results of waste and exploitation Of America's natural resources, the-committee appointed by President Roosevelt to organize a North American Wildlife Conference today sent invitations to thousands of individuals and organizations to attend the meeting in Washington February 3 to 7 inclusive. F. A. Silcox, Chief of the Forest Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, is chairman of the committee.

"Among all the national movements of society for the promotion of human welfare on the North American continent," the invitation said, "one great branch of conservation is conspicuous in its lack of organized support. There has been no more grossly neglected national responsibility than the preservation of our wildlife resources."

The Committee reported "a partial inventory of man's stewardship of nature s bounty reveals our account deeply in the red, owing to lack of foresight and an almost total absence of organized opposition to the ravages of waste and exploitation."

The invitation then listed some of the items on the debit side of the national resources ledger as follows:

"One hundred million acres of origial wildlife breeding grounds drained and water tables lowered, greatly aggravating the effects of droughts, dust storms, floods, and aiding in the general depletion of sustaining environment for either man or beast.

"Eighty-five per cent of our lakes and streams polluted by industrial and municipal waste, resulting in an annual cost to the public for pure water supplies of approximately $1,000,000,000 and entailing inestimable loss in recreation facilities, health and food resources.

"173,000,000 acres of remaining public domain mostly overgrazed and largely denuded of vegetation.

"Eight wildlife species extinct; others within the shadow of oblivion and all reduced far below the demands and economic needs of the country.

"The Great Lakes, once great reservoirs of sustaining food and commercial fish resources, approaching exhaustion by over-seining and lack of regulation.

"Great stretches of coastal waters of the Atlantic and Pacific depleted almost to exhaustion of their former commercial, and game fish resources.

"Annual runs of sturgeon, salmon and shad, which once existed in seemingly inexhaustible numbers, gone entirely from many of our major waterways, or reduced to a shadow of their former numbers.

"Fur bearing animals and fur resources which once supplied the world markets, now supply less than half of our needs.

"Wild turkey, sage grouse, mountain sheep, bison, prairie chicken, migratory waterfowl, antelope, moose, caribou and woodcock existing only through the agencies of rigid protection. Crame fish in most of our inland waters unstably dependent on artificial propagation and stocking.

"No adequate existing public policy or official national program for the conservation or restoration of wildlife resources."

After drawing this picture of devastation, the Committee pointed out that "no single resource of the continent has suffered a more wanton and tragic depletion than our natural endowment of wildlife, and no great resource has more consistently and wastefully been ignored by official and unofficial agencies."

In explaining this situation, it continued:

"That the agencies of our government have been unable to place effective bars against damage through neglect and wastage and the demands of commercialized promotion is less an indictment of the responsible officials than it is a reflection upon the apathetic public, which has failed to sponsor its own interests. More projects exploiting our natural resources have won by default of any organized opposition than from any willful connivance with destructive practices.

"Yet throughout the length and breadth of this nation there are thousands of local groups, societies, unions and leagues to promote local and group interest in wildlife, but their efforts have been abortive because they have never pulled together for the common cause."

Explaining the chief purposes of the coming conference, the Committee said:

"It is to make effective and potential strength inherent in the advocates of wildlife conservation and restoration, and to apply it against the forces of waste, that this conference is primarily dedicated. It will not be effective if out of this conference there does not emerge a permanent organization which may bring its voting strength to bear in defense of the resource. It will be only partially effective if it does not contribute to the mutual understanding of wildlife conservation problems and bring home to the public a better appreciation of the value of the nation's wildlife resources.

"Its influence will be welcomed by those officials of the Federal and State Governments who have long needed support.

"With these objectives in view and without invading or interfering with their fields of activities or their prerogatives, an attempt will be made to affiliate all existing organizations and individuals in a single powerful, effective union to defend and promote this great and vital purpose."

Major objectives of such a general federation of interests the committee presumed to be the following:

"The comprehensive restoration and conservation of wildlife resources.

"Adequate financial support.

"Recognition of conservationists in the selection of conservation executives.

"Demand wildlife representation on state and federal resource and planning agencies and that in the authorization of projects financed by public funds which affect land or waters important to wildlife, adequate consideration be given to the biological consequences.

"Effective registration of mass opposition to activities which have proved inimical to wildlife interests and which are without adequate justification for public good."

The conference will be an open forum, which all interested persons are invited to attend.


An average bull elk at full growth stands about five feet tall at the withers and weighs in the neighborhood of 700 pounds.

Among its most conspicuous features are the distinctive antlers, much larger than those of the whitetailed deer, and the disk or rump patch of pale buffy white.

The calf or fawn when born is dull, yellowish white, thickly dappled on the body, neck and thighs, with large spots of dull white.

The bull elk sheds its antlers about mid-March. Begins to grow new antlers soon after, the growth being completed by August.



Early records show that propagation of fish in Nebraska by the State was first attempted in the year 1879. The State Legislature of that year passing a law whereby our first Fish Commission was originated. The act provided for a three-member board to be nominated by the Governor and by and with the consent of the Senate appoint same for a term of three years. The first appointments being for a term of one, two, and three years respectively. This act was approved February 24, 1879 and the appointments were made on June 2, 1879. The members of the board received no compensation but were allowed not over $500.00 annually for expenses incurred.

The first venture made by the new Commission in fish propagation was the purchase of 200,000 California Salmon eggs, 190,000 fish being reported hatched from these eggs.

This same year German Carp was ordered from Prof. Spencer F. Baird of the U. S. Fish Commission. The following spring the Commission was notified that their allotment of carp was at St. Louis, Missouri, and James G. Romaine was immediately dispatched to transport the fish to Nebraska. Out of the allotment of 135 fish only two were lost in transportation.

The following statement is found in the 1879 report of the Commission: "Of all the fishes considered desirable for the waters of Nebraska there are none, perhaps so well suited, as the German Carp. This fish is of elegant flavor and most desirable for table use. It is not predatory: does not destroy its own young or those of others: it lives on vegetable production: is adapted to roily waters and ponds and attains a weight of ten pounds at maturity. Among the most desirable features is the fact that it is exceedingly prolific. Those gentlemen who have given the most time to observing the fish, claim that a four pound carp will yield 500,000 eggs and that an eight or nine pound carp will yield the enormous number of 1,500,000 eggs."

The Statute of 1899 provided a penalty of not less than $10.00 or not less than 10 days in jail for each carp killed, taken, or destroyed.

The Legislature of 1901 repealed the law enacted in 1879 creating the Fish Commission and created the Game & Fish Commission of the State of Nebraska. Hunting and Fishing licenses were first required in Nebraska that year, the Legislature having passed a bill requiring all residents of Nebraska hunting or fishing in any county of Nebraska, other than the county in which they reside, to have license. This law was repealed in 1921 and the new law required all residents of Nebraska over 16 years of age, hunting or fishing, to have license regardless of where hunting or fishing.

The Legislature of 1929 originated our present Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, consisting of a five member board, members of said board being appointed by the Governor with the consent of a majority of all members of the State Legislature and not more than three of them affiliated with the same political party.

—-W. H. LYTLE, Deputy.

Taking Lite Easy on the Way North


The Junior Chamber of Commerce in Nebraska has been asked by the American Wildlife Institute at Washington to assist in the organization and coordinating of all outdoor organizations to the end that better results can be obtained.

We have been advised by Dr. Merritt C. Peterson of Lincoln, who is in charge of this work for the Junior Chamber that letters will soon be in the mails inviting representatives from selected organizations as well as individuals interested to participate in a state meeting at Lincoln on Saturday, February 15 at the Chamber of Commerce building, to organize a Nebraska State Wildlife Council, which will be a federation of all conservation groups to (1) consider and formulate a Nebraska state program for conservation of wildlife, (2) to secure definite action in Nebraska looking toward state and national conservation results, (3) to secure representation in determining a sound and comprehensive national conservation program, (4) to coordinate state councils into a national council.

"W i t h that thought in mind," says Dr. Peterson, "the United States Junior Chamber of Commerce is sponsoring a national program of action for conservation of natural resources. In each state of the Union, conferences are to be held, in which meetings the need for coordinated activity is being explained, and state councils are to be organized.

"The United States Junior Chamber of Commerce, representing the organized voice of America's young business men, have the conservation of natural resources as one of their declared eleven definite objectives for 1936.

"It is not the intention of the Junior Chamber to dominate the Nebraska Wild Life Council or the council of

(Continued on page 13)


(Continued from page 4)

ing the last two years, making most of the Refuge accessible to travel by car or horse. The big game animals have all become used to cars and men on horses, and can be viewed at a very close range without disturbing them in the least.

On the southern portion of the Refuge there is a great difference over the northern portion. This is an arid, rolling, sand-hill region. Due to regulated grazing it is well covered with vegetation even on the tops of the sand-hills which are extinct blowouts, that is, sand-hills that were moved by the winds before the sand was protected by vegetation. In addition to grass there are soapweeds, various shrubs and few small Ash and Hackberry trees growing on the rough part of this area.

Wells and windmills have been installed at intervals of approximately one and one-half miles over this area, affording water for the increased bird population due to the water which is pumped by these windmills constantly during the summer months.

From a pre-historic standpoint some very interesting material has been gathered from the two fossil bed strata on the Refuge. Just above the brule clay, and in the sand is the upper Miocene fossil age from which fossilized bones of a large number of prehistoric animals have been gathered. Approximately seventy-five feet higher, and on the north side of the river, there is a layer of sandstone rock that varies from a foot to five feet in thickness. On top of this sandstone rock is the lower pliocene age, from which fossils are also gathered. Skeletons and fragments of skeletons of every twenty different species of pre-historic animals have been gathered on the Refuge.

The Refuge is very picturesque and really is just where the west begins. A few miles east of the Refuge the farming country of the Mississippi Valley starts, and the further west of the Refuge one travels, the more western the country gets. Northwest a few hours drive are the Bad Lands of South Dakota.

The headquarters of the Refuge is located on State Highway Number 7, just east of Valentine, Nebraska, five miles.

60th ANNUAL CONVENTION Of the Nebraska State Sportsmen's Association

(Continued from page 9)

held under the auspices of the Lincoln Gun Club. This club with its good equipment and financial condition led by its hustling president, Charlie Chilson, is already laying plans in detail to make this 60th anniversary the biggest shoot in the history of the organization. Nebraska shooters in particular and visitors from everywhere will be invited to participate in recognition of our slogan which is "Expel your surplus shooting enthusiasm on inanimate targets and be considerate of our wild life."

If providence is kind the writer will attend this tournament, the 40th consecutive and the 25th consecutive as the organization's secretary and treasurer.


(EDITOR'S NOTE—When the new game law went into effect in Nebraska, in 1901, George L. Carter, who had been active In the movement to secure a game law and conservation of that state's wonderful resources in ducks, prairie chickens, quail, etc., then a very young man, was appointed to the position. And his administration was so good that he broke up market hunting. He was on the job every day in the hunting season and many game law violators were caught and given heavy fines. Mr. Carter, being a hunter himself, knew what it was all about, and used to put bird dogs in the baggage cars of trains passing through Lincoln and the dogs would scent out the game hogs' baggage, so it wasn't safe for this class to take a chance in Nebraska.

After eight years in the game department he resigned to join the shooter-sales forces of the Peters Cartridge Co., with which company he remained until July 1st of 1935, when he retired on pension. George enjoys trapshooting just as much or more than ever and has one of the best averages of his career for his last year as pro and amateur, .9531 on 3200 targets. He has been state secretary of the State Ass'n for 25 years, and is the main reason for Nebraska's having a real State organization that usually holds the biggest state shoots of any other state in the country. George expects to do a lot of shooting as a simon pure amateur in 1936.

"Old Dan" Bray of Columbus, who died in 1924, had attended every state shoot up to that time and had hoped to be at the 50th annual state shoot. Gus Schroeder of Columbus and Frank Beard "B27" of Omaha, and Dick Linderman of Lincoln, were other veterans who had a long attendance record at the Nebraska State shoots. Nebraska had a lot of good pigeon shots in the old days, and made up the only team that ever trimmed Kansas City in the inter-city pigeon matches, shot between Omaha and the down river town.) — Prom the Sportsmen's Review.


(Continued from page 7)

divorce proceedings. Such terms have no meaning, are irrelative, and—,

JUDGE (thunderously) —

Objection Overruled! ! This Court has no difficulty whatever in following the witness. Only ordinary intelligence is required to do so. The witness made a mistake, however in using the purple ----------, Er, Ahem, Witness will proceed.


Well, Walt, Er, Judge, I did get one on the hackle and was he a sweet one! At least this long (spreads arms wide) I played him for a time in the pool but he finally made a rush down the riffle and around that short bend below and the line came over to the bank where my wife was standing. Then (dejectedly) Your Honor, she grabbed the line and tried to jerk him out and of course I lost him. Judge, you know 1 love my wife, but it was then, I guess, that I hit her. I threw my creel at her and I might have sworn some too. The creel, well, it hit her and she fell in the water. It was only about two feet deep there and I was too sick to help her out. — As for the boy, Judge, he is going to make a sweet fly man, he—

(Bailiff enters and hands Judge telegram which reads as follows:)


JUDGE (glances at clock and notes is after two. Rises and clears throat)

This Court finds for Defendant. Court is adjourned. I should like to see Defendant and his attorney in my chambers.


I object! I object!

(Rises to feet and then collapses as newsboy yells thru open door, "Wuxr try! Wuxtry! President goes fishing with Supreme Court Judge."



Only 15 per cent of the wild ducks bagged along their most important flyways during the hunting season recently closed may be considered natives of the U. S. A., according to a report on waterfowl populations just published by the More Game Birds Foundation.

The report is based on results of an investigation of wild duck breeding areas last August in which state and Canadian game officials and thousands of volunteer observers co-operated. The investigation revealed that the bulk of North America's wildfowl now nest hundreds of miles north of that portion of their ancestral nesting areas in the Dakotas and southern portions of the prairie provinces now usurped by wheat farms.

Agricultural development, drainage and successive droughts have dried up their once vast prairie nesting marshes centering around the Dakotas to such an extent-that probably 85 per cent of the ducks now taken by hunters over a major portion of the United States come from northern Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories of Canada.

Approximately three out of every four wild ducks which migrate southward from these mid-continental nesting areas were found to breed in an irregular strip of country extending westward from Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, and northward through Alberta to Great Slave Lake. The region is beyond the northern limits of agricultural development — a circumstance which the ducks apparently have recognized as assuring immunity from the conditions which have driven them from their old nesting areas to the south.

Although conservationists have been concerned over the decreases of such species as canvasbacks, redheads and scaups during the recent drought vears, the investigators found more of these nesting in the primeval north country than in the developed territory to the south. Mallards, pintails and teals— species believed most plentiful—outnumbered the so-called diving ducks five to one in the southern regions where drought and the inroads of civilization are supposed to have the most serious effect upon the continent's wild duck supply.

Statistics collected by the thousands •of resident investigators in the southern portions of the Canadian provinces and in the Dakotas and Minnesota show that more mallards are now produced in that section than any other species. Mallards represent 38.92% of the total duck population, teals 24.49%, pintails 13.66% and shovellers, scaups, buffleheads, canvasbacks, widgeons, redheads, gadwalls, goldeneyes, scoters and ruddy ducks follow in that order of abundance.


(Continued from page 11)

any other state as every state in the Union will be organized, but merely to help formulate or lay the plans for a program of Wild Life Conservation. As Conservation is a definite program for this year, Junior Chambers of Commerce throughout the United States will lend their support to this movement to assist in every way possible, and there are eleven chapters in Nebraska.

"Any organization or individual interested in Wildlife conservation that would like to have a part in the formation of the Nebraska State Wild Life Council should communicate with the Lincoln Junior Chamber of Commerce for further information relative to the proposed meeting at the Chamber of Commerce building, Saturday, February 15.

"In conclusion I wish to state again that the conservation of Wild Life is your problem and mine. What are we going to do about it?"


Ira N. Gabrielson, who succeeded J. N. Darling as Chief of the U. S. Biological Survey on November 15, has become the head of the organization in which he has spent all but three of the years since he was graduated from Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa, in 1912, says a statement by the Bureau. Mr. Gabrielson is the sixth chief of the Survey, which was established 50 years ago.

Leaving Marshalltown, Iowa, where he had been instructor in natural science in the high school for three years, Mr. Gabrielson, because of his interest in bird study, came to the Biological Survey on October 1, 1915, though the salary was less than that he had received at the high school. With this interest and with an experience gained in earlier investigations, however, Mr. Gabrielson gave such excellent service that his rise in the Bureau began almost immediately.

As an assistant in economic ornithology during his first years in the Bureau, he took a leading part in the investigation of the introduced starling and collaborated on the final report.

In 1918, during the war emergency, Mr. Gabrielson did rodent-control work in th« important crop regions of North Dakota. Rapidly becoming efficient in this part of the Bureau's work, he was in 1919 placed in charge of all cooperative rodent control operations in Oregon. Here he had much pioneer work to do in connection with the development of the cooperative work in the State, in bringing together ranchers, stockmen, and county and state officials for joint action in the destruction of rodent pests. He was especially active in investigating the economic status of the rodents in relation to farm, range, and forestry production, and in field trials for improving control methods then in use.

On July 1, 1931, Mr. Gabrielson was appointed to the newly created position of Regional Supervisor of both predator and rodent control in Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada and Idaho. Throughout his service in the Northwest he intensified his scientific interest in natural history, becoming an authority on the birds, mammals, and plants of the region. He also took an active interest in game-law enforcement and in other conservation activities. When the new Division of Game Management was established in the survey by Mr. Darling, in July, 1934, Mr. Gabrielson became the directing head of this division's activities in the Pacific Coast States and Nevada.

After thus gaining wide experience in the Bureau's economic and conservation work, Mr. Gabrielson returned to its scientific organization last May, becoming consulting specialist to the Chief of the Bureau and Assistant Chief of the Division of Wildlife Research.

During the twenty years of his service with the Bureau in Washington and as a field officer traveling extensively throughout the country, Mr. Gabrielson has lost no opportunity to gather information and prepare reports on wildlife and wildlife conditions. He is the author of more than 250 articles, pertaining to bird and mammal life and botanical subjects, published in leading ornithological magazines, farm papers, bulletins of various kinds, and publications of sportsmen and other organizations throughout the country. He is author

(Continued on page 14)


By Roger T. Peterson, educational director of the National Association of Audubon Societies.

When the thermometer drops and drops, have you ever given thought to the birds that live in your neighborhood? Perhaps you have, but the tendency is to stay indoors when the weather is nasty and merely give them your sympathy.

It isn't the cold of winter that kills birds, it is the lack of food. The colder it is, the more a bird must eat to keep up its body temperature. When the mercury drops to ten or twenty below, then food is of prime importance. Even stray summer-time birds have been known to survive in subzero weather when they were fed every day. One year a Baltimore Oriole spent the entire winter in Central Park in New York City. It fed eagerly on the suet at the feeding station there and seemed perfectly well and in the best of spirits, except for a frost-bitten foot, during a cold wave in January. I know of no better illustration to show that food is of greater importance than absolute temperature.

The normal body temperature of many birds is in the neighborhood of 110 degrees—a temperature at which no human being could live. This can drop as much as thirty or forty degrees, but if it goes too low the bird dies.

Ice is the worst thing that birds have to contend with because it cuts off the natural food supply. The ground is sealed up, and the bushes with berries are coated half an inch thick. The small beaks of the birds are unable to crack the heavy ice. We often assume that the birds get along somehow in spite of the weather conditions, but unfortunately this isn't always so. Sometimes they die in numbers that are astounding. It is always noticeable that the winter bird population in February is much, much smaller than it was in December. This is perhaps a natural check, but if we wish to forestall this great cutting down of numbers every winter, we can very easily do so. Remember' this, that once winter feeding has been started it is a responsibility that cannot be neglected. The birds are then dependent upon us.

Should you prefer.. to stay, indoors during all the stormy periods and put out the food only in fair weather, the birds will .suffer. Don't start to feed the birds early in the winter and then lose interest in January. It would be better not to feed them at all.

To attract the Woodpeckers and Creepers, birds that live on insects, we must use animal food entirely; suet or beef fat. Suet costs very little and can be gotten at any meat market—a nickel or dime's worth is enough to last a week. If the suet is tied to a limb with only a piece of string the squirrels or the Blue Jays will carry it off; so wrap it with thin wire or better yet, place the suet in a small box or container with a few strands of wire across the front; even a wire soap dish will do. It keeps the squirrels and the Blue Jays from being too greedy.

For the Finches and Sparrows, birds having heavy bills for seed cracking, vegetable food must be used. Some birds—Blue Jays and Chickadees especially, will eat both the suet and the seeds. Sunflower seeds are eaten by a great many birds; it is one of the favorites. You wonder perhaps how a little Chickadee can eat a big sunflower seed. It is quite interesting to watch them. The little bird will take one of these seeds, wedge it into a crack in the bark and will pound away at it until it is able to get out the kernel. Hemp is a favorite, second only to sunflower seeds. Of course you can use a great many things to feed birds. Cracked corn is not quite so attractive as some of the other things, but if there is no choice they will readily eat it. You can also use Millet, dog biscuit, canary seed, chickfeed, and even chaff and sweepings. A shelf built against the window will give you a chance to enjoy the birds at close quarters. Of course, some of the birds are rather timid and would prefer not to come so close to the house. These can best be fed by tramping down an area on the snow, forming a hard surface on which the seed can be sprinkled. Pheasants, Partridges and Bob-white Quail can be fed from beneath a shelter made from a brush pile,—a brush pile built into a triangle form, open at the bottom. This prevents the food from being buried entirely by the first snowfall. Pheasants and Quail are good scratchers so it doesn't matter if a little snow does cover the food, but small birds like Tree Sparrows and Juncos can't scratch down through more than three or four inches. A twelve or fourteen-inch snowfall is too much for them.

Of course, many of you listeners live In parts ; of the south where heavy snowfalls are rare, or unheard of, but even so, no matter where you are, birds will readily respond to any attention you can give them.

Have you ever fed a bird from your hand? It's not difficult; it doesn't require a superhuman charm or anything of the sort, merely a little patience. A chickadee accepts its human friends quite readily and when it is really hungry will not hesitate to perch on the edge of a gloved hand and eat the sunflower seeds that are offered. The Chickadees are the tamest of the lot, but even some of the others will place their confidence in you if you have a little patience and do not make any sudden movements. Titmice, Nuthatches, Crossbills, Siskins and quite a few others have been fed by hand. This brings to mind the old adage "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush." It's a real experience.

I have been able to do little more than touch on the problems of winter feeding. However, the Audubon Association is prepared to furnish complete information on feeding the birds in winter—kinds of food, useful feeding devices—where, when and how to feed winter birds.


(Continued from page 13)

also of a book on "Western American Alpines", and of another on the birds of Oregon, now in manuscript.

He is a member of the American Ornithologists Union, Wilson Ornithological Club, Cooper Ornithological Club, Ecological Society of America, and Washington Biologists' Field Club.

Mr. Gabrielson was born at Sioux Rapids, Iowa, on September 27, 1889. He was married on August 7, 1912, to Clara Speer. They have four children.


Midwestern farmers check soil blowing in fields of corn and sorghum by leaving 4 to 6 rows of standing stalks every 20 or 30 rows. Topping the sorghum and husking or snapping the corn saves the grain. This method of checking soil blowing is most effective when rows run at right angles to the prevailing winds. Some farmers leave stubble a foot high—which is a good, plan—says the Soil Conservation Service.

Don't lose your new hunting and fishing permit. See page 9 of this issue of Outdoor Nebraska for a handy method to lock It to your coat, or hat.


Handy Reference of Nebraska Hunting and Fishing Regulations Season of 1936

ig and fishing permit is required for having arrived at his sixteenth birth- hrmits shall be carried in a button fur- permit, said button to be worn in plain sight on breast or hat of holder. The permit together with the button shall be on the person of the holder at alii times while he is hunting, trapping or fishing, and shall be shown immediately upon demand to any officer or person whose duty it is to enforce the provisions of this act and any person hunting, fishing or trapping in this state without such permit and button actually on or about his person, as above required shall be deemed to be without such permit and button.


Hunting and Fishing Permit...............................$1.10 Trapping Permit (all persons regardless of age must have a trapping permit)........................ 2.10

Unless holding a permit as required, it shall be unlawful for any person to trap or otherwise take any fur-bearing animals, or for any person sixteen years or older to hunt for, kill, shoot at, pursue, take or possess any kind of game, or take, angle for, or attempt to take any kind of fish from the waters of this state or possess same.

It shall also be unlawful for anyone to do or attempt to do any other thing for which a permit is provided, without first obtaining such permit and paying the fee therefor. Any violation of this provision shall constitute a misdemeanor and subject the offender to fine of not to exceed $100.00 except for trapping in violation of this section for which the punishment shall be a fine of from $5.00 to $500.00 or imprisonment not exceeding six months or both fine and imprisonment.


It is unlawful to buy, sell, or barter game birds, animals, or fish protected by the game laws of this state: Provided, however, catfish 13 inches in length or over, legally taken from the Missouri River on Permit issued by the Game Commission.

All game birds and fish shipped must be tagged in accordance with the law.

It is unlawful to hunt on private lands without permission of owner.

It is unlawful for anyone to trap fur-bearing animals upon land of another without his consent.

It is unlawful to destroy house or den of furbearing animals.

It is unlawful to use spear or any like device in hunting or taking fur-bearing animals or use explosives, chemicals, or smokers.

It is unlawful to use ferrets.

It is unlawful to run bird dogs or other dogs in fields where game birds are found between the first day of April and the sixteenth day of September.

It is unlawful to run dogs on forest reserves.

It is unlawful to explode dynamite, powder, or use poison, lime, etc., in the taking of fish.

It is unlawful to pollute the waters of the state.

It is unlawful to place carcasses in waters of the state.

It is unlawful to disturb private fish ponds or damage private property of another.

It is unlawful to take beaver without a special permit from the Chief Conservation Officer.

It is unlawful to place game and fish in cold storage or ship the same unless same are properly tagged.

It is unlawful to hold fur after the close of the season without special authority from the Game Commission.


(a) To shoot from any public highway at any bird or animal protected by this act;

(b) To hunt for any of such birds or animals with a spotlight or other artificial light;

(c) To hunt or kill or attempt to hunt or kill any water fowl from any boat or water craft propelled by sails or electric, gas, or steam power or from an aeroplane or hydroplane;

(d) To use any rifle or swivel-gun or shotgun larger than ten gauge in hunting any game birds, or to trap, snare, net, or attempt to trap, snare, or net any game bird or birds;

(e) To take or needlessly destroy the nests or eggs of any game bird or birds;"

(f) To hunt or kill or attempt to. hunt or kill any game bird or birds earlier than one-half hour before sunrise or later than sunset.

Method of Taking Fish—Snagging Prohibited

It is hereby declared unlawful to take, catch, kill, destroy, or attempt to take or catch any game fish by any means other than angling with hook and line. Fishing with a line having more than five hooks thereon, or with artificial bait having thereon more than three triple-gang hooks, or by snagging fish externally with hook and line, is declared unlawful. Provided that, carp, suckers, or other non-game fish may be taken by spearing between sunrise and sunset from April 1st to December 1st.

Fishing in Missouri River

Seines, trammel nets, and hoop nets, the meshes of which are 2 inches or larger, may be used in the Missouri River, South and West of the middle of the channel of said river and not less than 300 yards in any direction from the mouth of any stream emptying into said river upon procuring from the Secretary of the Game, Forestation and Parks Commission an annual Permit for the use of same. Fees, $5.00 for each 500 lineal feet of seine or fraction thereof; $2.50 for each 500 feet of trammel net or fraction thereof; Fifty cents for each hoop net. Each net and seine must have, metal tag attached thereto having permit number stamped thereon. Cost of tag, ten cents. Before any such permit is issued to nonresident of the State, bond for $200.00 with two sureties must be furnished.



Help reduce the crows.

During the past few years the crow population in Nebraska has increased greatly. Today they can be found in sections of the state where few were seen before.

It is a fact beyond dispute that large numbers of crows do great harm to ground nesting birds. Pheasants, quail, grouse and ducks all suffer from the eggeating habit of the "black thief"

There are a number of ways to reduce the number of these birds. You will find information on this subject in several articles in this issue of OUTDOOR NEBRASKA. Call a meeting of your friends or bring the matter to the attention of the organizations you belong to which are interested in our Outdoors. Get them to help in the campaign.

The birds themselves should not only be reduced, but the campaign should continue until nesting time. Far more future birds can be gotten rid of by destroying the nests than by any other means.

Do your share!

Game, For^station & Parks Commission Lincoln, Nebraska