Outdoor NebraskaDevoted To The Conservation Of Nebraska Outdoor Resources SPRING 1934 Fish and Fishing in Nebraska No. II Vol. IX
Chadron Park Now Among Best
ONE of the finest state parks in the middle west," is the day many visitors wil describe the new Chadron State Park which the Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission is presenting to the people of Nebraska this spring.
During the past year a great many changes have been made in the park. A camp of C. C. C. workers have been on the job for a year where the federal government has spent nearly $'75,000, besides a considerable amount expended by the state. The project now is an 800 acre park instead of only about 40 acres which was open to the public heretofore. Timbered areas have been cleared, dense underbrush cleaned up, roads and trails constructed, cabins built, wells and new water supply installed, shelters and stoves provided and many other minor improvements made.
Little has been overlooked in making the park attractive to the public. Thirty cozy cabins have been built, part of which are provided with fireplaces. These cabins are located in scenic spots among the pine-covered hills where visitors may be to themselves and find rest and quiet.
A number of sky-line trails have been cut through the timber so that either horseback riders or pedestrians may take long rides or hikes. These trails follow the crests of the hills and offer a great many points of scenic interest. Roads for automobiles lead to the trails and the more important part of the park.
The swimming pool, auditorium for meetings, restaurant, store and playground offer additional services.
During the past year many trees have been trimmed and diseased trees removed. From the trees felled, lumber was sawed right on the spot for the construction of cabins and other buildings, rail fences, etc. Fireguards to protect the forest were provided around the entire tract.
To really see Chadron State Park, one should traverse the foot-trails. The four trails recently completed by the C. C. C. reveal all the scenic beauty of the Park and adjacent territory. They are of comparatively easy grade, safe for women and children and a real thrill for those who enjoy horseback riding.Clayton Trail
This trail, branching from the main scenic drive just inside of the south entrance follows the concourse of Thunder Canyon, a great gorge forming the south boundary of the Park. At places the trail rises to the crest of the lower ridges to reveal distant views, but most of the way it winds along the cool shade of the lower canyon where one feels the majesty of the giant pines rising from ponderous rock walls. This trail continues along the entire south side of the Park to join the drive at the west border. The length of this trail is about one and one-half miles.
From the west end of Clayton Trail there is only a distance of several hundred yards to the beginning of Sunset Trail. This trail follows a high mountainous ridge along the west side of the park and terminates in a grotesque butte called the "Mushroom Butte".
Interesting rock formations, gnarled ancient trees twisted by the storms of a hundred years and distant views of marvelous beauty form a fascinating sequence of experiences. After passing around the end of Mushroom Butte the trail descends in easy curves through dense forest to a large rustic shelter house beside the drive. Here picnic tables, camp ovens supplied with firewood, good drinking water and plenty of shade furnish a delightful place to rest and lunch.Red Cloud Trail
Proceeding southward along the drive about a quarter of a mile, one comes to the beginning of Red Cloud Trail. This trail, though considerably shorter than the others, is of easy grade and affords some of every type of beauty found in the Park. One moment we rest in the cool quiet of dense forest, then look out across grassy meadow flanked by drifts of somber pines. Later the trail leads along the very crest of rocky crags where a step off into space would mean a drop ofs a hundred feet. Views of the entire Chadron Creek Valley,—the table lands of the south, and finally ending at Red Cloud Butte. This Butte is so named for the famous Indian Chief "Red Cloud", and it is planned that in the future this Butte will serve as the base for a colossal statue of the Chief.
Fishing Season Now Open
NEBRASKA anglers are now beginning to look for the spots that will be "hot" for their favorite fish during 1934. Each year new places are discovered which bring joy to the hearts of disciples of Izaak Walton.
One of the lakes being opened by the Nebraska Game Commission this spring which should produce excellent results in bass fishing is the new state lake near Wellfleet in Lincoln County. This lake is well stocked with bass and contains over 80 acres of fine fishing water. Boats will be available as well as camping grounds for those who desire to stay several days.
Pibel Lake located near Spalding in Greeley County should be a good place for bass fishermen this year. A test haul was made in this state-owned lake last fall and a large number of bass running up as high as five and six pounds were found in these waters. This lake is owned by the state and a hotel on the grounds is operated by the state. Boats, camping supplies, rooms, etc., are available.
The Commission is carrying on its regular program of bringing bullheads from certain sand hill lakes and distributing them over the state. In 1933 over 800 thousand bullheads were transplanted and during the coming spring and summer the Commission hopes to reach the million mark. These fish are placed in all state-owned lakes as well as dozens of ponds, lakes and streams where the angler can find them.
Some very fine catches of trout have already been reported this season. The Brown Trout which the Commission is now stocking quite generally are beginning to show up and a number of anglers report good bags of these fish. Trout are now being caught in quite goodly numbers in Plum and Long Pine Creeks in Brown County and in the White River in Sheridan County and drainage ditches in Scotts Bluff and Morrill Counties.
Perch and bass fishing in the sand hill lakes should be good this season in spite of the fact that some of the lakes are rather low. Since the winter was not cold enough to freeze any of these lakes, there was no loss of fish through this cause in any of these lakes.
The Nebraska Game Commission hopes to improve channel catfishing in southeastern Nebraska, but it, is too early yet for anglers to receive the results of their work in this direction. The Gretna Hatchery on the Platte River has been partially rebuilt so that these popular fish can be hatched. For the first time in the history of the state, channel catfish were successfully hatched at hatcheries last year where some 15,000 were produced. Through the new batteries of ponds installed, it is hoped to produce several hundred thousand of these fish this year. If an annual output of some 200,000 to 500,000 of these fish can be had, catfishing in Nebraska rivers and creeks should be much better than it has ever been in recent years.
The Commission is also greatly interested in the Rock Bass which is proving popular with many anglers. A considerable number of these will be hatched at the hatcheries this year and they will be stocked more generally than heretofore.WHEN TO FISH IN NEBRASKA Bass ..................................June 10 to April 30 next ensuing Trout..........April 1 to October 31 Perch................Jan. 1 to Dec. 31 Sunfish..............Jan. 1 to Dec. 31 Catfish ___........Jan. 1 to Dec. 31 Bullheads ..........Jan. 1 to Dec. 31 Pickerel................................May 1 to M,arch 16 next ensuing Crappie ..............Jan. 1 to Dec. 31 Rock Bass ......June 10 to April 30 65-POUND CATFISH CAUGHT
Civil works administration workers under Louis Hanschild captured a yellow catfish weighing 65 pounds and 4% feet in length while erecting riprap along the Platte river bank at the state fisheries near Gretna. The crew placed it in one of the pits.LANDED PRIZE BASS
Harold Meyers, well known sportsman of Weeping Water, is reported to have landed the prize bass recently in one of the lakes at the state park at Louisville, Nebraska. After taking it to Weeping Water, a distance of ten miles, the big fellow weighed seven pounds and twelve, ounces, according to the report given out by the Plattsmouth Journal. If it weighed seven pounds and twelve ounces two hours after being taken from the water it surely would weigh at least eight pounds when first captured, making it the largest bass ever taken from the lakes at Louisville.
The state department dumped another truck load of young catfish and crappies in one of the west lakes last week. They were from three to five inches in length. Since the state came into possession of these lakes, they are kept well stocked.FISH STOCKED IN NEBRASKA
The following fish were placed in Nebraska waters Game Commission during the past two years:__1932 Bullhead .............................................................. 823,230 Crappie............................................................... 637,609 Black Bass............................................................ 629,214 Perch.................................................................. 279,065 Sunfish ......................-.......................................... 205,364 Loch Leven Trout............................................... 122,065 Bluegill............................................................... 112,660 Catfish ...................................... ......................... 74,121 Rock Bass .............................................................. 70,235 Rainbow Trout..................................................... 49,218 Brook Trout .......................................................... 18,250 Pickerel................................................................ 500 Northern Pike ...................................................... 19 by the State 1933 838,765 389,307 385,412 432,100 489,730 144,260 42,280 44,606 19,892 98,920- 91,286 1,500 3,021,550 2,978,058
Erosion and DrainageBy J. M. MERRITT
THOSE who delve in interesting subjects tell us the earth was at one time smooth as an orange, with shallow seas and sluggish, meandering streams flowing through flat, lush lands. Water was in abundance everywhere for the way to the sea was long and slow. The air was humid to the point of saturation because of the plentiful water, and myriad forms of vegetation and creatures abounded.
Erosion, under such conditions must have been nearly dormant or the manifestations of its tremendous force but feeble. Later, the upheaval of mountain ranges and the rising of land masses set loose this greatest of nature's destructive forces. Immediately there set in the never-ending process of wearing down and leveling. Erosion is at work the world over, wearing down bit b$ bit, by heat and frost, by wind and water, all exposed portions of the earth.
The hewing out of the Grand Canyon or Royal Gorge or the formation of the vast Mississippi Delta by the constant discharge of more than five hundred tons of soil each minutei if measured by man's life may seem to have required eternity, but nature is tireless and timeless. Drainage and erosion go hand in hand; drainage the cause, erosion the effect.
Does this concern the conservation of our recreational outdoors in Nebraska? Greatly. Aided and abetted by man's activity, drainage and erosion have destroyed many lakes and bayous in our state during the past twenty-five years. Along the Missouri the once beautiful Quinnebaugh Lake is a mud flat despite desperate efforts of the Game and Parks Commission to save it. Carter and Crystal Lakes must have artificial water supply to maintain them. Along the Blue, Elkhorn, Platte and Republican rivers, the former site of many favorite fishing places are now being farmed or are dry most of the time having been filled with soil from sections of the state that could ill afford either the loss of the soil or the water that carried it down. *In Brown and Holt counties, Swan, Grass, Hagen's, Goose, Cottonwood, Lamb, Chain, Willow and Walter's Lakes, a combined area of more than five thousand acres are now either entirely dry or are so low during part of the year that they will not support fish life. Other counties have suffered in proportion to their lake and marsh areas.*Lake and marsh area.
We may assign this condition to a series of dry years and assure ourselves that the lakes and marshes will be rehabilitated with the return of wet years or we may face facts and admit we have been dissipating our precious heritage of abundant water, that even with herculean efforts and favorable rainfall conditions it will require years to re-establish the former water level. Old timers recall when our rivers, with the exception of the Missouri, flowed clear most of the time. That was before we must plow every acre although the soil be thin and hilly, must drain lakes and lowlands to grow more hay and grain and make ditches everywhere to drain the water and soil away. All this has aided erosion by concentrating flow and increasing volume. The runoff is accomplished in hours or days that formerly required months or even years. Every rain forms a torrent carrying thousands of tons of soil to deposit in bayous or is carried into the Missouri River and much of it from distinctly sub-marginal farm land.
In the Sand Hill section of the state, lakes and marshes have been indiscriminately drained of the precious water and miles of highway ditches cut to perfect grade with the intent to carry the water into the rivers as soon as possible.
The Sand Hill section is Nebraska's reservoir for her water supply. Its millions of acres of porous sand absorb the rains and snows and seep out gradually to supply our streams and maintain water levels in lakes miles to the east and south. The Elkhorn, the three Loups, Cedar, *Calamus and Dismal all head there and laterals flow into all our streams from this area. We may say this for the drainage system we have builded. It works too well. We drain away the life-giving water from fishing and waterfowl feeding grounds at the upper end and fill like areas with soil at the lower.
Let us suppose that to better realize the condition we are bringing about, contracts were to be let to make our state a desert. A region with no fish, no birds, no green vegetation, a place unfit for the habitation of man. In such an imaginary undertaking, the preliminary work most certainly would be the lowering of the water table to pass off the water as soon asThrough the Snake,
possible to prevent absorption by the soil, to drain lakes and lowlands, to allow water no stopping place that it might seep away or evaporate or temper the dry, hot winds of summer. Preposterous? Yes, but here is a disquieting thought that will be admitted by those who have given the matter attention: This preliminary work is already under way.
In some sections the danger has been perceived. Ditches have been filled and water impounded again. The government is active in flood control, in soil conservation through erosion prevention and in abandonment, re-seeding, reforestation of submarginal farm lands, in establishing reservoirs and migratory bird refuges. Last year the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission constructed a diversion dam on Gordon creek in Cherry county and through a canal four miles long carried three thousand acre feet or more than 130 million cubic feet of water into the lake region and this amount will be exceeded this year. Conservation is one of the objects of the Commission's splendid ten-year program.
Many places and ways exist to conserve water. The individual may create or restore a lake or marsh on his own land and prevent all unnecessary run off, thereby helping himself, his neighbor and his state. He will derive unexpected pleasure from a private lake and the work is well worth while from an economic standpoint. We must re-seed eroding gullies, build dams and retards and concede the right and necessity fori ponds, lakes and marshes to occupy some of our lands. A real and desperate need exists to conserve our water and in-so-far as possible reestablish the orderly drainage process of nature in "Water Valley", which is the Indian name for Nebraska.HALSEY TO PLANT 1,400,000 TREES
Halsey—The National forest near here will observe Arbor day in a big way April 23. A. L. Nelson, forest supervisor, said the spring planting program calls for 1,400,000 new trees. "We most likely will be planting on Arbor day and plan to arrange a suitable program for forest visitors at that time in connection with the state-wide observance being sponsored by the American Legion," he said. He urged that all stumps be replaced by trees and that steps be taken to replace all timber which is cut.
Our National ForestsBy H. N. WHEELER, U. S. Forest Service
WHILE America was still in the expansion stage of development, with abundant resources at every hand, the dangers into which its land policies were leading were obscured by our characteristic national optimism. We were a free people, with plenty for all. Apparently there was no need to worry about a second crop of timber from cut-over land, with a presumably inexhaustible supply of virgin timber at hand. Extensive measures of expansion had nothing in common with the intensive measures of conservation.
Gradually, toward the end of the nineteenth century, the inevitable outcome of these policies became apparent. The depletion or exhaustion of resources caused certain individuals to think of the future, and the idea of conservation was born. With the twentieth-century, development of transportation and communication, world trade and increased local consumption of products speeded up exploitation. At the time better opportunities were provided for observing and appreciating the extent of this exploitation. The demand for conservtion became stronger and constructive action began. The creation of national forests, by withdrawals) from the public domain, and the establishment of Federal and State forestry organizations were among the first steps taken.
The first action by the Federal Government was as the custodian of the public lands. By the Act of March 3, 1891, a policy was inaugurated of withdrawing the federally-owned forest lands from destructive exploitation, and in 1897, provision was made for the regulated use and occupancy of these lands, which were then called forest reserves. In 1905, the U. S. Forest Service was established. The forest reserves were soon re-christened "national Forests," and the Forest Service began the building up of our great national forest system.
The problem of forest conservation, however, was most acute in those States in which there were either no public lands at all or where they were very limited or very scattered. The rapid and destructive depletion of forest resources was creating a condition of economic insecurity. Deforestation of the watersheds of important streams was diminishing their navigability and causing widespread damage and loss. The States in which this condition existed were notj prepared to meet it effectively. Public ownership and management of the areas in which the situation was most acute was imperatively necessary. To meet this need, the Federal government entered the second phase in its problem of forest land management. Additional lands valuable for the protection of the headwaters of )iavigable streams or for timber production were purchased under the provisions, first, of the Weeks Law of 1911, and later by the amendatory act of 1924, known as the ClarkMcNary Law. Under these acts, the Federal Government has developed and placed under administration east of the Great Plains 46 national forest units within which the United States now has nearly 10 million acres of land. Most of it was acquired by cash purchase.
Now, all told, we have 146 national forests covering more than 162 million acres. That's a pretty sizeable area— about as large as the whole State of Texas, for instance.
Although the national forest system now contains only a relatively small portion of the commercial forest land of the United States, under Forest Service management, this much of the Nation's commercial forest land is assured of permanent technical management under a plan of coordinated use of the various resources.
On these lands timber is managed so as to obtain a continuous yield of wood; watersheds are assured of protection which will preserve their value; the recreational grounds of millions of people are being developed for permanent use; wild life is being protected and is increasing; and there is a steady decrease in the acreage burned, despite a tremendous increase in the human use of the national forests.
National forests have exerted influence far beyond their own borders toward the attainment by the Nation of the objectives sought in their creation —that is, "securing favorable conditions of waterflows, and to furnish a continuous supply of timber for the use and necessities of citizens of the United States." Though still facing many unsolved problems of protection and administration, our national forests have amply proved the soundness of the principle of conservation through wise use. They are undoubtedly one of our country's greatest assets, and a foundation stone in our continuing effort to safeguard all our forest resources for the country's benefit.
FAMOUS MALLARD BACK ON NEBRASKA BARN ROOFMallard 555414, Alias A604109, is Back in Antioch, Nebr.
Since 1927 the ending of winter has been heralded by the arrival of this female duck ;at the Rainbow's Ehd Game Refuge. This year F. J. Keller, proprietor of the refuge, reported to the Bureau of Biological Survey that the bird returned on February 4, and the Bureau's files show that this is the bird's earliest return on record.
In November 1927 Mr. Keller placed a Biological Survey band on one of the bird's legs. Carrying the number 555414, this band identified the bird on its subsequent returns, and as 555414 the bird is known from "the Pacific coast and Texas, clear across the continent" —according to inquiries received at the Rainbow's End Refuge. Last year the original band was so worn that Mr. Keller placed one on the bird's other leg, giving the mallard a second number, A604109.
Each season since 1927 this bird has nested in a box on the roof of Mr. Keller's barn. She has produced more than a hundred mallard ducklings, and last year when she laid only abnormally small eggs she was given a, set of pintail eggs by Mr. Keller, and hatched these. Though she herself has each year escaped the hunter's gun, the Bioogical Survey's records show that her banded offspring have been killed north to Canada, west to Arizona, and south to Louisiana and Texas.
"If Mallard 555414, or A604109, finally falls before a hunter's gun, it would be most appropriate if she could be mounted and preserved", says Frederick C. Lincoln, director of the Biological Survey's bird banding. Mr. Lincoln also suggests that the mounted bird be presented to Mr. Keller, whose "interest and successful management of the game refuge has made this history possible."
— OBSERVE ALL GAME LAWS Outdoor NebraskaOfficial Publication of The Nebraska State Game Forestation and Parks Commission COMMISSIONERS Chas. W. Bryan, Chairman Guy R. Spencer M. M. Sullivan J. B. Douglas W. J. Tiley George B. Hastings Frank B. O'Connell EDUCATION & PUBLICATION COMMITTEE J. B. Douglas, Chairman Frank B. O'Connell EDITOR Frank B. O'Connell Vol. IX SPRING, 1934 No. 2 The Commission's Program GAME: Statewide pheasant hunting. Rehabilitation of the quail. Stocking of Hungarian partridge. Reserves and feeding grounds for migratory waterfowl. Public shooting grounds. FISH: Fish for every angler. Reduced cost and common sense business in fish production. Good fishing at state-owned lakes where public can fish free. Preservation of lakes. RECREATION: A statewide system of recreation grounds for Nebraska citizens. Shade and picnicking facilities at fishing lakes. Conservation of Nebraska's outdoors. LAW ENFORCEMENT: Equality for all. Constant war against the despoiler and destroyer of wild life. Strict observance of game laws by all citizens. EDUCATION: Appreciation of Nebraska's outdoors through education. Make the boys and girls of tomorrow lovers of wild creatures and nature's handiwork. Cooperation of all citizens to the end that Nebraska shall have suitable recreation and wholesome outdoor activities. Program of forestation throughout Nebraska. GENERAL: Full value to the purchaser of hunting and fishing permits. Square deal to farmers and sportsmen. Stabilization of water in Platte River. Buy Your Fishing Permits Now!
Each winter in Nebraska, especially during that of 1934, there have been dozens of wolf hunts. While most of these hunts are properly organized and its members law abiding, there are some of them that are nothing short of unorganized mobs shooting every living wild thing that runs or flies.
No objection can be made to a properly organized hunt which has for its purpose the killing off of coyotes. But these hunts too often become more than that. Too often they are for the purpose of slaughtering rabbits and other game.
There is no good reason why these hunts should not be properly organized with responsible officers in charge. Then if protected game is shot or a farmer's stock stampeded through fences, responsibility can be fixed and damages recovered.
It is quite likely that the next State Legislature will be asked to provide legislation that will require these hunts to be held only upon obtaining proper permit and where controlled by responsible officers. Sportsmen of the state who dislike to see the indiscriminate killing off of rabbits and other wild life should cooperate in the passage of such legislation.
Are Geese Increasing?
Those who witnessed the flight of geese and Sandhill cranes through Nebraska this spring will probably wonder if our government officials are right in declaring a shortage of these birds.
If the flight throughout the country were comparable with that through Nebraska, there can be no doubt but that our geese and cranes are holding their own in excellent shape. However, it is quite likely that many birds that normally moved northward through other states selected Nebraska this year.
At any rate, it was a sight well worth effort to see the countless hundreds of these birds feeding along the Platte and Missouri bottoms. Many fields were white with geese and sand bar after sand bar gray with crane. Practically all the crane were the Sand Hill species, with a few Whooping crane to be seen.
New Wild Life Legislation
Three important wildlife restoration bills, the Walcott-Kleberg Duck Stamp, The Coordination, and the Robinson Refuge bills have passed both the U. S. Senate and the House and have gone to President Roosevelt for his signature. That he will sign all three is a foregone conclusion as he has personally endorsed them, according to a bulletin of the American Game Association. The House passed these bills on March 5; the Senate on February 6.
Theise three bills will pave the way to real restoration of wildlife on a huge scale, according to the predictions of conservationists throughout the country.
The Walcott-Kleberg Duck Stamp Bill will provide an estimated revenue of approximately $1,000,000. a year to be used in rehabilitation of wildfowl. It provides that not less than 90% of these monies shall be used for purchase and maintenance of breeding, feeding and resting refuges of tjhe inviolate type; that is, refuges in which no shooting is allowed. The remaining 10% is to be used for administration. The U. S. Biological Survey is charged with protection and Secretary of Agriculture Wallace has said that the Federal Government should provide the funds for this work independent of the Duck Stamp revenues. Each wildfowl hunter, excepting children under 16 years of age, will be required to purchase a $1 Duck Stamp from post offices and affix it to his or her state hunting license.
The Coordination Bill is designed to coordinate all activities of the various departments of the Federal Government dealing with phases related to the welfare of wildlife. For instance, the War Department engineers may be asked to modify plans for dams so as to benefit the fish life.
The Robinson Refuge Bill authorizes the Federal Government to establish fish and game sanctuaries in the National Forests with the consent of the States.
Senator Frederick C. Walcott, Connecticut, chairman of the Senate Wildlife Conservation Committee, and Congressman Richard Kleberg, Texas, engineered these bills through their respective houses, much to the gratification of some 18,000,000 licensed hunters and fishermen in this country, and several million more in Canada; for many of the species of wildlife that will be benefitted are migratory between the two countries, officials of the American Game Ass'n. point out.
Closed Seasons Necessary
We are often asked why the opening of the seasons on game fish is deferred until the months of May and June. It is a fact well known to observers that the best of fishing is to be had in the early spring when game fish are found in the shallow waters of our lakes, or running up the small streams and tributaries of the larger rivers. The primary purpose of restrictive laws on the taking of game and fish is the conserving of these natural resources and not the curbing of the recreation and pleasure of our citizens, and this is especially true of the laws prohibiting the taking of game fish during the early spring months.
Nearly all game fissh spawn in the spring of the year and1 while this is the season in which the fish bite exceptionally well, it is also the period in which protection accomplishes the greatest good. Particularly is this true of the bass family, whose spawning generally takes place late in May or early in June. Spawning is in no small degree influenced by the water temperatures and in a cold late spring the eggs may be deposited some weeks later than in an early spring with high temperatures prevailing. The female fish, due to the extraordinary requirements of the functions of reproduction, is a voracious feeder at this season of the year and consequently may be taken in large numbers. When such a fish is taken in the spring before the spawning procelss is completed the angler has in reality destroyed a large number of fish, and it is for this reason that protection in the early spring is not only desirable but necessary.
Our seasons on game fish open as early in the spring as it is wise in view of the facts just cited, and even under these regulations many fish taken aftefr the opening date have not spawned. It should be remembered that the female fish will deposit many thousands of eggs under normal conditions and that every such fish taken before the spawning period is past means the diminution of the potential fry which would otherwise be hatched during that year. If our supply of fish is to be perpetuated, every angler should consider it as his task to see that these protective measures are observed.—^Minnesota Waltonian.
Use Buttons In California
The California Fish and Game Commission adopted an identification button to accompany the 1934 angling license, effective January 1, 1934. The reaction to these buttons was so favorable that the Commission decided to issue similar buttons with the 1934-1935 hunting licenses.
These buttons are manufactured of metal and are one and three-quarter inches in diameter. The face is celluloid covered and varies in color in accordance with the kind of license issued. In addition to stating the type of license, there is printed on the face of the button its classification, whether resident, nonresident, alien, etc., and license number to correspond with the number of the usual paper license. In the back of the button, there is a pocket in which the paper license is to be carried and a heavy brass safety pin for securely fastening the button to the clothing.
The colors of the angling license buttons are as follows: resident citizens and Indians, red; non-residents, light green; aliens, orange; duplicate buttons are blue.
Commission Field ActivitiesOUR COVER PAGE
The cover oi thus month's Outdoor Nebraska shows one of the fishing lakes located in Custer County near Arnold. The fish shown are Nebraska fish. Beginning at the upper left-hand corner the fish shown are as follows: Blue Gill, Rock Bass and Crappie. The lower picture shows a Small-mouthed Black Bass, a Wall-eyed Pike and a Largemouthed Black Bass.PHEASANT STOCKING
The Nebraska Game Commission undertook another pheasant stocking program this spring in the six southeastern counties, namely: Richardson, Pawnee, Nemaha, Johnson, Otoe and Gage. These counties were quite heavily stocked with Ring-necks which were trapped in Sherman, Howard and Valley counties. It is hoped that these birds will now be numerous enough to increase rapidly so that an open season can be held in these counties in the next several years.
A new feature of the pheasant stocking this year was the holding of mass meetings in each county to be stocked which farmers and sportsmen were invited to attend. This idea was originated by Commissioner J. B. Douglas of Tecumseh and proved to be very popular and helpful. All of the counties stocked organized and set aside game reserves and offered the Commission their very best cooperation for the protection of the birds.
The counties stocked and number of birds placed therein are as follows:Richardson....................2,670 Pawnee ..........................2,120 Nemaha ........................2,096 Johnson ..........................2,360 Otoe ..............................1,083 Gage..............................2,827 ACCEPT PAWNEE RECREATION GROUNDS
Through the Pawnee Lake and Recreation Grounds Association the State Game Commission accepted a project near Guide Rock where a small lake will be built this spring. This project will consist of about 60 acres of which about half will be water. This land was donated to the state to be used for a recreation grounds and local citizens also are joining the state in contributing to the development of the same.NEW C.C.C. CAMP
Although Governor Bryan asked for three Park C. C. C. Camps this summer, only one was granted. That will be at Niobrara and work has already begun.
At this place the island which contains over 800 acres will be developed into a park and game refuge. The upper half will be used for a game sanctuary while the lower half will be devoted to park and recreation grounds activities.
A feature of the development will be the establishing of a number of ponds or lagoons which will be stocked with fish.
It is quite likely that the Game Commission will be able to secure some of the workers of a camp located near Valentine under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Biological Survey. These workers will be used for the development of the lakes in that county.ARBOR DAY CELEBRATION
The Nebraska Game Commission is joining with the American Legion this year in its campaign to "Plant a tree for every stump". The Commission's contribution in planting will be some 50,000 trees which are being placed in the various parks, recreation grounds and hatcheries.
At Arbor Lodge State Park a celebration was held with U. S. Secretary of Agriculture Wallace the chief speaker of the day. A nation-wide radio hookup was a feature of the program.
Arbor Lodge opened its doors on April 1st and the mansion will be open daily from 1:40 P. M. to 5 P. M. until mid-June when visitors will be admitted during the morning hours also.WATER FOR CRYSTAL LAKE
The Nebraska Game Commission joined with the Burlington Railroad and the Consumers Ice Company and others in appropriating a fund sufficient to bring water into Crystal Lake near Sioux City, by diversion from a nearby stream. This lake is a very popular fishing resort and contains many choice game fish. It is hoped that the new plan will raise the level of this lake considerably as it is one of the finest bodies of water in the state for fishing.ADD TO BUFFALO HERD
A fine specimen o± prairie buffalo, weighing over 1700 pounds was donated to the State of Nebraska by Fred Itingsley of Minden. This animal was recently trucked from Minden to Scottsbuff and placed in the Wild Cat Hills Game Reserve in that county. This game reserve is now one of the finest in the middle west having been increased in area to over 600 acres under fence. This was done the past winter through the use of C. W. A. labor. In this game reserve the Commission is building up a herd of elk, a herd of buffalo and a herd of antelope. It is desired to have some specimens of mountain sheep and white-tailed deer also on exhibition.C. W. A. ACTIVITIES
During the pas„ winter the Nebraska Game Commission did its part in the nation's unemployment program by using over 200 C. W. A. workers. At the present time nearly a hundred relief workers are being employed. These men worked on improving a number of parks and recreation grounds, namely: Arbor Lodge State Park, Victoria Springs State Park, Wellfleet Recreation Grounds, Dodge County Recreation Grounds, Cottonmill Recreation Grounds, Wild Cat Hills Game Reserve, Oxford Recreation Grounds, Pressey Recreation, Grounds, Frye Lake Recreation Grounds, Verdon Recreation Grounds, Louisville Recreation Grounds, Benkelman and Valentine.
"All aboard for a ride!" Ten Springer puppies owned by Julius Bevens of Seneca. Photo sent in by E. N. Thomas of Ravenna.
Nebraska Editors on Outdoor LifeCONTROLLING THE HUNTERS
The organization of the Game Protective Association of Nemaha county will serve at least two major purposes. It will insure the releasing of several thousand pheasants in this county and, as the birds multiply it will become possible to declare an open season making it unnecessary for hunters to go to the western part of the state to enjoy the sport of pheasant shooting.
It is equally important that an organization of this kind can wield a strong influence in bringing about more general observance of the game law. The flagrant violation of this statute is rapidly causing the extinction of such game as already exists. Take for instance, the cottontail rabbit. If a man takes a half day off and goes hunting, he finds the bunnies exceedingly scarce. This is due largely to poaching hunters who come from Omaha to kill hundreds of rabbits to be taken back and sold in the city. They are "market" hunters, whose depredations are not confined to the wholesale slaughter of rabbits. They kill anything, even songbirds, that afford a target and have even been known to shoot chickens and pigs. With the farmers properly organized and their land posted this section will be freed to a large extent from the operations of this army of invasion.
It will also have a tendency to curb the careless local hunter who either trespasses r betrays the confidence of the farmer and leaves gates open, wounds or kills livestock by careless shooting and performs other destructive acts.
Hunting is a legitimate sport but because people imagined that the supply of game was unlimited and because many still seem to, have no sense of sportsmanship, it became necessary to pass laws to protect game and curb the selfish tendencies of poor sports. The enforcement of these laws are of vital importance and the members of the recently formed association can render real public service by aiding authorities in making these laws effective.—Nemaha Herald.NO OTHER SPORT EQUALS COON HUNTING
There is a strange appeal to coon hunting that can be compared to no other sport. There is a clannishness among 'coon hunters too, says an authority in the Detroit Free Press, that bears evidence of the uniqueness of Uus type of enjoyment. More important than the 'coon, by far, is the dog, I or without a dog there would be no 'coon chase, no music, no thrill of "Darking up," no stumbling one's way through the night-blanketed woods, following the hound whose nose is a hundred times keener than the human.
Within the past few years, 'coon hunting has been developing more and more as a sport and less as a skin-gecting game. It is true that the coon pelt does play a part in the economy of the 'coon hunter's set-up, but they consider their catch less as a money crop than as a source of ready cash with which to purchase and maintain their dogs. This seems to be the attitude among the 'coon hunters, and with the development of a more "sporting" attitude comes the greater enjoyment of a prolonged chase. Of course the destruction of den trees is out of the question, as well as against the law, and the climbing of trees to get out the 'coons is frowned upon by every self-respecting 'coon hunter.
Let the night be one that follows a rain, when the fog hangs moist against the earth's surface. That is the time when dogs are at their best, for the moisture holds the scent. —Pierce Leader.TALE OF A CROW
Early last fall Frank King caught a crow in a steel trap which he had set on top of a post in a battle against hawks and crows. Being of an inquiring turn of mind, he thought it would be interesting to identify the bird by placing a band on its leg, on which was inscribed his name and address, turn it loose and see what developed.
This; week he received a letter from Ralph Dunbar, Jr., at Mazie, Okla., which showed that Mr. Crow had taken a long journey. The letter said:
"Dear Mr. King: I shot a crow a few days ago and he had this tag on his leg. This part of the country is infested with thousands of crows. We are feeding a bunch of steers on shelled corn and the crows are thick every morning on the lots.
"Maizie is a little stop in the road about 40 miles straight east of Tulsa, Okla. If it is possible, I would like to hear from you, telling me when and why you tagged the crow."—Oakland Acorn.HUNTING AND FISHING
There has been a great revival of interest in hunting and fishing and outdoor life and sports generally in the past few years. The movement for the protection of wild game, by limiting the hunting season and extending the cover of forest and brake in which they live and breed, has received a great deal of encouragement from President Roosevelt's reforestation program. There seems little doubt that the Civilian Conservation Camp movement will result in developing in many thousands of young men not only a taste for outdoor life, which they will strive hereafter to gratify, but an intimate knowledge of woodcraft and the ways of the furred and feathered denizens of the woods.
It is the dream of those who are most active in promoting the idea that some day all the poor farm land in the nation will again become cover for game, or at least so' much of it as is not turned into lumber producing forest. Probably that dream will never be fully realized; dreams so seldom are. But it is certainly true that a high percentage of agricultural land is fit for nothing but a refuge for wild animals and birds. Nor is it necessarily unprofitable to let the brambles and brush overrun such unproductive land. In many parts of the county farmers are getting a revenue from the sale of shooting permits over their land, and that idea is receiving a great deal of impetus and encouragement.
The American Game Association estimates that approximately seven million men take out hunting licenses in the various states every year, while more than ten million are interested in fishing. If the New Deal produces the larger leisure for every man which it promises, together with a surplus income with which to enjoy that leisure, the number of hunters and fishermen will be greatly increased. That will make the movement for the conservation and projection of wild life even more important.—Mjnden Courier.HOMES FOR WATERFOWL
The United States senate has passed the Walcott bill requiring duck hunters to attach dollar duck stamps to their hunting licenses. The duck stamp revenue is to be devoted to the purchase(continued on page 13)
Trout I Have CaughtBy FRANK CARD
AS has been the custom for a number of years about May 1st found me at the 77 ranch twenty-five miles north of Ashby at which time we tattoo the baby herefords that have arrived during the winter months so we can register them.
To a man who has been cooped up in the city all winter this is a great treat. You can fill your lungs with the pure air that the sand hill country is noted for, you can walk around the lake and watch the ugly old bass that Frank O'Connell planted as they are getting ready to spawn, you can walk through the grove of young trees which Clayton Watkins made possible which should prove the great inspiration to the coming generation and a winter protection to cattle, mutant and ring neck pheasants as well as the grouse and prairie chicken. Boy that is a treat but that's not my story.
Ernest 'Sartor was with me on this trip and upon our arrival a+ the ranch we found a young man there who was doing some locative work and part of his job was to get an «xact location of the falls on the Snake River about twenty miles north of our ranch. Now you know as well as I do that when the Snake River is mentioned you think of two things, mallard ducks after the lakes are frozen and trout in the fishing season.
Sartor and I exchanged glances. We both understood. Sartor says, "My friend, do you know the way up there?" (Please note how quickly he was our friend.)
And says I, "Are you coming back the same night?" and "Would you like to have us go with you?"
He answered "yes" to all three questions.
Our . ranching - partner says, "Go ahead. We have hay enough for one more day." (I never could understand how those ranchers made the grass come just as the hay was gone, but they do.)
The morning came bright and clear, not a cloud in the sky. The good housewife insisted on putting up a nice lunch but we refused, taking only coffee pot, skillet, coffee, half loaf of bread, butter, pepper, salt and a jug of water, pipes, tobacco, etc. We were fishermen. We were going out in the open to catch the fish nature had provided for us and cook our own meal.
Well, after opening about forty gates, going up and down the valleys over chop hills, through soap weed and cactus country we arrived at the Snake within a half mile of the falls, solid rock falls mind you. The prettiest little falls you ever saw with the clear sparkling water roaring and tumbling over.
While I was gazing at the beauty of them the boys were getting ready for business. In went a fly. "Clink" went the water. Out came a trout. In went another fly. Out came another. They caught two each before my fly went in. I landed one, then something happened.
Before we arrived we saw what we thought was black smoke in the northwest which later developed into a big black cloud which by now covered the whole sky and the sun with it. It started to rain and then to snow those big wet flakes as big as a quarter with the wind blowing a gale and when those flakes hit you they flattened out to the size of a fifty to seventy-five cent piece.
I insisted on fishing but the two boys insisted on quitting. We were getting hungry. We must have two fish apiece. Finally Sartor suggested his eating one fish and our friend and I eating two each. That did the trick. It was now two o'clock and we were soaking wet and chilled clear through.
Then something else happened. When Sartor picked up the strings of fish he dropped one end and off went the fish into the river. Well, we had been friends for a long time, (up to then.) What was said is forbidden in print. You can figure that out for yourself. It was plenty you can rest assured.
We rode homeward in silence. We looked straight ahead for many miles. Our friend finally broke the silence, insisting it had been a great day and suggested we take a drink of water as a toast to the two best fishermen.
Now comes the part of the story that saved us from starvation. We had arrived at a deserted ranch with a tumbled down sod house, only one corner standing and an old shed. We decided to stop and eat our bread. As we stopped at the soddy up jumped a cotton tail (a rare bird in the sand hills). In the ear was my 22 L R.' Automatic Colt pistol. Mr. rabbit sat watching us just 38 steps away. I put that little white bead on that rabbit where it would do the most good and started to squeeze that trigger and it seemed like it never would go off but when it did Mr. Rabbit gave one jump and never kicked again.
Now the rest of this sounds like the "Baron" but it is true also. At the crack of the pistol two pigeons flew out of the shed and lit on the roof. (Another rare bird in the sand hills.) Without moving out of my tracks I rolled one of them, the other circled around and lit on the shed. Well it just doesn't seem possible but it is true. We then had two pigeons and one rabbit. I never shot so well before or since.
We covered the corner of the sod house with a tarpaulin, found a battered old stove that the rancher burned cow chips in and a pile of old shingles that were dry underneath and at three thirty had our first food since five thirty that morning and was that rabbit fried in butter and hot coffee good?
Our friend says, "This is better than any fish dinner I ever had."
And when Sartor leaned back against the wall and got his pipe going good he says, "Frank, do you remember that fish dinner we had at the Albert Pike Hotel at Little Rock, Arkansas when we got in late? Well, he says, this was a better meal than that was."
But darn him I get mad yet when I think about him dropping those ten inch trout back in the Snake.
GEESE BY THE THOUSANDS ARRIVE
Burt County Herald, Tekamah, Nebr. —'Geese by countless thousands feeding on the lowlands near the Missouri river east and southeast of Tekamah the past week have attracted the attention of sightseers.
Several hundred cars from Omaha and other nearby towns, filled with men, women and children, were scattered along the roads in Lower Arizona community watching the geese. Several photographers were also there taking pictures for metropolitan newspapers and magazines. It was conservatively estimated that more than a million birds were there.
The honking made by the geese was so loud that it was difficult to carry on conversation that could be heard for any distance and understand. In some fields the birds were so thick that the ground seemed to be a moving mass of feathered bodies and when they rose into the air, they darkened the sky and presented another wonderful sight. Game wardens are to be found where least expected, guarding the geese from being killed at this time of year by hunters.
NEW SUPERINTENDENT AT CHADRON PARK
A. E. Speer ox Ir„lis City will succeed J. W. Good as superintendent of Chadron state park, who is retiring after nine years of service. The change was effective April 1.
Mrs. Speer will be assistant superintendent. Mr. Speer will receive a salary of $1200.00 per year and Mrs. Speer $500.00. Superintendent Good's salary has been $2000.00. The superintendent is supplied a residence.
The announcement was accompanied by a resolution of the commission expressing its appreciation for the work of Superintendent Good and Mrs. Good. The resolution reads as follows:
"In the retirement of J. W. Good as superintendent of the Chadron State Park, the members of the Game, Forestation and Parks Commission desire to express appreciation for faithful services rendered to the state of Nebraska.
"To Mrs. Good we extend a full measure of gratitude for her part so graciously performed in making this park a welcome and popular place for the thousands of visitors within its gates' each year.
"Mr. Good may well be called the father of the Chadron State Park. It was through his work and generalship, while serving as State Senator, that the bill perpetuating this scenic tract as a state property was enacted into law.
"His early service as superintendent was given without compensation at a time when funds were not available for park expense.
"Mr. Good has served as superintendent for a period of nine years and during this time, under his supervision, the park has been improved and developed in a wonderful way.
"For his faithful work and for his untiring energy in promoting and popularizing the park, this Commission desires to extend its fullest appreciation.
"It is therefore with a full measure of regret that the advancing years of Mr. Good and the additional burdens of the park work, by reason of the extensive improvements of the past year, brings on a change in the superintendency of this state institution.
"The members of this Commission extend to Mr. and Mrs. Good best wishes for their future success and happiness."
THE CROONING OLD FOX HOUNDDedicated to Governor Charles W. Bryan, by the Author, Cecil E. Matthews I have listened to the dotings, Of a million, pleasure bent; Heard them tell of great sensations, That imagination lent. How the sight of towering mountains, With their snow-capped lofty domes; Fills the soul with intense rapture, And delight where 'ere man roams. But to see such sights allures not— To me always 'tis a task; To clamber up a mountain, Faced with crudish, frowning mask. I have heard of shady brooklets, Where the water fairly roiled; With speckled trout awaiting, Their turn at being broiled. Heard them tell of how they angled— Moments thrilling and grand; How in spite of all their tackle, They, the big one failed to land. But those fishing stories never— Sets a single nerve atwitch. It is recreation solely, For loafers and idle rich. Yes, I've heard most every story— Every one with human touch, But there's only one that thrills me— That concerns me very much. You can talk of nerve sensations, Of dancing, of delight; But none will hold and thrill you, In the pitch of blackest night. I said none—I mean excepting, The one of world renown— The bayings and the bellar, Of that crooning old fox hound. SABLE CAUGHT IN PLATTE RIVER
A fur-bearing animal, believed to be a sable, a member of the mink family of fur bearers, was caught in a trap by Clifford and Ed Lanphear, on the Lanphear Island in the Platte river south of Overton, recently.
The animal resembles a mink, only more husky built, had a dark cream colored fur, which would lay flat any way it was rubbed. The fur was short and like velvet. It had ears like a cat's, and had a bushy tail about five inches long.
It is estimated that it would measure about eighteen inches from tip of tail to point of nose, and would weigh about two and a half pounds.
Some claim the animal is a sable which is a native of New York state. And from all descriptions of a sable that can be found, this animal resembles one closely.
iSable fur is very expensive and it is believed that this pelt will sell for around $80.00 or $90.00.
The Lanphears are going to consult a fur buyer to try and establish the identity of the animal.
HASTINGS MUSEUM HAS UNUSUAL COLLECTION
With the coming of spring, the staff of the Hastings museum expect to answer numberless questions about birds. Mr. A. M. Brooking, the director, says, "Every year more and more people are becoming interested in our Nebraska birds."
Nebraska ranks third among the other states in the variety of birds found within its borders, only California and Texas having more. During the past fifty years, there have been 430 different species of birds listed in Nebraska. Of course, the number actually found within the state now is less, because many of this number are now extinct or are seldom found within the state.
Of this number, the Hastings museum has on display 384 species which have actually been found within the state. This is by far the largest collection of Nebraska birds ever assembled because the few species not on display consist in most cases of birds that have been observed but never taken within the state.
The tallest bird to have been found in America during prehistoric times is the Whooping Crane. This bird, which sometimes stood over five feet in height, was once common in Nebraska. At present, they are almost extinct and not even museums are permitted to take specimens. Before they became so rare, Mr. Brooking secured a number of specimens and now the Hastings museum has the largest group of these birds known.
Many birds which were once common are now extinct or practically so. Early Nebraska and Kansas settlers can recall having seen large numbers of Eskimo Curlews and Passenger pigeons in the early days. Now the Hastings museum counts itself fortunate in having specimens of these birds because they are extinct.
The Holbells grebe, European Pidgeon, Black Brant, Rocky mountain screech owl, Water Ousel, Black capped vireo, and the Black vulture, which are on display in the Hastings museum, are state's records.
One trapping season a few years ago a half million dollars was paid out in Hyannis for animal pelts. When the present season opened it was thought the number of pelts secured would be few, but during the past few days the Bond Fur Company shipped out 10,232 muskrat skins, 164 skunk, 28 badger and ten coyote hides, the total value being over $5 000.—Hyannis Tribune.
DARLING TO HEAD BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY
Secretary Wallace recently announced the appointment of Jay N. Darling ("Ding") of Des Moines, Iowa, as Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey.
In expressing his gratification at Mr. Darling's acceptance, Secretary Wallace said, "Probably at no previous time has there existed in this country such a favorable and nationwide approval of the Administration's efforts to reestablish and preserve our valuable wild-life resources. Mr. Darling will be warmly welcomed) by all of us here in the Department. He will make a real contribution and I personally look forward with pleasure to our official association."
Since January 6, 1934, Mr. Darling has served as a member of the President's Committee on Wild-Life Restoration, of which Thomas H. Beck is chairman and Aldo Leopold a member. The President's Committee, submitting its report to the President on, February 8, recommended the immediate acquisition of five million acres of submarginal agricultural land in 44 States, and the gradual acquisition of an additional eight to ten million acres for wild life production and related purposes.
While M,r. Darling is best known for his world-famous cartoons, he is also recognized as a leader in wild life conservation and restoration activities, a field to which he has devoted many years of his life. Early in this year he was awarded the Medal of the Outdoor Life Magazine for outstanding service in the field of wild life restoration. He is a member of the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, of the Iowa Fish and Game Commission, of the Iowa Planning Commission, and of the Des Moines Park Board.
Jay N. Darling was born at Norwood, Michigan, on October 21, 1876. Three degrees have been conferred upon him: Litt. D. andj LL. D., Drake University; Ph. B., Beloit (Wisconsin) University; he also attended Yankton College, S. D., 1894-95.
In 1899, he entered the newspaper business as a reporter on the Sioux City Tribune, and one year later went to the Sioux City Journal. On this publication he began his work as a cartoonist. His career as a cartoonist is well-known—Sioux City Journal, 1901-1906; Des Moines Register, 1906-1911; New York Globe, 1911-1913; Des Moines Register, 1913-1917; and the New York Tribune and Des Moines Register since 1917.
Mr. Darling is a member of the National Society of Illustrators, Beta Theta Pi, Theta Nu Epsilon, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Delta Chi, the. Lambs Club, the Players Club, the Century Club, and the American Arts Club.
Mr. Darling will continue to draw cartoons as frequently as his time permits.
MANY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF CATFISH IN THE NILE
In the Nile system are almost 300 different species belonging to the catfish group and more than 50 species closely allied to the carp. Some of the catfish run well up to six feet; with long dorsal fins extending two-thirds the length of the body they present a very strange appearance. In fact, they are strange as any animals found in the mysterious heart of the black continent.
Some of the great African fishes have very peculiar characteristics. One of the catfish tribe reaching up to four feet in length has been known to bed down in the mud at the bottom of pools when they dry up in the dry season. The big electric catfish is one of the strangest of all of fishes of the Nile and though a sluggish creature can deliver a powerful shock.
The tiger fish is one of the most voracious fishes in the world, equipped with very muscular and powerful jaws and armed with formidable teeth on the outside of its mouth. The "tiger fish" is able to bite in two heavy leaders of iron or copper wire and will often break the strongest of three-inch steel hooks.
The tigetf fish is as great a bait robber as is the barracuda. Instead of taking the whole bait in his mouth he merely seizes it in his teeth and dashes off. When the fisherman strikes to set the hook, the tiger fish merely bites the bait in two and disappears with his trophy.
PRAISE SERVICE OF PURCELL
The Nebraska Game Commission, meeting recently passed the following resolution in behalf of its retiring member, E. R. Purcell, of Broken Bow:
"BE IT RESOLVED by the members of the State Game, Forestation and Parks Commission that the resignation of our fellow member, Emerson R. Purcell, from membership on this commission is deeply regretted. We commend him for his unswerving loyalty, for his untiring efforts in pursuance of his duties, for his courteous regard for the rights of others, and for his judgment and wisdom in handling such affairs of the State as have come before the Commission during his membership. We especially appreciate his services as chairman of the Committee on State Parks. We regret his leaving and shall hope for his success in further service to the people of the State."
CONGRESS PASSES DUCK STAMP BILL
Hunters who expect to shoot wild ducks, geese or brant in the future better stop at the post office first and paste "Duck Stamps" on their state hunting licenses. Otherwise the federal game warden "goblins '11 get you if you don't watch out," the More Game Birds Foundation advises.
Congress has just levied a one dollar stamp tax on waterfowl hunters and President Roosevelt's approval is assured.
Postmasters, it is estimated, will collect $1,000,000 annually from the tax to be paid into the United States Treasury and set aside as a special migratory bird conservation fund. The fund will be administered by the Secretary of Agriculture and used for "acquisition, maintenance and operation of inviolate migratory bird sanctuaries," according to the bill.
Passage of the "Duck Stamp" Bill represents the culmination of years of effort on the part of sportsmen's organizations to develop some method of raising funds from hunters for federal conservation work. Uncle Sam has assumed jurisdiction over migratory birds since consummation of the Migratory Bird Treaty with Canada under which both countries agreed to conserve these species.
Early attempts to raise funds took form in a movement to secure enactment of a federal hunting license-public shooting grounds bill. The bill died aborning but from it arose the NorbeckAndresen Bill which Congress passed authorizing appropriations of nearly $8,000,000 for acquisition of migratory bird sanctuaries. Subsequent Congresses, however, failed to appropriate the full amounts annually scheduled although over 18 sanctuaries were acquired.
The Duck Stamp plan first made its appearance in Congress May 9, 1932 when it was introduced by members of the Special Senate Committee on Conservation of Wild Life Resources. In its original form the bill provided that "not more than 60 per cent." of the income be used for acquisition and operation of sanctuaries and an experimental game farm.
HOMES FOR WATER FOWL(Continued from page 9)
of migratory bird sanctuaries.
This is recognition of the fact that the menace to our migratory game birds is not solely that represented by the sportsman's gun. Breeding and feeding grounds are as ess ntial to the perpetuation of our wild life as that the annual kill by hunters shall not be unduly large. The areas available for that purpose have been steadily growing smaller. Drouth and drainage projects have been decreasing the domain of the waterfowl and good roads have opened up ro many hitherto inaccessible sections that it is hard for ducks and geese and shore birds to find peace and quiet for rearing their broods.
The sportsmen members of the senate were warm supporters of the bill. Old-time sportsmen who have witnessed the steady decrease in the birds coming through each spring and fall will approve it. A dollar a year is a small sum compared with what the duck hunter spends on arms, ammunition, transportation, hunting privileges and other essential expenses. As an investment in conservation it will be worth many times its cost. Without it, restricted seasons and bag limits will be of little use in saving the situation.—Omaha World Herald.
WAR ON THE CROW
The crow has always been an outlaw among birds. His black color and his raucous caw, together with his destructive habits, have combined to make him unpopular. In places where the crow has become altogether too numerous, a bounty has been placed on his head and hunters have found it profitable to shoot him. But in Nemaha county he has been safe only insofar as farmers have acted in defense of their crops or hunters took a shot just for the sport of the thing. As a result, there are altogether too many crows in Nemaha county.
If the crow were a game bird and good to eat, he would probably be as nearly extinct as the prairie chicken or as the quail once threatened to become. Instead he has multiplied rather than diminished in numbers.
But the crow has developed one bad habit that will lead to destruction. He has acquired an appetite for pheasant's eggs and, as bad habits generally result in the downfall of the man who acquires them, it is now evident that the crow will likewise perish.
Now that Nemaha county is to be stocked with pheasants, war will be declared against the marauding crow. It should be relentless warfare and made a part of the general program for protecting pheasants in this county.—Auburn Herald.
It has been many years since such large flights of waterfowl have been seen on the Platte river, in the spring, as at the present time, and their abundance is a subject of conversation everywhere.
Taking a trip from Kearney south, thence west and returning via the Odessa bridge, one will encounter an almost continuous flight of the birds, some flocks totalling a thousand head or more.
If one happens to be privileged to witness the birds at feeding time, he will find the grounds literally covered with them. Should they be geese the acres appear covered with a blanket of snow.
Big Canadas, brants and other varieties of geese' by the thousands are to be seen, along with ducks of almost all varieties common to this section of the country. One large intermingled flock was spotted yesterday afternoon, made up of teal, mallards, pintails, redheads and buffle heads, with a scattering of other varieties the writer was unable to identify.
Other waters, Lake Kearney and Cotton Mill lake, in this vicinity, also appear to be a haven for hundreds of ducks and, unmolested, they seem to take most kindly to their environment, thus encouraging the belief of bird lovers that many hundreds of these waterfowl will remain in central Nebraska over the breeding season.
For several seasons after the law against spring shooting was invoked, there was clamoring, loud and long, as to the merits of such ruling. Those opposed predicted it would not actually increase the numbers of birds in flight in the fall, during the hunting season. Others cast their lot with the federal experts who hoped and believed this would be the case.
Fall shooting, last season, was not of the best, but this was chiefly due to the open weather which prevailed during the sixty day season. It was not conducive to starting the flights southward, except in straggling lots, and while hunters enjoyed some shooting over the sixty day period, no notably large movements of birds was noted.—Kearney Hub.
CHADRON PARK NOW AMONG BEST(Continued from page 2) Skyline Trail
At this point the trail joins the drive by which we go over into the northwest portion of the Park covered by the Skyline Trail. The land covered by this trail is extremely rugged in character and While the trail requires more effort to travel, it also offers even greater rewards of scenic beauty.
We fill our canteens at the well beside the road and start the climb into a veritable fairyland of grotesque formations of rocks; cliffs into which the trail has been cut and blasted for safe footing; high plateaus from which we see the Black Hills of South Dakota a hundred miles away, overlooking nearly all of the Park and to the west rising from the rolling prairie we see Crow Butte, Whitney Lake and the majestic Trunk Butte outlined against the red and gold glory of the setting sun.
The trail follows along the east, north and west sides of an area one-half mile square, returning to our waiting cars at the point of beginning.
While the total length of the four trails permits covering all of them in a single day, they are best enjoyed in a more leisurely manner. One can spend a week profitably exploring the by-ways and less frequented areas ofj the Park. Then too, the scenic effects so vary with the time of day and weather conditions that every trip over the same trail yields thrills and pleasure anew.
PRAIRIE CHICKEN INCREASE
There has been a closed season on prairie chickens for the past four years and they have made a nice come back in all parts of the state where they had not been entirely killed off. Within a dozen miles of Albion there is one flock of between 75 and 80 prairie chickens and others have been reported close to Albion and we ar not considered in chicken territory. There has been a decided increase of chickens in the sandhill counties and ranchers are jealously guarding them against poachers. Probably one of the most relentless enemies of the prairie chicken is the crow and these big black birds are as much responsible as hunters for the present closed season. The law prevents a man from killing prairie chickens but it cannot control the actions of crows which break up the nests and eat the eggs. A federal bounty on crows is the only solution. Counties or state may offer bounties but it will take a nation-wide campaign to materially lessen the crow population.
The Sowers and the Reapers