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Outdoor Nebraska

WINTER 1935 No. 1 Vol. X



Commission Reports On Activities For Past Two Years

THE following is a report of the Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission for the two years, 1933 and 1934, made by Frank B. O'Connell, Secretary:

At the beginning of 1933 the members of the Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, State of Nebraska, were as follows:

Hon. Charles W. Bryan, Governor and Chairman.

Hon. E. R. Purcell, Broken Bow, term expiring January 15, 1934.

Hon. J. B. Douglas, Tecumseh, term expiring January 15, 1937.

Hon. George B. Hastings, Grant, term expiring January 15, 1935.

Hon. Guy R. Spencer, Omaha, terra expiring January 15, 1936.

On January 15, 1933, Hon. M. M. Sullivan, Spalding, was appointed for a term of five years, the term of Hon. F. A. Baldwin, Ainsworth, expiring.

On January 15, 1934, Hon. W. J. Tiley, North Platte, was appointed for a term of five years, the term of Hon. E. R. Purcell, Broken Bow, expiring.

All commissioners furnished the necessary bond as required by law and same were properly placed on file in the office of Secretary of State.


During the biennium, nine meetings of the Commission were held, the minutes of which were recorded, approved and are now on file in the office of the commission.

At the beginning of the biennium, a Ten-Year Program was unanimously adopted by the Commission, its purpose being to have a business and scientific plan of management of all outdoor resources in the State of Nebraska.


In order to carry out the many phases of the work to better advantage, the Commission appointed the following committees for the biennium:

Vice-Chairman, E. R. Purcell, 1933; George B. Hastings, 1934.

Administration and Revenue Committee; Douglas (Chairman) Hastings and O'Connell.

Hatcheries Committee; Spencer (Chairman), Douglas and O'Connell.

Game Reserves Committee; Sullivan (Chairman), Spencer and O'Connell.

Lakes and Recreation Grounds Committee; Hastings (Chairman), Purcell, Tiley, Sullivan, and O'Connell.

Forestation Committee; Sullivan (Chairman), Purcell, Tiley, and O'Connell.

State Parks Committee; Hastings (Chairman), Purcell, Tiley, and O'Connell.

Education Committee; Douglas, (Chairman), Spencer, Tiley, and O'Connell.

Commissioner's Per Diem and Expenses

As required by law, each Commissioner receives $10.00 a day for such time as devoted to the work of the Commission, but in no case to exceed thirty (30) days in any one year. Each Commissioner also receives his necessary travel expenses for attending meetings and for inspection work. Several Commissioners put in more than thirty days in one year, but in no case did any Commissioner receive pay for more than thirty days in any one year.

During the two years of the biennium covered by this report, the per diem and expenses of the several Commissioners were as follows:

Year of 1933 Commissioner Expense Per Diem M. M. Sullivan ............$137.33 $180.00 E. R. Purcell.............. 363.20 300.00 George B. Hastings .... 328.00 260.00 J. B. Douglas .............. 91.51 150.00 Guy R. Spencer ______ 198.99 130.00 Frank B. O'Connell .... 443.97 ............ Year of 1934 Commissioner Expense Per Diem J. B. Douglas ..............$150.00 $173.30 Geo. B. Hastings ........ 178.00 224.78 W. J. Tiley .................. 165.00 133.08 Guy R. Spencer .......... 110.00 151.08 M. M. Sullivan ............ 120.00 154.70 Frank B. O'Connell .... 635.41 Reduction of Salaries

Owing to the state-wide drouth, the receipts of the Game Commission during the year of 1934 fell off considerably and therefore on November 1, 1934, the Commission reduced all salaries ten per cent, including their own per diem. This reduction became effective December 1, 1934, and will continue until the end of the biennium, i. e. June 30, 1935.


During the two years, of this biennium, permits issued were as follows: 1933 1934

Resident Hunt and Fish ................138,926 *120,000 Non-Resident Hunt and Fish ................ 453 *300 Non-Resident Fish .... 1,455 *1,200 Resident Trapping .... 4,089 *5,000 Alien Fishing ............ 7 ..5 Game Bird Breeding.. 395 410 Fur-Bearing Animal Breeding .... 197 179 Fur Buying ................ 101 197 Game Fanciers.......... 89 97 Missouri River Commercial Fishing 236 228 Fish Vendors.............. 14 15 Private Fish Hatcheries .............. 27 22 Scientific Permits ...... 30 29 Pheasant Damage ...... 25 15 Beaver Damage ........ 339 306 Muskrat Damage ...... 12 6 * (Estimated Figures) Receipts

During the two calendar years, the following receipts were collected:

Year of 1934 Sale of Permits..................$168,034.02 Sale of Fish........................ 3,328.31 Sale of Confiscated Articles 568.28 Liquidated Damages............ 385.00 Miscellaneous ...................... 583.49 Concessions, Arbor Lodge State Park ...................... 109.53 Concessions, Chadron State Park ...................... 1,475.00 (continued on page 8) HIGH SPOTS OF 1933-1934

Among the achievements of the Game Commission during 1933- 1934 were the following:

Adopted ten-year program.

Established two new parks.

Enlarged and improved Chadron Park.

Constructed three new lakes.

Improved twelve Recreation Grounds.

Improved two Hatcheries.

Helped secure a U. S. Migratory Waterfowl Grounds.

Opened to fishing three Recreation Grounds.

Made 775 arrests.

Collected $10,559.15 in fine? and damages.

Carried on Educational and Scientific program.

Planted 13,000 pheasants.

Reared and planted over 200,000 channel catfish.

Planted over 5,000,000 fish.

Kept all budgets balanced.


Nebraska Bird Feeding Campaign Big Success

NEBRASKA sportsmen and bird lovers are carrying on one of the most successful feeding campaigns ever undertaken in the Middle West. Over one hundred tons of grain has been made available with another hundred tons that could easily have been secured if the weather had remained cold and the snow deep.

Perhaps no solicitation of funds in recent years has been given more enthusiastic and cheerful support than was given this effort to see that pheasants, quail, prairie chickens and grouse did not perish. Owing to the extended drought last summer many counties were without the usual waste grain and weed seed upon which the birds depend. In December heavy snow fell in a number of counties in the north-central section of the state. It became apparent at once that the birds there must have help, and that if snow fell later in other sections that there would be a great loss of breeding stock.

When the first news reached the Nebraska Game Commission that the birds were suffering, a campaign was begun at once. Owing to limited funds and man power, the Commission felt that it would have to ask the cooperation of sportsmen and citizens generally. This was done and the response was most gratifying. Within ten days feeding committees were being organized in most of the drought territory and feed was on the way to the birds. The snow melted rapidly, however, and as it disappeared the emergency lessened.

Great interest was taken in raising the funds as well as in the actual feeding. The Game Commission secured ten thousand small bags carrying the appeal, "HELP US FEED THE BIRDS". These bags filled with grain could be sold for ten cents each. These empty bags were sent to all parts of the state where many were filled and where in the cities donations were received to fill the bags.

Many organizations as well as publicspirited citizens joined in the campaign with the result that over twenty-five thousand people did their bit. The Nebraska Division of the Izaak Walton League, the Nebraska Fish and Game Association, the Nebraska Sportsmens Association, the American Legion of Nebraska, the Junior Chambers of Commerce, hunting clubs, and luncheon clubs all gave fine support and cooperation.

Donations for the most part were small, in sums ranging from ten cents to a dollar. That was the way the Commission desired, as it was felt it would be better for a large number of persons to contribute small sums than to depend on a few to give a considerable sum. However, some donations as high as twenty-five dollars were received from individuals. Donations were received from points as distant as New York and Washington, D. C.

It is believed that this compaign will not only serve to save many of our game birds this winter, but that it will bring about a better feeling and understanding between the sportsman and the farmer. Some of the best pheasant hunting grounds were in the drought section this year. Farmers living there were very pleased to learn that the sportsmen in other parts of the state were willing to do their part, and that they understood the important part the farmer plays in the propagation and conservation of game.

The Nebraska Game Commission had intended to publish the names of all donors to the campaign, but so many just dropped coins in boxes, bags, etc., it is impossible to do this. Then too, a number of counties have local funds which arei not recorded in the office at Lincoln. However, the following sum of money and grain has been contributed to the office of the Secretary of the Game Commission at Lincoln:

Cash ....................$967.11 Grain ..................16,279 lbs.

A full and complete financial report of all contributions, expenditures, etc., will be made in the next issue of Outdoor Nebraska.


For a number of years farmers in Cheyenne and Kimball counties have been complaining to state officials and others, about the increasing damage to their crops caused by numerous herds of antelope that spend all or a part of each year in their communities. The farmers complain that the herds of antelope which apparently grow larger each year destroy fences which have been constructed to protect stacks of hay and other feed, and that they go over fences surrounding winter and spring fields as though no fence were in existence.

Earlier this fall farmers in Cheyenne county complained about the damage that was being done to their already short feed supplies and asking state officials to do something about the matter. It is said that the animals come into westei-n Nebraska counties from Colorado, where they are believed to spend the portion of the year when they are not so numerous in this state.

During recent weeks, according to information coming from Alliance and other communities in Box Butte county, antelope herds have been causing considerable damage there. They go into a field of winter wheat, it is said, and when they leave, after being frightened away, there is nothing of value left in the field. After remaining away for a few days during which time the farmers state, the animals are in adjoining fields, they cautiously return to nip off the tender green sprouts that have survived their first visit.

It is stated that the antelope are not easily frightened from a field in which they are feeding. The state law does not allow farmers or others to kill the fleet timid appearing animals, and the amount of damage they do each year is said to be one of the big troubles with which the farmers of the counties the animals have selected for their home, is faced.

Sportsmen in the various counties in which the antelope have appeared have suggested that the state allow an open season on antelope, but up to the present time, these suggestions have not been acted upon. At one time not so long ago, the antelope, once common in this section of the world, became almost extinct, and laws were passed for their protection.—Western Nebraska Observer, Kimball.


More than 2,000 crows were killed near here recently by Grand Island sportsmen. Dynamite was used.

With eight bombs hung in a roost on the Fred Haldeman Farm ,crows fairly "rained" for a few minutes.

The work was carried on under the direction of County Engineer L. R. Rudd.


Blazing The Sky Trails For Our Waterfowl

By FREDERICK C. LINCOLN, U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey

I presume that sometimes the word "waterfowl" suggests to you the poem by William Cullen Bryant that most of us learned in our school days. You remember the poem starts out with a question:

Whither midst falling dew, While glow the heavens in their last steps of day, Far, through their rosy depths, dost thou pursue Thy solitary way?

I have been very much interested in this question for a number of years. Now I am going to tell of the way in which bird-banding has helped to answer it, and I am also going to suggest the meaning of the answers that the bird bands have brought us.

The Bureau of Biological Survey has been studying birds for almost 50 years, and ever since the beginning of the Bu/eau one of the principal subjects has been migration. Years ago Wells W. Cooke, the father of bird-migration studies in America, worked out the routes of travel of most of our migratory birds. Professor Cooke gathered a good mass of information for the Bureau, He got it from reports by bird students throughout the country, from the writings of others, and from observation. In some cases he was able to present the material in remarkable detail, but for the most part the routes he delineated were necessarily of a more or less general nature.

Today we have a method of studying bird migration that provides us with detailed information about individual birds. This is the banding method. Our cooperators trap birds throughout the country and put light, aluminum bands on the birds' legs. These bands are all numbered, and they carry the return address of the Bureau of Biological Survey. When our cooperators trap a bird that has already been banded, they send a report of the return record to us in Washington. Hunters also send us reports of the banded birds that they take. Through these bird-banding studies we have thus obtained thousands of records of the travels of birds. We know where they started from, and whither they went.

Our cooperators have banded all kinds of native birds, but we have given special attention to waterfowl because of their importance as game. As a result we have records of where many thousands of ducks have nested in the North or spent the winter in the South, and where they have been subsequently taken by hunters. By studying and mapping these records, we have been able to discover well-defined lanes of travel. When we speak of the flight line of an individual bird we call it a migration route. We have found that these migration routes blend or come together in definite geographic regions. These, we call flyways. In other words, the individual migration routes are like long trails, while the flyways resemble shorter arterial boulevards to which the routes are tributary.

Today I am particularly interested in telling you what we have learned about the flyways, because of its importance in dealing with the problem of conserving our waterfowl.

We have found that the waterfowl of North America use four major flyways. In the northern part of the continent we can not clearly define any flyways because the region is one great breeding ground. But most of our sport shooting takes place while the birds are on their wintering grounds or while they are on their way south, and in the southern part of the continent the flyways are fairly well marked. Between the southern boundary of the United States, and a line on the north that would pass through Maine and the Great Lakes and South Dakota and Oregon, there are four distinct flyways. We have named these the Atlantic, the Mississippi, the Central, and the Pacific flyways.

If I could hold a map up I could point out to you the approximate boundaries of these four major flyways. But I am not going to impose on the good luck that I do have in being able to discuss these things with you. If I tried to describe the flyways in detail I am afraid that we would get lost somewhere in the Alleghany Mountains, or cut in western Arkansas, or maybe in r.he Rocky Mountains. So I am just going to tell you that they are described and illustrated in a circular called "The Waterfowl Flyways of North America", which is on its way to the Government Printing Office. If you wish to have a copy of this circular and will write to the Bureau of Biological Survey in Washington, we will let you know when it is available.

Now, I should like to point out the significance of the fact that there are these definite flyways. The important thing is that the birds are so strongly influenced by their ancestral lanes of migration that they will continue to follow them even though conditions en route or on the wintering grounds may become distinctly adverse to their welfare. Groups of birds may share a common breeding ground, but when it comes time to go south each group starts out on the route established by the generations that traveled it before. The birds chat go down the Atlantic flyways are of the same stock that went there the year before and the years before that, and the same is true of the Mississippi flyway, and the Central and the Pacific flyways. There are exceptions, but our banding records have furnished abundant proof that for the most part the ducks adhere to their ancestral flyways.

For example: Our cooperator at Lake Merritt in California has banded several hundred ducks every year since 1926. We have received more than 550 return records of these birds, and nearly 97 per cent represent ducks that were taken within the territory of the Pacific flyway.

Data from other stations show similar conditions. The return records of ducks banded in Kansas come the nearest to showing an exception, but 85 per cent of even these represent ducks that were taken in the Central flyway.

To check our conclusions in another way, we tried an experiment with ducks trapped in Louisiana. We took these birds out of their ancestral Mississippi flyway and liberated them in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. The birds returned to their original winter quarters.

This attachment of migratory birds for their ancestral flyways is of great significance to conservationists, for it indicates that if the ducks are exterminated in one flyway it will at the best be a long time before that region is repopulated, even though ducks from other flyways continue to return to the

(continued on page 14) WATCH FOR BIRD BANDS!

Nebraska hunters are requested to watch for bands on the legs of ducks they shoot.

This article tells you why these bands are important.

If you find a band, send it to Mr. Lincoln at Washington, or, if you prefer, send it to the Nebraska Game Commission and we will forward it.

An interesting report on the bird killed will be sent to you.—The Editor.


Pollution—The Nation's Shame

By FRANK T. BELL, United States Commissioner of Fisheries

I AM grateful for this opportunity of telling my fellow Americans about a subject, while not so pleasant, nevertheless most vital to our common welfare, regardless of our walk in life. I want to speak very plainly and very frankly. When a condition prevails which threatens the health of our children and loved ones, we become immediately concerned, and then take steps to eradicate the condition, or shelter them from its contagion. We well remember the terrible epidemic of flu during the World War days, and the vigorous precautions we took in the home to protect our families. We went a step further. Our city, state and even Federal government came into the picture. We shall never forget the flu masks everyone was compelled to wear, schools were closed down, Governmental health agencies were taxed beyond capacity.

Today we are faced with another public menace, which strikes "home" to each of us. I refer to the nationwide problem of pollution of our waters. Today many of our streams and waterways which only a few years ago were defined as a flow of pure, health-giving water, may be accurately described by the definition of pollution—physically unclean, contaminated, infected, impure, unsuitable for human consumption and not even fit for fish to live in.

As cloudy and dismal as this picture is, let us look at it sanely and sensibly for if man brought about this condition, surely man can correct it.

When the American population began to increase and our industrial life expand it was only a natural development that factories would be centralized along our water courses. Our growth was so rapid and our resources so plentiful chat little thought was given to preserving our water supplies in their natural pure state. When communities were scattered and industries small, the effects of stream pollution were usually of limited extent. Our stream carried away the household wastes, the sawdust and shavings from our lumber mills, the waste liquor from our tanneries, the scrubbings from our textile mills, the drainage from our mines, and once they were removed from immediate notice were soon forgotten. But today, the picture has changed entirely. Individuals and communities can no longer livd to themselves alone, for domestic and industrial wastes are produced in such great volume that in many coastal and interior waters, their damaging effects are projected down stream through several states, and the problem of control, both from a view of puolic health and from the point of view of conservation of natural resources, becomes of national rather than local interest. This applies equally to sewage and industrial waste.

Just what conditions do we now find? One of our eastern cities alone dumps 95,000,000 gallons of human waste and sewage a day into one of cur most beautiful, historical rivers. Another inland city throws 600. to 800 tons of raw garbage a day into one of our great rivers; one of our eastern states releases daily into its streams 3,000,000 pounds of concentrated sulfuric acid, one of the deadliest known poisons, with the result all fish life has been killed and its devastating effect is seen 500 miles down the river where all mussel life has been exterminated; another state, whose tributaries feed into the same river artery, deposits 5,000,000 pounds of this same deadly poison, with a result that the artery itself must carry 8,000,000 pounds daily where it is obvious no fish life can live; in one western state, 50 miles of the most picturesque mountain stream, which otherwise would be as beautiful a trout stream as could be found anywhere in the country, is entirely devoid of all fish or aquatic life because of mine wastes, and 6 lakes touched by this water are likewise barren of all life; two or three of our principal inland rivers on which several large cities depend for their drinking water supply have now been polluted to such an extent that by the existing methods of water purification, namely chlorine, it is barely possible to obtain water suitable for human consumption; and with the population growing, industries increasing, we have reached the very peak of reasonable safety; one of our own Bureau of Fisheries vessels, when tieing up at one of our principal inland wharfs, has to attach a pipe to shore water, because the river water is not only unfit for use in washing one's hands, but is so vile that we do not dare pump the same through the engines.

I know these few examples may prove shocking, but we must face realities and consider the problem in the light of cold reason and scientific knowledge, without emotional appeal.

Now that we have arrived, so to speak, what are we going to do about it?

Control of streams is vested in the States themselves and the only Federal jurisdiction is the War Department's authority to keep navigable waterways suitable for navigation purposes. This, in the common sense analysis, resolves itself down to the eradication of oil pollution, and it is obvious that oil pollution must become very flagrant before it seriously menaces water commerce.

We do not have to investigate very far to quickly see that control of pollution is an interstate problem, and if its dreaded advance is to be checked, for the well-being of our people, some interstate compact must be formed. Our commercial waterways cannot be kept free from contamination when the tributaries flowing into them from the several states are not protected from pollution. Similarly, it is of no use for one state to check the menace, when a state above it does nothing. Likewise, a very practical aspect of the condition grows out of our industrial approach.. Unless all states are united, unfair competition in industries arises. Why should a state by creating laws prohibiting water contamination, lose industries who threaten to move to an adjoining state which permits them to dump acids, offal and other industrial waste into its streams.

No single national body has ever given adequate attention to the problem of stream pollution from the point of view of conservation. The National Health Service is concerned chiefly with the sanitary and health aspects of pollution; the War Department, alluded to, has interest only in navigational aspects; the Bureau of Standards has from time to time conducted research on reclaiming trade wastes in order to produce byproducts; the Bureau of Mines has done excellent work in preventing stream pollution from mine wastes. But none of these activities go far enough to safeguard either human or aquatic life.

Nationwide interest in this problem has been aroused. On December 6th Senator Augustine Lonergan of Connecticut, in conjunction with the Hon. D'Arcy Magee,, of Washington, D. C, national vice-president of the Izaak Walton League, called federal officials having authority in water uses, along with the outstanding conservationists of this country, into conference with the Secretary of War, and there was launched a movement to coordinate the various governmental agencies, both state and national in a war on pollution. In April of this year, it was my privilege to call

(continued on page 14)


Official Publication of The Nebraska State Game Forestation and Parks Commission COMMISSIONERS R. L. Cochran, Chairman Guy R. Spencer M. M. Sullivan J. B. Douglas W. J. Tiley George B. Hastings Frank B. O'Connell '&^MM. EDUCATION & PUBLICATION COMMITTEE J. B. Douglas, Chairman Frank B. O'Connell EDITOR Frank B. O'Connell Vol. X WINTER, 1935 No. 1 The Commission's Program GAME: Statewide pheasant hunting. Rehabilitation of the quail. Stocking of Hungarian partridge. Reserves and feeding grounds for migratory waterfowl. Public shooting grounds. FISH: Fish for every angler. Reduced cost and common sense business in fish production. Good fishing at state-owned lakes where public can fish free. Preservation of lakes. RECREATION: A statewide system of recreation grounds for Nebraska citizens. Shade and picnicking facilities at fishing lakes. Conservation of Nebraska's outdoors. LAW ENFORCEMENT: Equality for all. Constant war against the despoiler and destroyer of wild life. Strict observance of game laws by all citizens. EDUCATION: Appreciation of Nebraska's outdoors through education. Make the boys and girls of tomorrow lovers of wild creatures and nature's handiwork. Cooperation of all citizens to the end that Nebraska shall have suitable recreation and wholesome outdoor activities. Program of forestation throughout Nebraska. GENERAL: Full value to the purchaser of hunting and fishing permits. Square deal to farmers and sportsmen. Stabilization of water in Platte River.


The Nebraska sandhills are now coming into their own as an important duck breeding area. It has only been recently that the Nebraska Game Commission has been able to convince federal authorities that the many sandhill lakes were not only important as "filling stations" in annual migrations, but for breeding grounds as well.

The Nebraska sandhill lakes and marshes along with certain marshes in Iowa, are the south-most part of the vast duck-breeding section which extends north into Canada. In these lakes many teal, pintails, and mallards breed each summer. Then in the spring and fall, these lakes are the "bottle-neck" so to speak, of a flight which splits up and spreads out after leaving Nebraska. Nebraska already has one large sanctuary in Garden County which serves the western part of the hills. With another large one in Cherry County we should be able to do our part in conserving the waterfowl of North America.

The Nebraska Commission feels, as do the scientists at Washington, that the Cherry County lakes are among the very best from a biological viewpoint. In 1931 the Commission made a survey of the lakes which are now to become a part of the Cherry County sanctuary. This survey covered both animal and plant life. They found abundant growths of wild rice, big bulrush, spike rush, wapato, sedge, pondweed and other plants upon which ducks feed. Thousands of ducks can be hatched there, and hundreds of thousands accommodated in their annual flights.

While Nebraska is cooperating with the federal government and placing several important state-owned lakes in the sanctuary, the Commission is making it very plain to Washington authorities that they are reserving all fishing rights for the State of Nebraska. Fishing is an important recreation in Cherry County and it must be saved for Nebraska fishermen. However, this does not conflict with duck-breeding, as certain reedy areas will be set aside for the ducks where fishermen will not want to fish.

Three years ago the Nebraska Game Commission diverted the Gordon Creek into these lakes. Efforts are now being made to take water from the Snake River, also the Boardman Creek. If these two streams can be utilized, this sanctuary will rank first among those of North America.


Our New Chief


We take pleasure in this issue, in presenting our New Chief, Koy L. Cochran, who as Governor becomes Chairman of the Game, Forestation and Parks Commission.

Governor Cochran is well known to all citizens of Nebraska. He is a native son, born in Cass County and reared in Lincoln County. The son of pioneers and reared in "Buffalo Bill Country", he has a fine appreciation and a sympathetic interest in the conservation of our natural resources. He likes to fish and nearly every summer goes to the Cherry County lakes.

While Governor Cochran has been primarily interested in building Nebraska's great road system, he has also had an important part in the conservation of Nebraska's water resources. For a number of years, when he served as State Engineer, he worked with the Game Commission in the development of lakes, recreation grounds, parks, etc., and has a broad knowledge of the potentialities of such resources.



(continued from page 2) Concessions, Victoria Springs State Park .......... 226.13 Concessions, Stolley State Park ........................ 16.00 Collected from old accounts (prior years) .... 420.49 Total ........"..,..................$175,146.25 Year of 1934 Sale of Permits ..................$148,158.00 Sale of food fish ................... 793.40 Sale of Game Fish.............. 197.50 Sale of Confiscated Articles 599.00 Liquidated Damages ............ 559.90 Miscellaneous .................... 550.21 Concessions, Arbor Lodge State Park ........................ 115.71 Concessions, Chadron State Park...................... 2,223.60 Concessions, Victoria Springs State Park ........ 127.72 Collected old accounts (prior years) .................. 405.48 Total ..............................$153,730.11

Losses in collections during 1933 were reduced the lowest of any year since the Commission has been administering the affairs of the department. Out of the total of $164,585.00 collected as of October 31, 1934, the sum of $312.08 was still uncollected. Losses were due to the following reasons:

Closed banks..............$ 37.08 Unsold Permits lost in transit..........H...... $ 83.00 Unsold permits burned a/c fires .................. 26.00 County Clerks adjustments on subaccounts ................ 35.00 Uncollected accounts .. 240.00 Total ......................$312.08 $169.00

It will be noted that the entire losses, even including lost and burned unsold permits, adjustments, etc., are approximately on!e-fourth of one per cent whereas the amount actually due the department in dollars and cents is the sum of $312.08. Part of this we hope to still collect, but if none were collected, our total losses would be approximately one-sixth of one per cent.

It is impossible at this time to estimate the losses that may be incurred in the collecting of accounts for 1934 since our books are not closed until after the end of the calendar year. However, we have suffered no major losses of any kind and there have been very few bank failures during the past year.

As of December 31, 1934, we collected the sum of $153,730.11. We estimate $10,000.00 still on our books. Therefore, the total receipts for the biennium should be approximately $338,876.36.

Emergency Conservation Works Activities

Through the efforts of the Governor six Emergency Conservation Work Camps and two joint camps with the Forestry Service were secured for Nebraska. Three of these camps worked in parks and four were for the construction of lakes.

The Chadron State Park and the Niobrara State Park and Game Reserve were greatly improved through the use of these camps. The work at Chadron State Park has been completed and 800 acres is now open to the public; with excellent facilities available for outdoor recreation.

The Niobrara State Park and Game Reserve is still under construction. It will be completed in the summer of 1935. This will give northern Nebraska a well-developed park with excellent facilities.

During the present administration, a new park has been added. This was made possible through the cooperation of the American Legion and citizens of Dixon County who donated 200 acres to the State. This park is located on the upper Missouri in historic trapping country, and is now under construction and will be finished during the summer of 1935.

The recreation grounds in Cass County, located near Louisville, and in Dodge County, located near Fremont, through E. C. W. Camps have been greatly improved and are now open to the public.

A large lake was constructed near Parks, Nebraska, in Dundy County by the Emergency Conservation Work and will be open to the public for the fishing season of 1935. Lakes located near Hayes Center in Hayes County and Ravenna in Buffalo County are now under construction by these camps and will be completed during the summer of 1935.

Civil Works Administration Activities

During the biennium the Game and Parks Commission cooperated with the Civil Works Administration and were among the first agencies in Nebraska to put these men to work. Under the direction of the Chairman of the Commission, the following improvements were made at state parks, lakes and recreation grounds, and game reserves under this activity:

Victoria Springs State Park (Custer County) : Clearing, lake improvement, construction of several buildings, sawing 7000 feet of lumber.

Stolley State Park (Hall County): Clearing, construction of camping facilities, flower beds, etc.

Wild Cat Hills Game Reserve (Scotts Bluff County) : Construction of nearly a mile of big-game fence and construction of three dams.

Oxford Lake Recreation Grounds (Furnas County) : Clearing, road construction, etc.

Pressey Recreation Grounds (Custer County): Clearing, construction of a building, laying out paths, and construction of fish nurseries.

Pibel Lake Recreation Grounds (Wheeler County) : Improvement of roads, widening dam, filling, and clearing-

Loup City Recreation Grounds (Sherman County) : Construction of a road, clearing, repairing dam, etc.

Wellfleet Recreation Grounds (Lincoln County) : Improvement of the dam, building roads, planting trees, grading, etc.

Alexandria Recreation Grounds (Thayer County): Improvement of dams, improvement of road, tree culture, etc.

Frye Lake Recreation Grounds (Grant County) : Improvement of roads, fencing, etc.

Verdon Lake Recreation Grounds (Richardson County) : Improvement of dam, riprapping, improvement of road, clearing, etc.

State Fisheries, Parks (Dundy County) Nebraska: Improvement of dams, riprapping and general hatchery improvement.

State Fisheries, Valentine (Cherry County) Nebraska: Improvement of dams, clearings, road construction and general hatchery improvement.

Louisville Recreation Grounds (Cass County): Construction of road, clearing, general improvement.

Arbor Lodge State Park (Otoe County) : Trimming trees, road improvement, painting, improvement of mansion and park in general, filling, etc.

Cottonmill Lake Recreation Grounds (Buffalo County) : Road construction, riprapping of dam, etc.

Fremont Recreation Grounds (Dodge County) : Planting and care of trees, sowing of grass, general improvement.

Gretna State Fisheries (Sarpy County) : Quarrying of 10,000 cubic feet of limestone, transporting, riprapping, building ponds and necessary installation of pipes and fittings, construction of hatching and feeding troughs, painting buildings, inspecting and repairing   OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 9 electrical equipment, re-painting and repairing fence, clearing and general improvement.

Cooperation With The Bureau of Biological Survey

Close cooperation has been maintained with the Bureau of Biological Survey and negotiations are well under way for the establishing of a large migratory waterfowl sanctuary in Cherry County. The Game Commission has offered to allow several of its lakes to be used for sanctuaries and to aid in every way in obtaining such; a sanctuary, though reserving to the state all rights of fishing.

Assistance has also been given in the administration of the Crescent Lake Migratory Waterfowl Sanctuary in Garden County. The regulations pertaining to fishing have been put into effect and aid given the federal authorities in the improvement of this sanctuary.

New Lakes and Recreation Grounds

During the biennium new recreation grounds have been obtained and developed and a number of lakes opened to public fishing.

Guide Rock, Webster County. This recreation grounds was obtained through the cooperation of local citizens in securing a lease to state school land. During the) spring of 1934 a lake was constructed here primarily through the use of C. W. A. labor and it will probably be opened to the public in 1935.

Wellfleet Recreation Grounds, located in Lincoln County, containing a lake of over 80 acres was opened to public fishing in the spring of 1934. This lake is well-stocked to provide excellent fishing.

Arnold Recreation Grounds, located in Custer County, containing a lake of 25 acres was opened to the public in the spring of 1933. This lake provides good fishing and excellent camping and fishing facilities.

Alexandria Lake Recreation Grounds, located in Thayer County, which contains three small terraced lakes, was opened to the public in the spring of 1933.

Verdon Lake Recreation Grounds, located in Richardson county, contains a lake of 25 acres and has excellent picknicking facilities. This lake and recreation grounds was opened to the public in the spring of 1933.

In addition to the above recreation grounds opened to the public during the biennium, all other recreation grounds throughout the state were kept well stocked with fish and in good condition, for public use.


Arbor Lodge State Park

Thousands of Nebraska people visited Arbor Lodge State Park during the biennium. Attendance estimated during the two years was well over 75,000. Several hundred picnics of fraternal orders, schools, churches, etc., were held while family picnics and reunions were estimated at several thousand. Considerable improvement and repair of the mansion and grounds was made during the biennium through the use of Civil Works Administration labor. This work consisted of leveling and dressing lawns, making fills, removing diseased and aged trees, repairing masonry in the Arboretum and formal gardens, painting and repairing the mansion and resurfacing drives.

Chadron State Park

This park was opened to the public in the spring of 1934 following a year's work by an E. C. W. Camp. A number of new cabins, shelters, roads and scenic trails were provided as well as a new water system and complete landscaping of the grounds.

Attendance during the biennium was estimated at over 100,000 in spite of the fact that the 1934 attendance was less than 1933 because of a new highway leading to the park which was under construction during most of the summer months.

This park today has the finest equipment in every way and is one of the most attractive in the middle west.

Victoria Springs State Park

Attendance at Victoria Springs State Park during the biennium ia estimated at 50,000 persons. A large number of picnics, public gatherings, etc., used the facilities of this park. During the biennium considerable improvement was made at this park. Cabins were constructed and opened to the public, large quantities of poison ivy, brush and woods were removed from the park. The lake was improved, part of it being finished off for swimming and the small beach was graveled. A building for storage purposes, septic tank, cesspool and bathroom fixtures for the residence were installed.

Stolley State Park

At Stolley State Park the attendance was estimated for the biennium at 50,000 persons. During the two-year period, picnic grounds were enlarged, additional tables, benches and seats were provided. A horse-shoe pitching court and enlarged flower gardens were features added to this park.

In the summer of 1934 this park experienced a disastrous drouth endangering the lives of many trees of more than a quarter century of age. A complete and up-to-date irrigation system was installed and undoubtedly thousands of these trees were saved.

Fort Kearney State Park

During the biennium a large planting of trees was made at Fort Kearney State Park, but owing to the drouth, a considerablq loss was experienced. These were replaced and most of them are now growing in a favorable condition. A lead-in from the public highway was constructed so that the public would have access to the picnic area of the park.

Niobrara State Park and Game Reserve

This park is now under construction. An Emergency Conservation Works Camp has been employed here since the spring of 1934 and will continue until the spring of 1935. When this work is completed, over 600 acres will be opened to the public with fishing and boating lagoons, scenic trails, etc. This park will undoubtedly be among the best parks in the middle west.

Ponca State Park

During the biennium a tract of 220 acres on the bluffs of the Missouri River in Dixon County was presented to the Commission by the American Legion and other citizens of Dixon County. Through the efforts of the Governor, an E. C. W. Camp was obtained. Construction work began in October, 1934, and will continue until the summer of 1935. This park is located in the historical section of the Missouri River, reminiscent of old trapping days and will undoubtedly attract many thousands of visitors in years to come.


During the biennium the Game and Parks Commission cooperated with federal authorities in the distribution of trees from the federal forest nurseries. They have also carried on considerable forestry on state-owned lands. In 1933, twelve different plantings were made throughout the state and care and attention were given to ten plantings made prior to that time. During 1934 several additional plantings were made with care and attention being given to many others throughout the state.

Law Enforcement

During the biennium, fifteen game wardens were employed. All of these officers were required to wear uniforms as much as possible in their contact with the public and all of them were under bond. Each officer is required to carry a field diary giving complete information regarding his daily activities, expenditures, etc.

The result of the wardens work during the biennium is as follows:

  10 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA Law Enforcement 1933 1934 Arrests .................. 387 389 Complaints investigated ...... 833 750 Articles confiscated ____ 1,070 640 Liquidated Damages Collected..........$ 450.00 $ 899.90 Fines Collected for School Funds ....$4,045.75 $'5,163.50 Fish Salvaged by Wardens ............ 157,220 500,000 Permits Checked .. 12,000 11,000 Special Investigations .... 480 430 Educational and Scientific Activities

Believing that education is one of the best methods of promoting conservation of natural resources as well as instilling a respect for law, the Commission carried on considerable education work during the biennium.

A library of motion picture films portraying Nebraska's outdoors has been circulated throughout the state where it has been viewed by many schools, conservation organizations, luncheon clubs, etc. During each quarter of the two years a magazine, "Outdoor Nebraska", has been published. Eighty thousand copies are distributed without cost to libraries, schools, outdoor organizations and individuals interested in the conservation of outdoor resources.

During the biennium 45,000 copies of a folder called "Outdoors in Nebraska" have been distributed. This is a guide setting forth Nebraska's many lakes, parks, recreation grounds, places of historic interest, etc. Many of these have been placed in the hands of tourist bureaus throughout the country to attract visitors to Nebraska.

A Tourist Map and Park Guide was published in 1934 giving complete authentic information about Nebraska state parks. Seven thousand five-hundred of these have been distributed throughout the state.

A small booklet giving information about Arbor Lodge State Park, selling for twenty-five cents a copy, has been distributed from Arbor Lodge State Park.

Other additional pamphlets such as Game Laws, Open Seasons, Hunting Hours, Notice of Federal Open Season on Migratory Waterfowl, etc., have been published from time to time during the biennium.

Some scientific research work has been carried on by the Commission. Over one-hundred Bob-white quail were gathered from various sections of the state during the winter of 1933-34 and sent to the Smithsonian Institute at Washington as part of a nation-wide survey being made regarding these birds. This work in Nebraska was carried on jointly between the Game Commission and Professor Myron Swenk of the University of Nebraska.


During the biennium, six counties in southeastern Nebraska were stocked with pheasants. Over 13,000 were trapped in central Nebraska and transplanted in these counties as follows:

Richardson....................2,670 Pawnee ..........................2,120 Nemaha........................2,096 Johnson........................2,360 Otoe..............................1,083 Gage ..............................2,827 Total........................13,156

A few small plantings for experimental purposes were made on game reserves, etc.


Hatcheries and Nurseries

During the biennium the Game Commission operated four major fish hatcheries and a number of nurseries. These plants produced a large number of fish which were later distributed throughout the state.

Catfish Propagation

During this two-year period, for the first time in the history of Nebraska we were able to artificially propagate channel catfish on a large scale. Through the use of C. W. A. labor, hatching equipment was installed at the Gretna State Fisheries and during the summer, 225,000 channel catfish eggs were hatched. Owing to lack of proper food until they reached a size of five to six inches part of these fish were released, the balance placed in natural waters throughout the state. It is highly desirable that these fish be held in nurseries until they are five or six inches long and then released in natural waters.

1933 Fish Distribution

During 1933 the following species of fish were distributed throughout Nebraska:

Bullhead ................ 838,765 Crappie .................. 389,307 Black Bass ............ 385,412 Perch...................... 432,100 Sunfish .................... 489,730 Loch Leven Trout.... 144,260 Bluegill .................. 42,280 Catfish.................... 44,606 Kock Bass ................ 19,892 Rainbow Trout ........ 98,920 Brook Trout ............ 91,286 Pickerel .................. 1,500 Total ..................2,978,058

At this time, 1934 stockings are being compiled and it is impossible to make a report on the same. Our estimates, however, are that approximately 2,000,000 fish were distributed throughout the year.


As required by law, we desire to make the following statement of conditions regarding game and fish and recommendations pertaining thereto:

Game Birds

Owing to the unprecedented drought, it will be necessary during the winter of 1934-35 to feed game birdsi in many counties. Plans are already under way to carry on this work through cooperation of the federal authorities who have agreed in some cases to furnish wastegrain from elevators and warehouses. In view of this condition, it is respectfully recommended that a complete state-wide survey of conditions be made and arrangements be made to feed pheasants, prairie chicken, grouse, and quail where necessary. It will probably be necessary for some appropriation from game funds to be made for this purpose by the Game Commission.


Owing to the drying up and disappearance of many waters heretofore containing fish, a considerable number of hatchery ponds were not opened this fall as is customary, and the fish are being held until the spring of 1935. This is being done because many lakes and ponds at the present time have such low water levels that they are in danger of freezing out during the winter. It is believed that there will be more lakes and ponds available in the spring and for that reason fish are being held over the winter in our hatcheries and nurseries. It is recommended that these be distributed in the spring, particular attention being given to those places that were completely wiped out by the drouth and winter freezings.

It is further respectfully recommended that the propagation of channel catfish be carried on with some scientific work being done during the coming year on the necessary food for these fish from the time they are one month old to six months old.

It is further respectfully recommended that when funds are available, a manuscript already compiled containing all classifications of fish in Nebraska be published by the commission for the information of fishermen and citizens in Nebraska interested in the same.



Year of 1933

On hand, State Treasury, December 31, 1932:

Game Fund ......................$ 20,370.96 Park Fund ........................ 8,486.75 Total............................$ 28,857.71 Receipts: Sale of Permits ..............$168,034.02 Sale of Fish ..................... 3,328.31 Sale of Confiscated Articles ...................... 568.28 Liquidated Damages ...... 385.00 Miscellaneous ................ 585.49 Concessions, Arbor Lodge State Park ........ 109.53 Concessions, Chadron State Park.................... 1,475.00 Concessions, Victoria Springs State Park .... 226.15 Concessions, Stolley State Park.................... 16.00 Collected from old accounts (prior years) 420.49 Total..........................$175,146.25 Expenditures: Administration ..............$ 17,707.82 Law Enforcement.......... 36,504.31 Fish Distribution............ 14,306.57 Conservation and Tield Activities .................... 13,190.25 Purchase Birds, Fish and Eggs ...................... 5,609.55 Purchase and Improvement Recreation Grounds ...................... 18,725.67 Fish Hatcheries: Gretna ........................ 7,949.64 Valentine.................. 9,594.20 Dundy County............ 12,998.14 State Parks: Arbor Lodge ................ 4,416.86 Chadron...................... 6,579.34 Victoria Springs .......... 3,063.37 Stolley ........................ 4,009.46 Niobrara Island .......... 842.83 Ft. Kearney State Park 465.36 Compensation (death and injury) .................. 1,267.55 Lapsed into general fund 18.50 Total ..........................$157,049.42


Year of 1934

On hand, State Treasury, December 31, 1933:

Game Fund ......................$ 38,232.92 Park Fund........................ 8,721.62 Total ............................$' 46,954.54 Receipts: Sale of Permits .............:$148,158.00 Sale of Food Fish............ 793.40 Sale of Game Fish.......... 197.50 Sale of Confiscated Articles ....................:... 599.00 Liquidated Damages ...... 559.90 Miscellaneous ................ 550.21 Concessions, Arbor Lodge State Park ........ 115.71 Concessions, Chadron State Park .................. 2,223.60 Concessions, Victoria Springs State Park ...... 127.72 Collected from old accounts (prior years) 405.48 Cancelled Warrant No. 16636 .................... 23.34 Total ..........................$153,753.45 Expenditures: Administration..............$ 18,958.30 Law Enforcement.......... 36,530.82 Conservation and Distribution................ 31,179.83 Lakes and Recreation Grounds .......................... 20,352.47 Fish Hatcheries: Gretna Hatchery.......... 12,256.14 Valentine Hatchery .... 12,211.15 Benkelman Hatchery .. 7,019.91 Rock Creek Hatchery .. 5,471.92 Purchase Game Birds, Fish and Eggs............ 11,266.56 State Parks: Arbor Lodge ................ 4,299.08 Chadron ...................... 13,483.03 Victoria Springs.......... 3,124.60 Stolley........................ 3,090.37 Niobrara Island .......... 346.55 Ft. Kearney................ 260.77 Total ......................$179,851.50 On hand, December 31, 1934: Game Fund......................$' 19,120.88 Parks Fund...................... 1,735.61 Total ..........................$ 20,856.49


The general situation regarding conservation in Nebraska was very tersely and effectively expressed by Mr. Frank B. O'Connell, Secretary of the Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, in a paper read by him before the Nebraska Division of the Isaak Walton League of America, convening for its Twelfth Annual Meeting at Grand Island on September 10 and 11. Mr. O'Connell said in part: "I would appeal to all forward-looking Nebraska conservationists and outdoor lovers to join hands in putting a stop to indiscriminate drainage, and to work for the restoration of lakes, swamps, lagoons, marshes and natural reservoirs. During the past decade there has been too much tinkering with Nature by half-baked experimenters not satisfied to till the land that Nature intended for that purpose. They must carry on a great program of indiscriminate drainage. They must irrigate thousands of arid acres in order to raise more agricultural products in a land burdened with agricultural surpluses. They must drain every lake, marsh and swamp, straighten every little meandering stream, rob rivers of their natural flow. They must remove and break down Nature's barriers against erosion and floods. The result of all this interference with natural laws and processes has been to leave us utterly helpless whenever we experience a dry cycle. New laws are needed to protect the state's natural resources, and to bring back the old crooked stream with its numerous 'swimmiii' holes' and sluggish movements."

The paper on the Canada Geese of Nebraska, based on hundreds of specimens taken fifty years ago, when the great Bend of the Platte River was one of the greatest concentration areas of migrating wildfowl in North America, brings to mind, by contrast, the present situation in this same area. Due to a water shortage caused by the summer's drouth, and to the utilization of the available waters of the Platte farther up that stream for irrigation purposes, the Great Bend is now practically wholly without water. Of course there is still some water in the upper branches of the Platte, but the traditional Platte River shooting grounds around Elm Creek, Kearney, Gibbon, Wood River, Grand Island, Clarks and intermediate points are now mostly broad stretches of dry sand. Only after the waters of the Loup enter the Platte below Columbus, is that stream now really a living one. The open season on waterfowl in Nebraska opened October 16 for a season of thirty consecutive days. The Nebraska Commission, adopting as a conservation and more enforceable measure this open season of consecutive days, rather than some form of a staggered season such as was adopted by nearly all of the other states, has been the recipient of much local unfavorable criticism. But under the extremely grave situation confronting numerous species of our ducks—some of which are in actual immediate danger of an early extinction—the Nebraska Commission should receive commendation, rather than condemnation, from all Nature lovers, conservationists and true sportsmen, for its more advanced policy on this matter.—The Nebraska Bird Review.



How emergency funds are being put to work for long-time benefits in connection with the administration of the Nation's wildlife resources is told in J. N. ("Ding") Darling's first annual report as Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey. The report, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, was made public today by Secretary of Agriculture Wallace.

In addition to the regular annual appropriation, says Mr. Darling, sums totalling $8,500,000 have been made available to the Bureau for a program of waterfowl restoration. With these funds breeding grounds are being restored for the ducks and geese, refuges are being established along the principle flight lanes, and improvements are being made in the areas acquired.

Pointing out that the restoration projects have fitted in well with other aspects of the national land-utilization program, Mr. Darling reports that $1,500,000 of the Bureau's emergency allotments is from funds for the withdrawal of submarginal lands; $3,500,000 is in drought-relief funds, to be used to purchase lands suitable for wildlife sanctuaries within drought-stricken regions; and $1,000,000 is from emergency conservation funds. The engineering operations to improve the areas for waterfowl purposes are being financed by a public works allotment of $2,500,000.

"The conditions most favorable to wildlife," Mr. Darling comments, "are identical with those that reduce erosion and promote flood control and soil restoration by the conservation of water resources and the production of luxuriant growths of vegetation for food and cover." The restoration program, he points out, is designed to stop the rapid decrease of wildlife that during the past half century has been hastened by the unwise appropriation of millions of acres that originally produced an abundance of game, fur bearers, and fish.

Many of the wildlife refuges already maintained by the Bureau, the chief reports, have received long-needed improvements through PWA, CWA, and ECW activities.

Among the outstanding events of the year, Mr. Darling reports that the Biological Survey completed the most exhaustive survey of waterfowl conditions ever attempted in any country. This survey was carried on throughout the United States and on important Canadian breeding grounds, and included an analysis of the abundance, movements, and food resources of the birds, and the collection of facts on baiting and other hunting practices, as a basis for hunting regulations.

Conservationists were encouraged during the year by the passage by Congress of legislation benefiting wildlife. The Seventy-third Congress authorized the establishment of fish and game sanctuaries on national forests; provided for co-ordination of interdepartmental work to insure that engineering projects that might adversely affect wildlife resources are instituted only after advice has been sought from the Bureau of Biological Survey or the Bureau of Fisheries; and required that a $1 migratory-bird hunting stamp be affixed to licenses of waterfowl hunters over the age of 16. Mr. Darling also mentions the creation of a Special Committee on Wildlife Conservation in the House of Representatives and the appointment of the President's Committee on Wildlife Restoration and the publication of its recommendations.

Close cooperation with the Civilian Conservation Corps in, the work in the forests was brought about through an investigation of wildlife conditions in eastern forests, the report states. It was agreed that the forest workers should leave certain food and cover plans for wildlife without detriment to the forestimprovement operations.

Wildlife has suffered severe losses from the severe drought, from shooting by increased numbers of hunters, and through drainage schemes that have turned favored breeding grounds into dry land. Throughout the report, Mr.Darling calls attention to the ever-decreasing numbers of many species of wildlife, but emphasizes in particular the losses in waterfowl.

Additional; funds will be made available for the purchase of refuge areas through the sale of the waterfowlhunting stamp, the report states. It is expected that from 600,000 to 1,000,000 of these stamps will be sold each hunting season. This will mean that the Bureau will have approximately as many dollars as there are stamps sold for acquisition of refuges, since 90 per cent of the) money is to be used for that purpose, while 10 per cent goes for administration, printing, and other incidentals.


Ten carefully guarded prairie chickens, strutting proudly about pens at the State Quail Farm at Pittsburg, Kansas, today have the unique distinction of being probably the most valuable specimens of America's upland game birds. The birds, four males and six females, are the first of this once widely-distributed species to be successfully reared to maturity entirely by artificial methods, according to the More Game Birds Foundation.

State game officials, scientists and expert game breeders have been experimenting for years in an effort to obtain captivity-reared prairie chickens for the purpose of propagating and, then restoring them to sections of the country they formerly roamed. While success has attended similar work with practically all species of quail, and more recently the northern ruffed grouse, disease and the inherently wild nature of the prairie chicken have proved difficult problems.

The Kansas farm's success is attributable mainly to two things, Superintendent Daniel J. Ramey declares: surgically sterilized electric incubators and brooders—and a grasshopper diet. From the eggs, secured from wild nests, to fullfledged pinnated grouse or prairie chickens, the birds are "machine-made" throughout. Previous attempts to propagate the species, with poultry fostermothers, are believed to have failed because of the susceptibility of wild birds to domestic poultry diseases.

"We doubted as much as anybody this story could ever be told and still be able to catch ourselves counting our chickens," Superintendent Ramey reports. "But, barring accidents, we will start next season with these hand-raised birds, putting us over the top of the greatest difficulty in artificial rearing of upland game birds by having tame penraised breeders. We are now hoping to be among the first to report prairie chicken eggs laid by birds in confinement."


The duck stamp for the 1935-36 hunting season will be another work of art appealing to collectors as well as to sportsmen and conservationists desiring to help in the establishment of waterfowl refuges, officials of the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey predicted in announcing receipt of a new stamp design by Frank W. Benson.

Mr. Benson, noted American painter who has been called the dean of American duck etchers, depicts three canvasbacks in their first sweep through the air after taking off from a placid surface interspersed with water plants. The drawing will be forwarded to the Post Office Department where the complete design will be made.


The second migratory-bird hunting stamp will follow the precedent established by the first one, designed by J. N. Darling, famous cartoonist "Ding" who is Chief of the Biological Survey, and the officials expressed an expectation that future stamps will continue to provide a series representing the work of prominent artists.

Like this season's stamp, which may still be purchased, the one for 1935-36 will be on sale at post offices for $1, and 90 per cent of the proceeds from the sales will be used in acquiring refuge areas in connection with the Bureau's program of waterfowl restoration. The remaining 10 per cent is used in administration of the Act of Congress authorizing the stamp and requiring that one be in the possession of every person over 16 years of age who hunts ducks, geese, or brant.


A start toward restoring to their original use the great hereditary nesting grounds of migratory waterfowl in the United States is now under way. Reporting on current progress of this work, J. Clark Salyer II, in charge of the Division of Migratory Waterfowl, Biological Survey, points out that large areas which have suffered from unwise drainage and from drought are being reclaimed in a national restoration program designed as a partial offset to the rapid decrease in the numbers of waterfowl.

Salyer explains that formerly these prairie nesting grounds in the United States extended from the Canadian border to the Ruthaven Marshes in Iowa, the Nebraska sand hills, and the Black Hills of South Dakota, northwest to Lake Bowdoin in Montana, by the Des Lacs Lakes and the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota to Mud Lake in Minnesota. "A great breeding ground, it once had the three requisites for waterfowl existence", he says. "Prairie grasses offered the highest type of nesting cover. A thousand lakes and streams and a million snow-filled potholes formerly afforded unlimited food and security. Enemies were few and casual, and the isolation was perfect. Amid such surroundings many a brood of ducklings passed the summer and was on the wing before seeing a human being."

"Today," he continues, "our part of the hereditary nesting ground has been forsaken by the birds. Man and the weather have combined to destroy what once attracted them. After the early, accustomed mobilization there in spring, the ducks and geese perforce moved on into the upper Canadian prairie region, —a natural continuation of the nesting ground—and not so desperately seared by the drought. The vast numbers of potholes and all but the deepest lakes were dry."

In Department of Agriculture Circular No. 339, entitled "A Program of Waterfowl Restoration," Salyer outlines the Biological Survey plan for restoring some of the nesting areas in this region, and reviews the work already accomplished on several of the refuges that have been established recently.

The program of restoration is being carried out under an allotment of $8,500,000 from emergency funds. This money is being used for the acquisition, improvement, and administration of wildlife refuge areas, and additional funds totaling between $500,000 and $1,000,000 annually are anticipated for later use from the sale of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp.

Twelve great nesting refuges for waterfowl have been planned to date, with a combined area of approximately 300,000 acres. It is expected that these refuges when finally conditioned, will be utilized by the birds, and will produce several million ducks each season. It is estimated that during the present generation the production of the entire north-central breeding area was 30,000,000 annually.

Conservationists, officials, individuals, and organizations in all parts of the country have evinced a spontaneous and helpful spirit of cooperation with the Bureau in the restoration program, says Salyer. With such cooperation, assistance, and support continuing, the national program of wildlife restoration, he concludes will make it possible once again for the waterfowl to occupy their hereditary nesting grounds in numbers approaching their former abundance.

Copies of Circular No 339, A Program of Waterfowl Restoration, may be obtained at 5 cents each from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.


It may seem fantastic to say that the burning of the Morro Castle came verynear costing the lives of a million or more wild ducks, but that was the sequel of the great sea catastrophe when conservationists, federal officials and others were doing some fast footwork around Washington early in November to prevent the breaking hulk from taking such a tremendous toll of wildfowl, according to the American Game Association.

The hull of the Morro Castle contained thousands of barrels of fuel oil, a deadly menace to all aquatic birds. And it was predicted that the next storm along the Jersey coast would break up the hulk, releasing the oil. This oil. loosed upon the waters just when the wildfowl flight was reaching its peak in early November, would slay great numbers. The birds alighting on the water filmed with oil are doomed. The oil sticks their feathers together and they cannot fly. Thus they starve to death.

More than a million ducks were killed in this manner, according to estimates of the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey, following the wreck of the oil laden steamship Luckenback off the Atlantic Coast three years ago.

With this danger threatening at any moment to materialize, Federal officials rushed around trying to determine who should remove the hulk and prevent the oil escaping. After much passing of the problem the job was dumped into the lap of the U. S. Army Engineer Corps. Within a few hours after the assignment was accepted by the Corps bids were invited to remove the wreck and salvage the oil. The War Department told Dr. W. C. Fields, consulting biologist, who interested himself in preventing the catastrophe, that it would make the prevention of the oil getting loose a condition of the contract for removing the hulk.

Officials of the American Game Association who also aided in preventing this disaster to wildfowl, point out that there are any number of such conservation practices that citizens throughout the United States may accomplish, particularly regarding the pollution of public waters.


Fremont—Thanks to a chance remark made by Elmer Bodell to an Omaha truck driver, pheasants and quail in this vicinity are growing fat on a dessert of stale rye bread and pumpernickle supplied by an Omaha baking company.

Bodell remarked that birds near Fremont would grow fatter were milled grain, baked in bread, added to their diet. After the truck driver said his company sold its stale bread to a stale goods store in Omaha, Bodell pressed a request thav a certain amount be brought to Fremont for feeding birds.

Since that time, the Omaha company has been sending 300 pounds of stale bread to Fremont every week.—Omaha Bee-News.



(continued from page 4)

great breeding grounds of the north.

You remember that Bryant in the poem that I took my "text" from found comfort in the thought that there was One who "from zone to zone" guided the waterfowl's flight "through the boundless sky." We can see evidence of some sort of guidance in the flights that we observe, also, but I sometimes think we are too much inclined to trust the welfare of the birds to some divine guidance and to shirk our own responsibilities. It is not enough for us merely to gather information. We must use this knowledge, and we must use it for the benefit of the birds.

Today we have indisputable evidence that the waterfowl of America have seriously decreased in numbers throughout the continent and, consequently, that we must take special precautions to prevent the extermination of these valuable species. But, in the light of what we have learned about the birds' attachment for their ancestral flyways, we must go further than that—we must prevent the extermination of the species in any of the four major regions.

It is certainly true that the annual kill of ducks must be reduced throughout the United States, but each of us must also stand willing to make special sacrifices, if need be, to maintain the ancestral flyway of the waterfowl that come to our own hunting grounds. This is the message carried to us by the bird bands.


(continued from page 5)

the conservation commissioners from the various States into conference in St. Louis, and they formed themselves into the National Planning Council of Commercial and Game Fish Commissioners, who placed at the top of their agenda, "Purification of our streams." This coordinated Federal and State agency is committed to cooperation on this movement.

The President's National Resources Board is giving its attention to the utilization of our water resources as a whole. The State planning boards are studying the problem, and with an aroused public opinion, and with industrialists, conservationists, State and Federal agencies working in close cooperation, we can conquer this noxious condition. Modern science has already shown the way. Many industrial waste products car be turned into profit. Many municipalities are taking advantage of the Governments liberal policy under Public Works Administration in assisting cities to build modern sewerage disposal plants. To the youth of the country, it is a recreational crisis and to all the rest of us an economic calamity threatening our social structure if we fail in protecting our water supplies.

Dr. Theobald Smith, President of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, whose scientific discoveries have aided in curbing epidemics of typhoid fever, cholera, malaria and yellow fever, who died in New York recently, has issued a challenge of self protection to all of us, in his timely admonition, "The American people must destroy pollution, or pollution will destroy us."


After seventeen years of closed season on Bobwhite quail, the practice of game management enabled Iowa to open the season on these gamesters in limited areas this year and Iowa expects to extend the number of areas next year, according to announcement of the American Game Association.

Sportsmen are pointing with pride to the effectiveness of practicing game management on the land. A short experimental season was had last fall on fourteen areas comprising 24,252 acres. The results of game management justified the opening of the season this year on 100 Class A Game Management Areas containing 251,519 acres.

With the progress being made in game management application it is expected that the open season on Bobwhite can be extended to include the entire state within a few years, thus, through game management, restoring the quail and the sport denied for so many years. Without the practice of game management quail were at the vanishing point, conservationists declare.

The first game management practices to restore Iowa quail were started in 1932. The next year the experimental hunts were held. 541 hunters in a total shooting period of 98 days flushed 799 coveys of Bobwhite, comprising 11,145 birds. The total bag, including cripples lost, was approximately 1782 birds. This is less than 15% of the quail population known to occupy these areas. The take could have been doubled without danger to the parent stock, research workers declare.

Subsequent study of these areas indicates that perhaps 30% of the population is about the natural loss each year in the early part of the winter. Reducing the population this much by shooting relieves the balance of the stock and takes that much drain from the available food supply. The remaining seed stock therefore is given a better chance to bear the hardships of the cold weather and come through the winter in excellent shape for breeding in the spring, officials of the Iowa State Game Department point out. The practice of game management, through the example of Iowa, is expected to spread throughout the United States and restore many species of wild life to abundance.


By W. C. McCarten A barren knoll—a windswept hill, The skies are clouded—air is chill. Down the slope the weeds are bare, The seeds all gone—no morsel there. The pheasants sit, their feathers rough, Said one old hen, "It sure is tough To face a winter without feed. It's such a little bit we need." A wise old rooster then declared, "We have no reason to be scared. Wheni sportsmen know the plight we're in Collections they will soon begin "To buy us corn and oats and wheat. They'll see that we have lots to eat. Just think how much they spend each year On guns and shells and hunting gear. "Expense to travel—nice warm togs— It costs a lot to train their dogs And what a loss that all would be Were there no game like you and me. "There'd be no ducks, there'd be no quail, No life at all along the trail. Oh, shucks, you'd think my faith I'd lost, That sportsmen might bemoan the cost. "It wouldn't take a dollar bill From each, and we would have our fill. I know the hunter—know his ways, You'll find his share he always pays. "He'll help to buy us corn and wheat, He'll see we have enough to eat. No finer being 'neath the sun Than a true sportsman with his gun."

Shelters and Feeders

The Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission recommends the following shelters and feeders which may be used in connection with the Nebraska Bird Feeding Campaign.

Shelters keep snow and cold away from birds and where they become tame enough to use them, are a help in saving of grain. Feeders are for the purpose of saving grain only.

In the building of shelters care should be used to provide means of escape from predatory animals. For that reason it is best to leave one side (south or east) completely open. Small opening may be made in the end* also so a bird cannot be cornered by stray house cats, coyotes, dogs, etc.

Shelters should be covered with brush, hay, straw, or weeds so as to make them look like natural cover. They can be cleverly disguised in such a way a bird feels at home. Old weather-beaten lumber should be used where possible.

Figure 1 and Figure 4 show shelters that can be used. Figure 1 shows both a shelter and a feeder in front of it. Figure 4 is a shelter with a shell-box feeder as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 3 is a common empty shell box converted into a feeder. It is simple and inexpensive to make and saves a great deal of food.

It is also well to placed a crow trap near feeding stations. Blue prints showing how to make a very effective crow trap will be sent on application. Write Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Help Feed The Birds

ught many counties in Nebraska are without food for our game birds. Corntcking; weeds that normally produce seeds failed to mature: in many comn. - is absolutely nothing for the birds.

The Nebraska. mission lacks the man power and funds to carry on this great program alon ' housands of birds scattered over vast areas it requires a statewide organizat, ^*v^O the work. Therefore the aid of every bird lover and especially the sportsman ** ^Sght. Those who like to hunt should help NOW, because if we lose our brood stock is winter it will in many cases take years to replace it.

Perhaps conditions in your county are not bad. If so, you should help those in the drought sections of the central and northeastern parts of Nebraska.


The first thing needed is an organization in each county to do two things: First, to raise funds or grain; secondly, to feed where necessary. This organization should cover the entire county and should function during the winter. The sooner such an organization begins to function the better.

The several counties may be organized in any way deemed advisable, to suit particular conditions. But the organization should be big enough and cover all parts of the county so every one should have an opportunity to donate either funds or grain.


The Nebraska Game Commission is furnishing little sacks, printed attractively, which hold 5 pounds of grain and sell for 10 cents. These sacks will be furnished FREE to all county organizations, sportsmen's organizations, Legion posts, women's clubs, etc.

Displays of these sacks should be made in store windows, lobbies of public and office buildings, hardware and sporting goods stores, etc. Placards to explain the purpose of them, are also furnished FREE by the state commission.


In those counties where feed is short, organize feeding stations. This is the second part of the organization work. These should be in every part of the county where birds are to be found. This organization will require the help of farmers, rural schools, mail carriers, sportsmen, and others.

Organizations like the Izaak Walton League, Legion posts, Lions, Rotary, Kiwanis Clubs, etc. can help in this work by making trips throughout the county on Sundays and other times of leisure for the purpose of placing out food.

The snow should be scraped away from favorable areas and grain placed there from time to time. Shelters built over feeding grounds help to keep the snow out and protect the birds. Such shelters should be constructed so birds can fly out readily from all directions so they can escape predatory animals and birds.

Game, Forestation and Parks Commission Lincoln, Nebraska