OUTDOOR NEBRASKASUMMER 1935
New Legislation for Nebraska Sportsmen
IIow the Nebraska Commission spends the dollar paid by hunters and fishermen.
III August several important changes in the Nebraska Game Laws will go into effect. One law, making the Platte River a game refuge, carried an emergency clause and is already a law.New Chairman for Commission
Perhaps the most important change in the law is that which allows the Commission to select a chairman from their number. Heretofore the Governor has been ex-officio Chairman, but because of his many duties it has been difficult for the Governor to serve. Governor Cochran recommended to the Legislature that he be removed as chairman, and such action was taken.
The new law also provides that future members appointed to the Commission must be familiar with wild life and conservation work.Employees Under Civil Service
Another feature of the new law is that of placing wardens under civil service. The office of Chief Game Warden is abolished under the new act and in his place will be a "Director and Chief Conservation Officer". He will act as Secretary of the Commission, but will no longer be an ex-officio member as heretofore and have a vote.
There will no longer be any deputy game wardens. In their place will be "Deputy Conservation Officers", and they will be selected by examinationunder civil service rules and regulations. The Nebraska Game Commission will be the first sub-division of the State Government to work under civil service rules and regulations.Badges for Sportsmen
Another feature of the new law is that requiring all hunters and fishermen to wear a badge in which is placed their permit to hunt or fish. These badges are to be manufactured by the State Reformatory at Lincoln, and furnished without additional cost to each buyer of a permit. While the law becomes effective in August, it is impossible to get the badges out until the first of the year. Therefore, no badges will be required until January 1, 1936, when the permits for next year are sold.
Over ten States now have the badge system, where it has proved very popular. It makes every citizen a game warden and makes it difficult for nonresidents to buy resident permits—an illegal practice which has been growing in recent years.
After the present biennium ending June 30, 1937, no more game funds are to be used for the maintenance of State Parks. At the present time ten per cent of the game funds are used for parks. The Legislature amended the law to become effective in two years. Up until that time, however, the parks will be maintained by the game fund.P'atte River a Refuge
A law already in effect makes the Platte River, except in ScottsBluff, Morrill and Garden Counties, a Game Refuge. This applies to both the North and South Platte branches and the main river to the mouth at the Missouri. Hunting is permitted only during forenoons on those days when there is a lawful open season. This means that during an open season on ducks or pheasants, shooting can take place from sunr i s e to twelve o'clock noon. No shooting is permitted at any time in Garden County, as the river in that county is closed at all times by an older law. In Scotts Bluff and Morrill Counties the situation is the same as heretofore, where shooting can be done as prescribed by Federal and other State laws. Signs designating the Flatte River as a Refuge are already being posted.Few Changes in Bags, Etc.
There were practically no changes made in size, limits or bags on fish or birds. One bill sponsored by the Commission would have made a number of minor changes, but it failed of passage in the House, and therefore did not become a law. Another bill, seeking to charge a dollar for hunting and a dollar for fishing in separate permits also failed to pass.
The new law, as amended, is now being distributed by the Nebraska Game Commission, and copies can be secured free upon request.
The Republican River FloodIts Causes, Effects and Cures —By THOMAS E. BARTON
MAN can prevent neither droughts nor floods. Intelligent and diligent people do, however, have the power to minimize droughts and measurably control floods. A fatalistic and irresponsible people, on the other hand, increase the power and intensify the ravages of these destructive phenomena.
The latter group is often heard to say, "God wills it so." For many, that short statement sets their soul at ease —the nervous system is soothed by sweet rationalization. Believing that fate has a hand in these phenomena they do not assume responsibilities and so do not trouble their soul; they do not worry about the cause or think up probable solutions and so they do not overwork their minds.
What causes Floods? Before pronouncing the flood an act of God, let us carefully study the evidence. The causes of floods may be classified into two primary groups, namely, physical and cultural. The physical causes are referred to as acts o r conditions produced by nature. The cultural are those created by man.
In part, the recent Republican river flood is due to the heavy precipitation that fell during the latter part of May and climaxed with cloud bursts. Then rather than spreading a veneer of water over a wide area, the narrowness of the Republican valley forced the water to pile up and form a deep stream. The clayey soil drained by the river and its tributaries, furthermore, is not very porous and does not permit rapid percolation. Consequently, a high per cent of the rainfall runs off the surface and swells overloaded streams. The greater the run-off, the greater the danger of high waters and floods.
Although these three physical factors, viz , excessive rainfall, a narrow valley, and a clayey soil, played important parts_ in causing the flood, thef" alone were not enough to produce the catastrophe we have recently witnessed in southern Nebraska. These factors are not variables which have changed greatly in the last hundred years, rather, they remain relatively constant over a long period of time.
What then are the conditions that have changed, which, together with these physical forces, produce a flood in 1935 when we had none in 1915, or other years after similar rainy periods?
Man by his folly caused the Republican river flood. Nature gave us a valley sufficiently large to carry away the surface water that its tributaries brought in from a grass-covered area. If man drains the water into streams too rapidly, and the stream beds are too small to hold the enormous volume, then man must also assume the ensuing responsibility.
Cultural factors aiding in this recent flood are barren surfaces, poor soil structure, drained water bodies, excessive field and road drainage, listed fields, cultivated slopes, and inadequate dams.
Contrary to a popular theory in the Great Plains, a plowed field does not permit as much rain to soak into the soil as does a grass-covered area. Once vegetation is removed, water that was formerly held by sod, leaves, and vegetation litter rapidly runs off. There is nothing to hold it. Experiments by plant ecologists show that native prairie sod holds ten times as much rain as stubble fields or fallow land.
Constant soil tillage has greatly reduced the quantity of humas or partially decayed vegetable matter in the soil. This, in turn, has decreased the size of the voids or air pockets in the soil so that less water can soak into the ground in the time it would take were conditions otherwise. Moreover, since the vegetation cover is removed, the surface runoff is greatly increased. This means that lese water, so necessary for crop growth, soaks into the ground. Consequently, in southcentral and southwestern Nebraska, rainfall efficiency and crop yields have been decreasing. It is a shame that a region suffering from insufficient subsoil moisture approximately half of the years should have part of its water wasted, to say nothing of increasing flood dangers.
To make matters worse, man, disregarding nature's way of regulating stream flow in time of excessive rains by means of her "impounding projects", namely, lagoons, ponds and swamps, eager to in^repse +he volume and accelerate the speed of the surface run-off, and being land hungry, ruthlessly drains the standing water bodies. Then, when h a\ y rains come aerain the water flow through these manmade channels is uncontrollable. This is another example of man tampering with nature's check and balance.
Large road ditches and well tilled fields do not give rainfall an opportunity to percolate into the ground, but carries it away almost as fast as it falls. To aid the escaping water the farmer has his listing ditches parallel to the steep slopes thus producing drainage ditches. Little wonder then that the narrow stream bed of the Republican river cannot carry the volume of water which through man's folly is suddenly emptied into it.
What can be done to minimize the danger of similar floods in the future?
Scenes of the Republican River Flood.
Nebraska's First 4-H Conservation Camp
On August 20, 21, 22 and 23, 1935, will be held at Seward a Conservation and Restoration Camp for boys and girls—the first Camp of its kind ever to be held in Nebraska.
The Camp will be under the direction and auspices of the State 4-H Boys and Girls Clubs. Cooperating with the 4-H authorities are the Nebraska Game Commission, the Nebraska Division of the Izaak Walton League and the Nebraska Game and Pish Association.
Over one hundred boys and girls are expected to attend the Camp. Of these forty will be local club winners who have done the most outstanding piece of conservation work in their county. These boys and girls will have their travel expense paid. In addition to these,eighty-five other boys and girls interested in conservation work will be permitted to attend, providing they register in advance.
The purpose of this Camp is to promote interest in conservation and restoration of our wildlife and outdoor resources. Many 4-H boys and girls are already working along this line in their home communities, and the Camp, to be held annually, will be a reward to those who do the best work, as well as an inspiration to do greater things. Those attending the Camp will enjoy seeing exhibits and programs of rodents, large wild animals, insects, fish, game birds, song birds, shrubs, grasses and flowers. Swimming, fishing, observation trips and healthful recreational activities will be a daily feature.
Among those who will be in attendance during the Camp are, William Banning, Secretary of Agriculture of Nebraska; Guy Spencer, vice-Chairman of the Nebraska Game Commission and the cartoonist who so often tells us real stories in pictures; Ward Betzer, President of the Nebraska Division of the Izaak Walton League; Dr. George Condra of the Conservation section of the University of Nebraska; Chet Ager, President of the Nebraska Pish & Game Association; Senator Frank Brady, leader in Nebraska Conservation work; 0. S. Bare, Extension Entomologist, University of Nebraska; Professor M. H. Swenk of the University of Nebraska; E. G. Maxwell, Extension Forester of Nebraska; Dr. C. E. Rosenquist, Agricultural College Botanist; Frank Haskin, member of the Nebraska Game Commission, George Carter, Nebraska's first Game Warden; and Angeline Tauchen and Ralph Copenhaver, recreational directors of the Boys and Girls Clubs.
Mr. L. I. Frisbie, State Extension Agent of Boys and Girls Clubs, will be directing head of the Camp. Assisting him will be Frank B. O'Connell, Secretary of the Nebraska Game Commission; J. M. Merritt, Superintendent, of the Gretna State Fisheries, and William Lytle, Educational director of the Nebraska Game Commission.
The program for the four days will be as follows:Wild Animal Day
Tuesday, the first day of camp, will be Wild Animal Day. The morning, 8 to 11, will be given over to registration and location ready for the big events. 11 to 11:30 will be the first recreation period under the direction of Angeline Tauchen and Ralph Copenhaver. Thereafter, each morning similar periods will be given at 10 t® 11, afternoon periods, 2:30 to 3, and a swim every day from 4 to 6. Other standard periods will be breakfast, 8 a.m., dinner at 12, and supper at 6. Will this be a real eat time? Just ask the boys and girls who have attended Club Camps at Seward in previous years. Mr. K. C. Fouts, Agricultural Agent at Seward, will have general charge of the Camp and he arranges real eats.
The first morning will be general assembly at 11:30 giving announcement and purposes of the camp. At 1:30 O. S. Bare, Extension Entomologist, has one hour for the discussion of rodents. Mr. Lytle of the Nebraska Game Forestation and Parks Commission will discuss other types of wild animals in Nebraska. There will be a fifteen minute exhibition that afternoon of crack shooting by K. M. Beegle, well-known Nebraska rifle shot. The day will wind up with moving pictures and a general talk by some outstanding individual in conservation work.Bird Day
The second day is Bird Day. We don't get a very early start that morning. The birds may beat us out a few minutes. We will start our bird tour at 5 a. m. under the direction of Professor M. H. Swenk of the Agricultural College. This insures us two hours of bird pleasure. At 9 a. m. Chet Ager, President of the Fish and Game Association of Nebraska, Superintendent of Lincoln City Parks will talk on water game birds. A representative of the Game Forestation and Parks Comission will give us information we want about upland game birds.
By the way, we forgot to mention, in addition to these splendid programs each day, we will have exhibits, live ones, to illustrate all the phases of work in conservation taken up at the camp. The first day's display will cover the animals of Nebraska, among them will be included a buffalo calf and a pair of deer. You can just imagine what we will have on Bird Day.
In the afternoon a very interesting hour will be the bird calls and another will be the study of predatory birds, learning of those that are beneficial which so often are considered detrimental. That evening we will have a movie(continued on page 10)
Seward's Blue, River Park where the Camp will be held.
Game Birds—An Asset to the FarmCOLONEL ARTHUR F. FORAN, President, More Game Birds in America Foundation
ONE of the most successful farmers I know once said to me: "Colonel, if you ever want to make a success at farming raiss something everybody wants but that the other fellow hasn't got. If you can do that, you'll be in the same class with that fellow who builds the better mouse traps and finds the world making a beaten path to his door."
In this article, I am not going to talk mouse traps. But I am going to tell you briefly about something seven million people want but which few farmers have given much thought to. Things I haven't the time to tell you about in detail will be thoroughly covered in a free booklet which any of you can read at home at your leisure.
More Game Birds In America, the Foundation of which I am president, was established just a few years ago. It was founded by a group of what I might term hard-headed businessmen who were sportsmen and determined to find practical ways of restoring the country's game bird resources. Not one of them has a commercial interest in the problem.
We have conducted field investigations. We manage a 1300 acre experimental game farm and free school. The school is called Game Conservation Institute. Any high school graduate can apply for the two-year course starting October fifteen. We try to find out all about things before we advance an idea. More than a few of these ideas are federal and state laws today.
One of the things we have found out is that the farmer is the fellow who should begin to take an interest in game. Why, some of you may be asking yourselves, should the farmer be interested in game. My answer to that is—and I make this as a prediction— that many of you farmers in the future are going to see a radical change in game restoration methods. This change will have a direct affect upon agricultural economics. As a matter of fact, it already is under way in nearly a dozen states.
My prediction is based on inescapable facts. Just consider thess few: There are seven million hunting licenses sold in the country today. The average fee is one dollar and a half. Deduct from this at least sixty per cent for state game department administrative expenses and the very most you have to use for the annual state restocking program is the sum total of sixty cents per hunter.
This figure will vary, of course, according to the price of various state hunting licenses. In some states the total will be more—but in others even less.
A single pheasant or quail will cost about two dollars at a Commercial game farm. With seven million hunters entitled to take, at the very lowest, two and three times that number of birds, every day of the hunting season, up to the total season bag limit, it looks as though we were burning the candle at both ends. Sooner or later, under the present scheme of things, we just can't have enough game for those seven million to hunt.
It is obvious that we cannot buy back a satisfactory supply of game birds at the rate of sixty cents per hunter.
On the other hand, we haven't yet found a way to raise game birds cheaper than Nature can with a little help. The birds must, therefore, be produced in the natural environment if good hunting is to remain within the means of the average hunter.
But every acre of game lands not owned by state and federal governments belongs to the farmer or other rural landowner. Probably ninety-five per cent of the best game lands in the country are privately owned. That is why I make the prediction, based on the foregoing facts, that the farmer, in the future, is going to find himself quite interested in game.
Game birds are going to become a farm crop. They will be cultivated, managed, and paid for as farm crops. Scores of farmers in New York, New Jersey, Wisconsin and other states got from six dollars per day up last fall for the excellent pheasant shooting they could provide. Over three million acres were leased to hunters in Texas alone last year, bringing in thousands of dollars.
Groups of sportsmen and farmers may co-operate under various game management plans for their mutual benefit, trespass protection and enjoyment. This idea is already a wonderful success in Iowa. The farmer also may manage his place as a game management area for his personal pleasure or that of his friends.
Under these plans he is going to have a new source of income. His trespass troubles will be over and the sportsman who wants better hunting, better than sixty cents a year can provide, will get it.
To accomplish this however, it will sometimes be necessary to seek change in existing laws. For instance, it would be foolish to try to restore game birds in states — Massachusetts for example, where the use of traps to control game bird enemies is forbidden. . The farmer would have little incentive to work along game restoration lines in states where pheasant or quail shooting was illegal, or where only a very small bag is permitted during a short season.
These predictions are based on historical as well as economic facts. The Old World countries, long ago, passed through just such a transitory period with their wild game as heavily populated states are today. The so-called European system of private wild game ownership however, will never take, hold in this country. All classes own land in America and therefore all classes will always be able to hunt.
I will be glad to send anyone a booklet published by the Foundation describing how the farmer may profit by cultivating game birds as a farm crop. This booklet is free, Address MORE GAME BIRDS, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York. Ask for Game Birds on the Farm.EARLY GAME LAWS
Following are some early game laws brought to light by Game Protector W. W. Britton while recently engaged in some research work, according to a recent issue of Pennsylvania Game News:The first game law, Deuteronomy 22:6. First planting of upland game not native; Richard Bache, son-in-law of Benjamin Franklin. 1790 in New Jersey. Hungarian Partridges. First warden system; Mass. and New Hampshire, 1850. First bag limit; 25 prairie chickens, Iowa. First closure for term of years;Mass. Deer , 1718. First hunting license required; New York, 1764. First non-resident license required; New Jersey, 1864. First rest day in Maryland; 1872. First state to ban market hunting; Arkansas, 1875. First game farm; Illinois, 1905.
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War 12 of the 13 colonies had laws protecting certain species and banning certain methods and devices.
OBSERVE ALL GAME LAWS Outdoor NebraskaOfficial Publication of The Nebraska State Game Forestation and Parks zJSP^ Co*\aaission COMMISSIONERS R. L. Cochran, Chairman Guy R. Spencer Al. M. Sullivan J. B. Douglas W. J. Tiley Frank Haskins Frank B. O'Connell EDUCATION & PUBLICATION COMMITTEE J. B. Douglas, Chairman Frank B. O'Connell EDITOR Frank B. O'Connell Vol. X SUMMER, 1935 No. 3 The Commission's Program GAME: Statewide pheasant hunting. Rehabilitation of the quail. Stocking of Hungarian partridge. Reserves and feeding grounds for migratory waterfowl. Public shooting grounds. FISH: Fish for every angler. Reduced cost and common sense business in fish production. Good fishing at state-owned lakes where public can fish free. Preservation of lakes. RECREATION: A statewide system of recreation grounds for Nebraska citizens. Shade and picnicking facilities at fishing lakes. Conservation of Nebraska's outdoors. LAW ENFORCEMENT: Equality for all. Constant war against the despoiler and destroyer of wild life. Strict observance of game laws by all citizens. EDUCATION: Appreciation of Nebraska's outdoors through education. Make the boys and girls of tomorrow lovers of wild creatures and nature's handiwork. Cooperation of all citizens to the end that Nebraska shall have suitable recreation and wholesome outdoor activities. Program of forestation throughout Nebraska. GENERAL: Full value to the purchaser of hunting and fishing permits. Square deal to farmers and sportsmen. Stabilization of water in Platte River.
According to a report] of the Bureau of Biological Survey, Nebraska hunters purchased 21,251 federal duck stamps in 1934.
At the rate of $1 each, this means a contribution of |21,251.00 to the work being carried on by the federal authorities. In view of the fact that the Bureau is spending over a quarter of a million dollars in Nebraska in its program to save the ducks and make better hunting of these birds, it would seem that Nebraska is being very well treated.
It is pleasing to know that the Bureau of Biological Survey under its present management really knows where the good duck-nesting sections are and is seeing that federal funds are being spent in states where ducks are raised.
STREAM AND COVER CONTROL
The two big jobs before all game authorities and sportsmen today has to do with stream control and cover for birds. The solution of these two problems will mean many more birds and fish for the future.
While sewerage pollution may be a vital problem in some of the eastern states, it is of minor importance in Nebraska. We do not mean to say that we should not clean up and beautify our streams and keep them from being polluted as many are today. But first must come stream control. The thing that is killing thousands of fish and keeping hundreds of thousands of eggs from hatching is not pollution but the silt and sand in the water and the lack of a stabilized flow in some of our streams.
As so ably pointed out in one of the feature articles in this issue of Outdoor Nebraska, we are allowing water to run off our cultivated fields and directly into our streams, carrying with it tons of soil. We have drained natural swamps and marshes that helped to hold the water and tp slow up its runoff. We have destroyed many of nature's natural barriers that one time kept the water in our streams clear.
If we can find means of stabilizing rivers like the Platte and to keep our soil from going into our smaller streams, then we shall have taken a distinct step forward, not alone in soil conservation, but in the increase of fish life.
Secondly, we must find a means of providing more and better cover for our game birds. If there were numerous corners of farms and ravines where cover was abundant, we would find our game bird crop increasing instead of decreasing or merely holding its own.
Today is the time to start the great work of stream control and cover for birds.
What About Our Fur Animals?An address by Frank G. Ashbrook, in Charge Fur Resources, Bureau of Biological Survey.
IF John Q. Public does not believe that ducks are just about the most important species of wildlife, it will not be the duck hunters' fault. That more attention is being given to ducks than to any other form of wildlife is a fact that cannot be denied. More power to all those who are interested in duck conservation. The migratory water fowl surely need it.
But what about fur animals? Who is looking after their welfare? This tremendously valuable natural resource is being constantly neglected and shoved into the background and still remains the stepchild in the family of conservation. As a matter of fact, it looks now as though we are headed straight for a general extermination of fur animals —not because we want it, but because we can't help it under the present system.
It is difficult to conceive that in a civilized country so valuable a resource as fur animals has been so sadly neglected and atrociously wasted. You can't go on killing millions of fur animals forever without eventually coming face to face with their extermination. Surely a valuable resource which yields an annual income of $'65,000,000 deserves much more attention than it is now receiving. A large majority of those who trap fur animals includes farmers and their sons who depend upon this source of revenue to incicase the farm income. The employment it furnishes and the income it supplies to these rural folks should be sufficient justification to arouse public sentiment for immediate action in order to save what is still left of our fur resources.
We like to think of ourselves as ardent conservationists, far seeing, and possessing the required initiative—but somehow or other we have come to believe that we can treat our fur animal heritage as we please. Some even of those who have served as administrators of wildlife have seemed to forget that they are custodians not owners of our fur resources. How long will this continue before we realize that there is something fundamentally wrong with such an attitude? Fur animals are the property of the people in the various States and this natural resource should be managed for the benefit of all the people, instead of permitting political groups and selfish interests to exploit this resource.
Many fine meadows in the United States had their origin in the industry of the beaver, which built dams, cleared away trees, and when its artificial lakes were finally filled with silt, removed to other localities. Fur bearers have been greatly reduced in numbers before the advance of civilization, which drove the animals from their haunts and converted them to agricultural uses.
It is quite generally believed by those who are struggling with our Federal land policies that too much agricultural land has been developed, yet they have failed to see that a considerable portion of our public and private land should be utilized for the production and conservation of this valuable natural resource.
There are those who visualize a swamp or marsh as a place that must be drained. Others believe that such areas s"rve the best purpose as a dump for defunct automobile bodies. Yet many such places are havens for muskrats and other fur animals, as well as for migratory waterfowl. Some of our tidal and inland marsh areas are capable of producing five, sometimes more, muskrats per acre, not to mention the other wildlife which inhabits such places. At present market prices, the return on an a.cre from muskrat pelts alone would furnish an income of from $7 to $14 each season. No system of cropping this type of land would produce as much. Why then is serious consideration not given to fur animals as an annual crop? Animals as well as human beings derive their very existence from the land. They are fed, sheltered, clothed, and warmed out of the soil. The land then should mean something more than just so many bales of cotton, so many bushels of corn, or so many pounds of pork. Wildlife, one of our greatest natural heritages, deserves serious consideration in any general policy for land management.
Every year millions of acres are beino- des+roved for wildlife uses bv forest fire, soil erosion, and by plowing larp-e spctions of land that never should be plowed. Just recently on a trip to the Pacific coast I saw in one of the Southwestern States large areas plowed for the first time, and bordering these areas were clumps of large pine trees firdled to make room for more cultivated crops. Whf»t a pity to destroy such natural wildlife areas for the purpose of producing crops, when there are alreadv millions of acres of waste land that was once productive.
The same neglect which has caused the extermination of the passenger pigeon, the decimation of the buffalo herds, and has brought the migratory waterfowl population to a crisis, is bringing fur animals there just as fast. Over-production of fur seldom if ever occurs these days.
If demand for certain species grows, naturally the catch is increased; and if some furs are neglected in the trade the reverse is true. A strong demand for a particular kind of fur causes continued trapping, which if pursued long enough will reduce the number below commercial quantities and may eventually exterminate the animal. Continued increase in the number of fur animals trapped does not mean that the animals have increased in numbers. On the contrary it most likely is an indication that the species in question is being threatened with extermination.
The marten, fisher, and otter, our three most valuable fur animals from the standpoint of individual pelts, are in just such a precarious status. The price obtained from these pelts has always remained high enough to cause close trapping. The animals, although never abundant anywhere, have now entirely disappeared from much of their former range. Of these three, the otter is perhaps most plentiful because much skill and patience are required to locate its haunts and capture it.
To develop young, the female marten requires 9% months and the fisher 11 months. The whelping seasons of the marten and of the fisher are in late March and early April. Therefore, in States where these animals are permitted to be trapped pregnant females are sure to be destroyed. Extermination of these species is therefore most seriously threatened. Unless we do something about it, their extinction is inevitable.
The Russian Government, in view of the growing scarcity of Russian sable, prohibited the taking of this animal in Asiatic Russia from February, 1913 to October, 1916. This action naturally increased the demand at that time for American marten, and as a result the animal was so closely trapped that the breeding stock was seriously impaired. The breeding and gestation periods of the American marten and the Russian sable were not then known; but the Russians, always fur conscious, took this(Continued on page 12)
Commission Field ActivitiesFish Stocking Program
Despite weather conditions, floods and wash-outs, many fish are being stocked in Nebraska waters. During June a quarter of a million adult bullheads were placed in lakes and ponds —the biggest month in history. At present indications, over a million adult bullheads will be stocked in 1935.
While a number of ponds in the hatcheries have been lost, the bass hatch this year was exceedingly good. Nature has filled the breeding ponds, with abundant insect life this year and all hatcheries report big hatches of bass fry.Flood Damage
The Nebraska Game Commission suffered a considerable loss by floods this spring. While the losses were not as great as some counties of the state suffered in other ways, it probaby will total around $25,000.00
Contrary to first reports, the Rock Creek Hatchery and state lake near Parks in Dundy County did not wash out. This hatchery and lake is higher than the Republican River Valley and there was no way for the flood to reach these ponds.
The State Lake near Oxford was in the direct path of the heavy flood water and was completely destroyed. It is doubtful if this lake can ever be restored.
The new lake near Guide Rock, scheduled to be opened to fishing a few days after the flood arrived was badly damaged. Construction work is already under way there and it is hoped this lake can be restored and opened to fishing by next year.
A cloudburst near Valentine washed out nine of the propagation lakes in the Valentine Hatchery, carrying away their dams. The loss there was approximately $10,000, in claims together with several hundred thousand fish.
Lakes at Wellfleet, Pibal, Benkelman and Alexandria were damaged slightly, but there was no loss of fish.
The editor of Outdoor Nebraska asked Mr. Spencer, our vice-chairman, for a photograph—and this is what he got!
Here's a new way to catch fish. It's called "coaxing"'em".
A new state park at Niobrara was opened this spring. This was constructed thru CCC labor. The park proper contains some 300 acres and a same refuge approximately 500 acres. The park is located on an island near the mouth of the Niobrara River and makes a splendid place for citizens of northeastern Nebraska to find recreation.
Another state park is now under construction near Ponca. This is also being developed by CCC labor.
The Wild Cat Hills Game Refuge is being improved by a CCC camp this summer.
Nearly 1.000 young men have been working directly and indirectly the past year in the improvement of Nebraska out-of-doors.New Lake Opened
The State Lake near Parks was opened to the public fishing in July. This lake contains 50 acres of water and has been stocked with trout, sunfish, crappie and bullheads.Badges for 1936
The new state law provides for each person hunting and fishing to wear a badge. These badges will be made by the State Reformatory for Men, located at Lincoln.
Owing to the fact that the law does not go into effect until August and the lack of time necessary to manufacture and distribute the badges, none will be issued until the new 1936 permits are distributed.
The new badge will be square in shape and the permit will be folded four times and inserted into the badge. The number of the permit and other information shows thru a window of the badge. Resident permits will be black; non-resident red.
Ten states now have the badge system, where it has proved popular with sportsmen as well as increasing the revenue and making it easier to enforce the law.Book On Hawks
The Audubon Society has recently published one of the best books on hawks it has been our pleasure to see. It is entitled "The Hawks of North America", and was written by John Bichard May. It contains many full colored plates and sells for the astonishingly small price of $1.25.Bird Feeding Contributions
The South Sioux City Chapter of the Izaak Walton League has rendered a report of Bird Feeding Contributions in their community. The funds raised were expended locally under the direction of Deputy Warden Monnette. Those contributing to this fund are as follows:South Sioux City Commercial Club............................$25.00 Izaak Walton South Sioux City Chapter .................... 25.00 J. S. Bacon .......................... 1.00 Fred Gordon........................ 1.00 S. T. Frum .......................... 1.00 Harry Hiekes........................ 1.00 C. F. Fouts ............................ 1.00 Clarence Rockwell .................50 W. O. Monnette.................... 1.00
Here's 12 nice bass caught in June at Crystal Lake near South Sioux City by H. S. White of Lyons. The 12 weighed 46 pounds.
Nebraska is trying out the motorcycle in game law enforcement. This is Conservation Officer Conover and his machine.
NEW FISHING REGULATIONS
The Nebraska Game Commission recently put into force several new fishing regulations. They are as follows:Memphis Lake (Saunders County)
This lake is now closed to fishing on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays of each week, legal holidays excepted. Fishing can begin early Sunday morning and continue until Wednesday evening.
The bag of fish per day was reduced to ten fish.Walgren Lake (Sheridan County)
The bag of crappies at Walgren lake was reduced from 25 per day to 10.Private Fish Hatcheries
New regulations put into effect in June allow private fish hatcheries to sell only trout for food purposes. Efforts have been made to sell other game fish for food purposes, but in view of the need of such fish for propagation and the difficulty of enforcement, the regulations were changed.
The State of Minnesota recently put into effect a regulation prohibiting the sale of bullheads for food purposes. Until recently great numbers of these fish have been shipped to the markets in nearby states.Carter Lake Improved
Plans are going forward for considerable improvement at Carter Lake in Douglas County. This is one of the largest lakes in eastern Nebraska and very popular with Omaha fishermen.
A CCC camp has been obtained and shortly will be at work in bank improvement and parking adjacent areas. The State Game Commission, as well as the City of Omaha, is joining with the Carter Lake Improvement Club, in furnishing some of the material. Tt is likely the state will furnish 1,700 feet of pipe to bring a permanent supply of city water into the lake.Roadside Parks
The Nebraska State Roads and Irrigation Department and the Nebraska Game Commission are working together on the development of small roadside parks where tourists and travelers generally may find a pleasant nook to stop for rest and lunch.
Under new federal regulations, certain sums are available to the road department for the improving of such parks. However, the federal regulations do not permit them to purchase real estate for this purpose, and therefore the Game Commission is cooperating as far as possible in helping them to get suitable sites.
Among the first developments will be the improvement of fifteen acres on the Blue River south of Milford. The Game Commission have a deed to a small acreage on the Blue and since federal funds can be used for the development of public lands, the combination will give Lancaster people as well as travelers on State Highway No. 6 a pleasant place to stop, have lunch, picnic or fish.
DUCK STAMPS TO ANYONE
Stamp collectors and friends of conservation who are not hunters, may now purchase 1934-35 duck stamps without having them affixed to hunting licenses or certificates. A new law provides that the stamps may be purchased by anyone, and in unlimited quantities.
The new law making this effective, approved by President Roosevelt on June 15, opens to the public the sale of the first migratory-bird hunting stamp, designed by J. N. (Ding) Darling and required of hunters of ducks and geese last season. Provisions of the original law that authorized the duck stamp made it difficult for nonhunters to purchase stamps and also required that each stamp sold should be attached to a hunting license or a special certificate. The stamps may now be purchased at post offices at one dollar ($1.00) each, either singly, in block, or in full sheets of 28 stamps to the sheet. All these stamps remaining unsold after June 30 will be destroyed.
This announcement is issued by the Biological Survey of the Department of Agriculture, so that persons and organizations desiring to make their contribution to the migratory-waterfowl program in this manner, and stamp collectors who have previously sought the stamps unaffixed to a license or a certificate, may now obtain as many as desired before they are withdrawn from sale.
SANDHILLS IN SEPTEMBERBy Anne Shippen Graham They are not beautiful one by one, and yet—■ Their tumbled distances hold strange allure. How long ago, with nomad faces set Toward the east, their myriad grains found sure Slow passage with those ceaseless winds which swept Down from gaunt mountains and across bare plains. So grain by grain they grew, and rivers crept Among them, and the ever patient rains Coaxed grasses from their slopes, and now they lie Green garmented and placid while, far flung In silver loops, their rivers mirror sky And soft hued willows. Indian summer, hung In tender mists across the countless hills Deepens to blurs of lavender among Those coulees which the wild plum thicket fills, And sleeps in fields of tall wild asters strung Like swaying purple fringe along the green Of smooth wide meadows. Now the hills are dipped In their first autumn colors; the soft sheen Of coral grasses, and the purple tipped Red-brown of bunch grass, and the first bright glow Of bits of sumac by the sandy trails. They are not beautiful one by one I know, But when September drops her tinted veils Across their drowsy miles and dreams along Their curling bankless rivers where the tall White cranes fish peacefully and the (Continued on page 12)
North Platte 1935 "Fishing Contest" where several thousand youngsters tried to get 'em.
NEBRASKA'S FIRST 4-H CONSERVATION CAMP(continued from page 4)
on water fowl and an illustrated talk on insectivorous and song birds of Nebraska.Plant Day
This starts out with a tour from 6:30 to 7:30, becoming acquainted with the trees and shrubs with Mr. E. G. Maxwell, Extension Forester of Nebraska, in charge. The flowers, grasses, and weeds will be introduced to us by Dr. C. E. Rosenquist, the Agricultural College Botanist and the insect study will be directed by Mr. O. S. Bare.Fish Day
The last day, we will enjoy an early morning fish. After breakfast we will make a trip to the Earle Smiley Fisheries and Lily Ponds at Beaver Crossing. The morning program will be completed with discussion of game fish of Nebraska and, by the way, we will see plenty of fish, both at Mr. Smiley's and through the courtesy of the Game Forestation and Parks Commission which will have the fish car located on the siding near the Camp. We will also have exhibits in the Camp. In the afternoon we will have a discussion of coarse fish and minnows; and Mr. Ward Betzer, President of the Nebraska State Izaak Walton League will tell us what we can do to keep from polluting Nebraska's water, the one great cause for the killing of mi!l:ons of fish each year. That afternoon we will have a demonstration on how to fish, how and what baits and hooks to use, the care of fish after they have been taken from the water, discussion of the Nebraska game laws, and a real demonstration on casting. The afternoon program will wind up with a swim, supper at 6 and again another fish in the Blue.
THE REPUBLICAN RIVER FLOOD(Continued from page 3)
First of all, impounding reservoirs should be placed in the upper reaches of the river. They would hold back water and act as flood preventatives. The water could be used for irrigation and the development of hydro-electric power.
The idea of impounding water is not new. It has been tried successfully in many places. In Ohio these reservoirs are not considered too expensive when their only function is flood control. The idea is not new in Nebraska. We haye merely failed to arouse public opinion to the point wh?re pressure would produce action. A three million dollar impounding project in the upper reaches of the Republican river would have prevented damages amounting to many times its value. The old adage that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure is certainly true in this case. If only part of the twelve million dollars lost in the recent flood had been spent for impounding reservoirs, those advocated on the Arickarie river, Medicine creek, and the Frenchmen creek could have been constructed.
Then, if farmers must farm steep slope land they should by all means develop terraces and contour cultivation. Such a practice would be thrice blessed. Terracing and contour terracing increases rain absorption, it increases crop yields, and it decreases the danger of run-off, soil erosion, and floods. Furthermore, since some slope land is drouthy much of it should be seeded to forage crops or grass.
Reclamation projects should be halted, and in many cases nature should be permitted to reconstruct her ponds, swamps, and lagoons. Along the Republican there are probably scores of low places where three or more acres have been expensively and unprofitably reclaimed from that river. Now that the river has taken some of this land back, we should not again undertake unprofitable reclamation. Why not let this land revert back to marshy areas with aquatic vegetation where migratory birds may find food and refuge? With a national movement on for establih;ng "duckports", why should we hinder nature's reclaiming part of her wet-weather flood area? This would give wild life an impetus and greatly reduce the danger and damages of floods.
If man disturbs the delicate balance of nature's physical forces, then he should not criticize this well-designed mechanism. We should not mistake our own folly for God's wrath. Rather it behooves us to acknowledge our mistakes and execute well planned correctives that we may not be found guilty of a similar disaster in the future.
FIRST NESTING PLACE IS "HOME"
Makers of new "homes" for migratory waterfowl should give careful consideration to the birds' own idea of where home is, counsels Frederick C. Lincoln, naturalist of the U. S. Biological Survey.
Homing instinct, says Mr. Lincoln, apparently does not operate intensively in an individual migratory bird until after it has first nested. The location of this critical first nest, he further points out, seems to be more or less a matter of chance, but it will be within the natural breeding range of the species,
These facts, Mr. Lincoln explains, indicate that a species of migratory waterfowl cannot easily be established as a breeding bird on areas outside its natural range. Pinioned or wing-clipped waterfowl may be bred successfully on favorable areas outside their ranges, but this does not mean that their young will return to these areas after the fall migrations to wintering grounds. With other birds of their kind they are more likely to return to breeding areas within the natural range and there establish the nesting places to which their homing instincts will guide them in succeeding years.
Mr. Lincoln observes that many persons seem to believe that it is necessary only to introduce a few pairs of birds of any particular species into an area that is environmentally suitable and— Presto! the species is established. This belief he attributes to the success that has attended the transplanting of a few species. Without exception, these successful experiments have been with nonmigratory species.
Citing an example of the failure of transplanting experiments with migratory birds, Lincoln points out that several thousand Egyptian quail were imported and liberated in the Northeastern States from 1870 to 1880. The experiment failed. Some of these birds raised broods the first season, but there is no evidence that any of them returned after their fall migrations. Mr. Lincoln conjectures that the birds may have perished at sea while attempting to migrate back to their natural winter quarters in Africa.
The improbability of young birds returning to the nesting sites of their parents is indicated also by information the Biological Survey has obtained from bird banding. Mr. Lincoln calls attention to two outstanding examples. In one case, a mallard duck nesting near Antioch, Nebraska, hatched more than 100 ducklings between 1927 and 1933. These ducklings were banded. Yet there is no evidence (from bands or otherwise) that a single one of the young ever returned to nest even in the State where it was hatched. Individuals of these broods have been recovered south to Arizona, Texas, and Louisiana, and north to Alberta. Mr. Lincoln's other example is based on records of the house wren obtained at a station in Ohio. Hundreds of adults and fledglings of this species have been banded there, and though each season more than 42 per cent of the adult birds taken have been old timers, only 2.6 per cent of(Continued on page 12)
THE FLUSHING BAR SEASON IS HERE
Mowing time, like prosperity, is "just around the corner." It is, however, a bit more definite. And with the breaking out and oiling up of mowing machines will come, we are confident, many thousands of new and slightly used flushing bars.
This youngster among game saving devices has made remarkable growth and development. It has changed materially from the one first made up by Warden Peterson out in Wisconsin in 1930, but the principle behind it has remained the same. It was a fine idea and already it has saved hundreds of nests of all kinds of game birds.
Last year the Bureau of Biological Survey conducted an experiment with the flushing bar to test its practicability. The test was made on the Arlington Experimental Farm of the Dept. of Agriculture almost in the shadow of the Washington monument. A field of heavy alfalfa was to be mowed, so the Survey made up a flushing bar of the type developed by Dr. P. F. English of the Michigan Dept. of Conservation (see illustrations.)
Captive reared bobwhites were released carefully under clumps of the alfalfa so that they would stay put. In most cases they did nicely and held until the mower approached. In approximately 90 per cent of the cases the birds flushed before the bar in ample time for the man at the reins to raise his cutter bar and pass over the spot which theoretically, at least, marked the location of the nest.
Tn the 10 per cent of the cases where the birds did not flush properly only once did the bird get up too late. Even here the bird was not injured. She got clear of the bar and the machine and made a strong flight for cover. Could those hand reared birds fly? Don't ever let anyone tell you that such birds, reared under proper conditions, can't fly well.
The balance of the ten per cent of the birds, unhampered by the nesting ties of the incubating mother, pulled out quietly on foot and left the scene unnoticed before the mowing machine arrived.
In general use all over the country the flushing bar can save millions of game birds eggs. Its potentialities are unlimited. The number of nests saved is entirely dependent upon the number of flushing bars used. The more bars we can get into action the more birds will be saved to build up our depleted coverts. On one place in Pennsylvania last year fifteen hundred pheasant eggs were saved in one field of 125 acres of alfalfa. That's one for Ripley, because, "believe it or not," it's true. Unusual of course, but there happens to be an exceptionally heavy concentration of ringnecks in this section.
The difficulty lies in popularizing the bar among the people upon whom we are dependent to put it into use. These are, of course, the farmers. Where the farmer is personally interested in hunting the problem is not so difficult. But where this interest is lacking he must be shown how it is to his advantage to go to the trouble of making up such a device and using it.
Simplicity of construction is essential in order to secure general use. The English bar is certainly simple. All that is required is a light pole about 12 feet long, some old wire and a few old links of chain. The only complication is a bracket to fasten the pole to the tongue of the mower. This may be easily made of old strap iron but it requires a little effort to make and attach.
This bar is most effective in operation of the many types tried out in many parts of the country. It allows perfect visibility, hampers the flushing birds to the least extent and is not rendered ineffectual by heavy stands of clover, alfalfa, or lespedeza. We recommend it highly and we urge the bird hunters of the country to get busy now and either to sell the farmers on whose land he hunts on the idea of getting a bar and using it or to provide one for him to use. It will pay dividends next fall.DUCK OBSERVERS ATTENTION
The Nebraska Game, Forestation & Parks Commission wants some reports from reliable sources regarding the hatching of ducks. If you can give any data on the following, kindly send it to the office at Lincoln, for which the Commission will be most grateful. Here are the questions:
1. What specie of duck nesting in Nebraska have you observed as being the most prolific?
2. What is the average number of ducks reared to maturity by a pair of breeding ducks?
3. What is the number of ducks the average mother hatches and takes to the water?
4. What seems to be the cause of losses of small ducks?
5 What in your observation seems to be the greatest natural enemy of growing ducks?
6. Have you noticed during the present summer any pot-holes or ponds that have dried up and left small ducks too far off to reach water?
7. What is the number of ducks the average mother rears to the flying age?
$6,000,000 TO AID WILDLIFE
Wildlife is coming into its own under the New Deal. President Roosevelt's farm relief-wildlife refuge program is to be vastly extended under terms of a bill just passed by Congress and approved by the President.
The bill appropriates $6,000,000 for refuges, authorizes allocation by the President of additional money for the purpose from the four billion dollar PWA fund and enacts at one swoop nearly all new wildlife conservation legislation sought by sportsmen in the present session, according to the More Came Birds Foundation.
The blanket wildlife bill will. enable the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey to extend its work on establishment of a great system of federal refuges recommended last year by the President's Committee on Wildlife Restoration. A total of $8,500,000 was allocated in 1934 from submarginal land retirement and other funds. Over 600 000 acres of refuges sites were acquired or optioned in 20 states.
Most of the projects are to be used to aid restoration of the country's wild waterfowl. CCC and other relief workers have been assigned to the building of dams, dykes and other improvement work on the sites.
New laws enacted with passage of the bill follow:
The "Duck Stamp" law, requiring waterfowl hunters to purchase one dollar federal license stamps at postoffices, is amended. Henceforth pasting of the stamps to state hunting licenses or special certificates will not be required. Stamp collectors or anyone may now purchase them.
To compensate communities for tax losses due to federal refuge acquisitions, payments to school or road funds of 25 per cent, of refuge revenues are authorized.
The Lacey Act, regulating interstate shipments of game and other wildlife, is amended so as to insure more effective federal enforcement.
Wind Cave National Game Preserve in South Dakota is transferred to the Department of the Interior as a National Park.
WHAT ABOUT OUR FUR ANIMALS(continued from page 7)
precautionary measure to prevent further depletion of their breeding stocks.
The most amazing thing is that with a $500,000,000 annual turnover in the retail fur trade even as late as 1929, no one would have started long ago to put the fur trade on a factual basis. No one knows whether we trap 13,000,000 muskrats and produce 12,000,000 a year or whether we trap 26,000,000 and produce 11,000,000. How many of the different species are killed and produced annually is obviously the first thing to determine in looking to the future trapping of fur animals. Already the annual retail turnover in furs has shrunken to $150,000,000, and the entire cause cannot be attributed to droughts, floods, and the financial depression. A considerable portion of it has been caused by an increasnig scarcity of fur animals.
Who has a policy for the conservation of fur resources? Who has a plan for the maintenance and preservation of the tremendous economic value in fur resources? Echo answers. The trouble is the public has been extremely indifferent to fur conservation, forgetting that this natural resource had a great deal to do with the development of our country. Even the State conservation and game commissions generally look upon fur animals as "vermin," simply because some of them feed on species of game birds that hunters desire to shoot for sport. There seems to be no policy of "live and let live" where the fur animals are concerned.
The fur trade had better wake up to face this situation. There is no group of people to whom the preservation of our fur resources means so much as it does to the fur trade. As Mr. Darling tells the duck hunters: "Better think soberly in terms of preservation rather than of postmortems."
Now, what can you do? Well, here is a suggestion: If the fur trade were represented by an organization similar to those maintained by other large and important industries to look after their interests, its spokesmen could present the situation and gain the recognition for a natural resource on which the trade's very existence depends. And here's another hint: It is not yet too late for the fur trade to inform the National Resources Board that fur animals should be given serious consideration in evolving a national policy for the use of our resources.
Perhaps no other nation and surely no other continent in history was given so much to begin with in the way of fur resources; and perhaps no other people has treated this natural heritage with so little concern for its value to future generations. What of the future? Will lha people of the United States take more active interest in conserving a resource which really belongs to them? Will the fur trade urge upon local, Etate, and Federal governments the necessity for developing and fostering a new and constructive policy so that our fur resources will be conserved rather than ruthlessly exploited? Will the fur trade cooperate in formulating and in carrying out such a policy? These are important questions. If the fur animals are to have a fair break and the fur trade is to be maintained, something had better be done and done quickly.
SANDHILLS IN SEPTEMBER(continued from page 9) last song Of the kildee sounds plaintively, then all Their tugging solitude becomes a sea Of flowing amythest lovliness to me.
FIRST NESTING PLACE IS "HOME"(Continued from page 10)
the banded young have been retaken there in the following years.
To the question: What becomes of the young? Mr. Lincoln replies that apparently the only tenable answer is that they spread indiscriminately throughout the natural range of the species and cnly by chance return to the area where they hatched.
It seems probable, he observes, that this is the operation of a natural law to prevent much of the inbreeding that might result were the offspring to return with their parents to the home site of the previous year.
PHEASANT CROP GOOD
From reports received to date, it would appear that the 1935 Nebraska pheasant crop will be a good one.
While the birds are not as numerous in the central part of the state as they were several years ago, they have greatly increased in other sections. Most of the counties in northeastern Nebraska and those in the North Platte Valley have many birds.
The open season will probably be fixed by the Nebraska Game Commission at the meeting of the board held sometime in August.
HELP THE EDITOR
If you would like to help make our outdoors more attractive, why not write the editor of "Outdoor Nebraksa" a letter, setting forth your ideas of improvement. The Nebraska Game Commission is anxious to get new ideas to make Nebraska a better place. They are anxious to spend your dollar to the best advantage.
If you have any ideas on how to do this, you should write in. Such letters, if brief and to the point, are welcome in "Outdoor Nebraska."
SPEED OF CHICKENS
Editor, Outdoor Nebraska:—
On April 7, 1934 at about 6 o'clock P. M. I was traveling northwestward on state highway No. 39, south of Woodville, Nebraska. West of the Union Pacific railroad track, which parallels the highway, I observed four prairie chickens taking to wing. One of these birds decided to fly parallel to my direction of travel and did so for a distance of over half a mile, before turning sideways. During this period of flight the bird, flying in characteristic fashion and without any apparent special effort, maintained a speed of 40 miles per hour. It would be interesting to learn whether anybody else ever had an opportunity to check the speed of flyWig prairie chickens.E. A. Nieschmidt
The Nebraska Game Forestation & Parks Commission, in cooperation with the 4-H clubs, has published four conservation bulletins this summer. One deals with our trees, one with our fish, one with our wild animals and one with our flowers.
If you are a school teacher or if you have a boy or girl you want to interest in our outdoors, send for one of these bulletins. They are free.
Do you know that i£ is your dollar paid for a hunting and fishing permit that maintains our parks, provides fishing, saves the game birds and builds up our outdoors?
If you would like to know what becomes of the dollar you pay for hunting and fishing, see page 2 of this issue.
WHO CAN BEAT HIM?
Mr. L. E. Williams, 3024 T Street, Lincoln, has a fishing and hunting permit for every year since 1914. We wonder if any other Nebraska sportsmen can beat this record. Mr. Williams has kept and has in his possession each of the twenty permits issued annually.
DO NEBRASKANS CATCH FISH?
On July 10, the Nebraska Game Commission opened a lake in Dundy County. Here are the bags the wardens checked the first day. Looks like a great day for southwestern Nebraska fishermen! Fisherman Crap- Bass Rock Bull- TroutNo. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. *9 *10 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. *31. *32. *33. 34. 35. *36. *37. *38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. *48. *49. *50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. pies Bass heads & Sunfish 20 0 1 4 1 1 4 0 23 3 5 21 20 23 22 25 25 25 25 19 20 14 1 15 10 3 15 15 15 15 5 0 0 19 19 15 15 12 5 15 15 15 4 10 11 25 25 15 15 20 15 0 20 20 23 25 25 21 25 25 Fisherman Crap- No. pies 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 0 74. 75. 76. 0 77. 0 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. *90. *91. 0 *92 *93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 0 101. 102. 103. 104. *105. *106. 0 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. *113. *114 *115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 0 121. Bass Rock Bull- Trout Bass heads & Sunfish 1 15 25 1 Fisherman Crap- No. pies 1 9 20 17 25 24 6 20 20 25 0 15 10 0 0 10 23 21 20 20 20 20 20 25. 24 24 20 20 0 9 6 6 20 20 6 0 19 22 22 22 15 0 15 15 1 23 23 18 22 22 22 22 21 10 15 0 7 Bass Rock Bull- Trout Bass heads & Sunfish 0 0 0 0 2 14
*Note—Fishermen under 16 years of age.
KNOW YOUR HAWKS
Hawks are of the Order Falconiformes. Tried upon evidence they would with the exception of Cooper's Hawk and its kinsman the Sharp-shinned Hawk (Big Blue Darter and Little Blue Darter), have to be listed as benefactors. Tried before the bar of popular opinion the best one could hope to get is a hung jury. Given a box filled from a panel of scientists and they would win a clear acquittal, for all except the two named species: and even so eminent a quail enthusiast and authority as Herbert L. Stoddard suggests the value of "the darters" in pruning weaklings and wounded birds from the covey.
Characteristic of the order to which they belong hawks are equipped with strong, hooked beaks fitted for tearing flesh; with powerful talons having strong curved nails at the end of flexible toes, with which they seize or strike their victims. The leg is well feathered, usually below the knee joint, having long feathers, "the flag," well developed. The long, strong wings of these birds, rounded at the tips, with exception of the swallow-tailed Kite, sparrow hawk, pigeon hawk and duck hawk, tell that they will be much in the air.
In the "Court of Last Appeal", the laboratory where the contents of the stomachs of birds is examined, man finds service invaluable to man, for which but little credit has been given, has been rendered by these birds. Aside from the laboratory counts of stomach contents, research on food habits of hawks and owls has been facilitated by the fact that when they eat small mammals they roll the bones and hair into oblong pellets in the stomach and eject this refuse from the mouth. They also regurgitate feathers, bones and gizzard linings of birds. Castings collected beneath hawk and owl roosts give accurate records of their work.
Herbert L. Stoddard, whose research work over a period of fourteen years, as he has studied and directed game management on the plantations lying between Tallahassee and Thomasville, Georgia, (some 200,000 acres in extent), and having to do particularly with the bobwhite quail, has made outstanding contributions to information regarding the food habits of hawks.—Florida Conservator.
Did You Know
Nebraska means "Flat Water"?
Nebraska is fifteenth in area?
Nebraska has five state parks?
Nebraska has thirteen railroads?
Arbor day was founded in Nebraska?
Nebraska has eleven legal holidays?
Nebraska's population is 1,366,963?
The state flower is the golden rod?
Nebraska has nine important rivers?
Nebraska has no bonded indebtedness?
Dakota county has ten extinct towns?
Nebraska was surveyed first in 1837?
Bellevue is the oldest existing town?
Nebraska's highest altitude is 5,342 feet?
Nebraska sent 47,801 men to the World war?
Nebraska is the central state of the union?
Nebraska gained its first railroad in 1863?
Nebraska City is the first incorporated town?
"Equality Before the Law" is Nebraska's motto?
Nebraska is the fifteenth in size among the states?
Nebraska observes State day officially, March 1?
Nebraska's first military post was Fort Atkinson?
Nebraska is carved out of the Lousiana purchase?
Nebraska has assessed valuation of $'2,059,678,928?
Nebraska has more river mileage than any other state?
Nebraska's farm acreage approximates 44,708,565 acres?
About 35 per c~nt of the state still is in native sod?
The first attempt to make Nebraska a state was in 1860?
Nebraska has one national monument, Scott's Bluff, a bluff?
The annual value of pelts in this state is about $2,000,000?
Nebraska has 33 senatorial and 100 representative districts?
Nebraska territory was five times as large as Nebraska state?
Nebraska was voted into the union by 1,000 extra local votes?
Sioux county has the most cattle in proportion to population?
More than 87 per cent of Nebraska's population is native born?
Daniel Freeman took the initial U. S. homestead near Beatrice?
Nebraska had a road building program in 1852, a government job?
Coranado and his men were the first white visitors in Nebraska?
Nebraska's oldest library is the state library, dating from 1854?
The commencement of the Oregon trail was made in Nebraska in 1813?
Nebraska .ias lived under three foreign flags, Spanish, French, and English?
Cherry county, in which Connecticut would fit, is Nebraska's biggest?
Nebraska's geographical center is ten miles northwest from Broken Bow?
Nebraska's schools employ 13,258 teachers for more than 321,468 students?
Bullheads, channel cat, carp, trout, and bass play in Nebraska streams?
New England and New Jersey could be placed within the state's boundaries?
The fifth of Nebraska's capitols is completed, costing $10,000,000?
Nebraska is the site of the last great battle between the Pawnees and Sioux?
Camels, elephants, tapirs, and other jungle dwellers once lived here?—Lincoln Journal & Star.
Where To Go in Nebraska
A Directory of State Recreation CentersCH^DRON STATE PARK
Camp in cabins in the woods in Nebraska's Biggest Park. Swimming, horseback riding, skyline hiking, playgrounds.
A restaurant, store and saddle horses for your use. Prices and rentals reasonable. Write for rates and reservations.
Address, Mrs. A. E. Speer, Supt., Chadron, Neb.NIOBRARA ISLAND STATE PARK
Visit Nebraska's new state park for northeastern Nebraska. Fishing, camping, picnicking. Splendid shade. A good place to enjoy the Indian and Missouri River country. Located near Niobrara, Nebr.PIBAL LAKE LODGE
Fish in Pibal Lake for bass, sun-fish and bullheads. This resort is owned and operated by the State of Nebraska. Hotel with first class accommodations. Camping sites free. Boats for rental. Fishing free. Address, I. S. Boulier, Supt., Spalding, Neb.VICTORIA SPRINGS STATE P/RK
Located just off State Highway No. 2. near Anselmo, in Custer County. Cabins for rental. Camping, fi~hing, picnicking free. Address. C. O. Williams, Supt., ^nselmo, Neb.ARBOR LODGE STATE PARK
Visit America's agricultural shrine. See the o'd home of the founder of Arbor Day. Mansion open daily. Picnicking facilities free. No camping permitted at this park. Booklets describing tree**, well illustrated, excellent souvenir, price 25 cents. Park located adjacent to Nebraska City. Address. Frank Williams, Supt., Nebraska City, Nebraska.WILD CAT HILLS BIG G/ME REFUGE
Get acquainted with western Nebraska. See the famous North Platte Valley and the scenic Wild Cat Hills. Buffalo, elk, deer, etc., on exhibition.
Located on State Highway No. 29, between Gering and HarrisburgNOTE: There are many other fishing and camping recreational centers owned and operated by the Nebraska Game Commission, which are at your service free of charge.
A great many inquiries are being received regarding changes in the Nebraska Game Laws.
No changes in the game or fishing laws will take place until the middle of August, as amendments made by the present legislature do not become effective until ninety days after the bills are signed by the Governor.
Therefore the laws found in the little "ReJ Book" will be effective until the middle of August when they will be published, as amended, in the little "Blue Book''. Colors of the books are changed so that sportsmen will not be misled.
The following limits and bags on fish are now effective and will continue so until the Blue Books are ready for distribution:—
Daily Bag and Possession LimitBLACK BASS—10 inches or larger, June 10 to April 30 next ensuing.................... 15 WHITE, STRIPED OR ROCK BASS—6 inches or larger, June 10 to April 30 .............. 25 PICKEREL AND GREAT NORTHERN PIKE—15 inches or larger, May 1 to March 16___ 10 WALL EYED PIKE OR PIKE PERCH—12 inches or larger, May 15 to April 1.......... 10 TROUT—8 inches or larger, April 1 to October 31 ...................................... 15 CRAPPIE AND SUNFISH—6 inches or larger, January 1 to December 31 .............. 25 PERCH, YELLOW, WHITE AND STRIPED—6 inches or larger, Jan. 1 to Dec. 31 ...... 25 BULLHEADS—6 inches or larger, January 1 to December 31 ......................... 25 CATFISH—12 inches or larger, January 1 to December 31 .............................. 25 SPEARING—Non-game fish, April 1 to December 1 between sunrise and sunset.
NOTE—It shall be unlawful for any person or persons to have in his or her possession at any one time a total of more than 25 of the major game fish to-wit: Bass, Pike, Pickerel, Trout, and Catfish or to have in his or her possession at any one time in excess of 50 game fish of all kinds. Of such totals there shall be no more of any one kind than the daily creel limit herein specified.
NOTE—On State owned lakes bag limit of fish is fixed each year by the Commission. Look for sign at lake giving bag limit.
There's Health, Rest and Fun at CHADRON STATE PARK
NEBRASKA'S FOREST PLAYGROUNDSCabins in the woods Swimming Horesback Riding Skyline Hiking Picnic Shelters
You will find hundreds of acres of pine forests where the nights are cool and exhilarating. Camp in your own tent or rent a cabin. Eight; miles south of Chadron on State Highway No. 19.Vacation Time Is Here!
It is now time for you to relax—to get out of doors for a few days.
Why not go to Nebraska's Own Great Park—Chadron Park—this year?
Perhaps you do not know that you can enjoy yourself right in your own state park. Beautiful Pine Ridge scenery, excellent water, comfortable cabins, swimming, sky-line hiking or horse-back riding, rustic picnic shelters, play grounds, restaurant, store—everything to please the visitor.
There are 800 acres of pine forests ready for you. Cabins (some with fireplaces) off in the woods away from the crowds. Good roads and trails where you can go by car or afoot.
Keep your vacation money in your own state where it will come right back to you! See the Pine Ridge country this year!
Rates are reasonable.
See Nebraska this year! Make Chadron State Park your northwest headquarters. Write now for rates and reservations.MRS. A. E. SPEER, Supt. Chadron State Park Chadron, Nebr.