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APRIL 1933 Devoted To The Conservation Of Nebraska Outdoor Resources
Fishing in a Platte Valley Sand Pit

Nebraska Looks Forward to Greater Outdoors


MORE businesslike and scientific management of building up Nebraska's outdoors.

That is the goal of the Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission which met recently and adopted a ten-year program. The plan is designed especially to coordinate policies and plans so that there will be less duplication and hit-or-miss activities and to insure definite results by carrying out a plan to its ultimate conclusion.

The great trouble in game and recreational management in the past has been a complete change of policy every two years, or every time there was a change of administration. This occurs in those states having a single appointive head of the department, who holds office for a short period of time. "When a new man comes in he usually junks his predecessor's plans, feeling he must have something different in order to make a showing. In many cases the new plan was altogether wrong and simply a waste of time and money.

Now that Nebraska has a five member commission, with all members holding office for five years and only one going off the board each year, it was felt that a definite program covering a goodly length of time could be put into effect and carried into fruition.

The plan adopted has first of all two general policies to be kept in mind when dealing with the various phases of the work.

The first policy is the business aspect and reads as follows:

"All phases of activity to the smallest detail shall be weighed carefully to ascertain if it is sound in principle and can be put into force economically. All activities shall be properly placed under budget control, and all budgets shall be fixed in advance by the Commission. Systematic control of expense shall be obtained by fixing responsibility of employees and providing a working method of control for all activities."

The 12- Point Program 1. More game birds. 2. More game fish. 3. Suitable hunting, fishing and recreation free to public. 4. Scientific studies of wild life resources. 5. Utilization of lowlands for fish production. 6. Utilization of waste land for game birds and forestation. 7. Better control of pollution, irrigation canals, ditches and rivers. 8. A state-wide system of game refuges. 9. Predatory animal and bird control. 10. More conservation education. 11. Better cooperation among sportsmen's and civic organizations and public agencies. 12. Better law enforcement.

The second general policy concerns the scientific end of the work and reads:

"All phases of activity involving propagation, food, suitability of water or cover, desirability of species, etc., shall be considered and weighed scientifically. Where new activities are undertaken, scientific investigation shall first be made to ascertain if scientifically correct in its premises. Scientific surveys should be undertaken and reports made for the guidance of committees and employees."

Following the general outline, comes the goal—the result to be obtained. The main purpose, of course, is to provide enough hunting, fishing and recreation for the people of Nebraska, but to do this twelve activities are outlined.

These follow:

1. "A ten-year plan of annual increase in such game birds as the Commission decides to stock.

2. A ten-year plan of annual increase of game fish, with the ultimate objective for the liberation of larger fish.

3. A ten-year plan of providing suitable hunting, fishing and recreation facilities, with the end that these shall be accessible to all the people of the state without trespass charge.

4. A plan of scientific study of all conditions affecting wild life, with particular stress placed upon cover, food and disease.

5. A plan of utilizing certain lands that can be flooded, thus taking the same out of agricultural production and placing them into production of fish and i game of which there is a distinct

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Will Nebraska Have Sufficient Fuel In Twenty-Five Years?


A$2,000,000.00 crop of fuel wood has been harvested in Nebraska during this winter of 1932-33, and a large portion of this came from trees that were planted by Nebraska's pioneers whose efforts in developing a raw prairie state were responsible for the name, "Nebraska, The Tree Planters' State." The major part of this enormous fuel crop came from land which is not suitable for the production of any other crops and unless replanted to trees will add considerably to Nebraska's idle acreage. Further, the need for cheap fuel will not be met in this winter alone, but will continue for possibly three or four winters during which time the tree population of the state will be greatly reduced. The fact that this fuel situation has been met by the foresight of early settlers is something in which Nebraska can feel considerable pride. However, it is our duty to see that young trees are planted in place of those being cut in order that the next generation may enjoy these same privileges. These trees have not only warmed many homes that might have otherwise been cold, but they have furnished a great deal of labor at a time when it was so badly needed.

Tree planting will utilize waste land and furnish constructive employment, says Nebraska's Extension Forester.

A rotation for forest trees in this state is from twenty-five to fifty years and for that reason it seems important that every encouragement be given to planting trees now for future use. There are now approximately five million forest trees planted in the state each year, but with an average loss of 30% the first year this leaves less than three and one-half million trees actually established. Without considering the losses from the time a tree is established until it reaches maturity, we are cutting at the present rate at least twice as much wood as we are producing. In the United States the consumption of forest products is forty per cent greater than the total forest growth,. The results of such procedure are inevitable and we are not fulfilling our duty as American citizens if we permit the depletion of any natural resource.

There are but three productive uses for large areas of land — agriculture, forests, and grazing. Of these, forests are the least exacting and can be established after the others have failed. It of course, is not expected that Nebraska will become an important lumber producing state, yet there are many practical phases of tree planting that can be given serious consideration by State, County, and City governments, and in fact by individual land owners. We have many striking examples of proper land use in European countries where abandoned farm land has been reclaimed with forests to the point of a stable population, whereas crop farming alone has failed.

A state forest planting program should take into consideration the practical phases of proper land use and rural home improvement. Tree planting should in no way interfere with continued agricultural development, but could be made a contributing factor to agriculture.

Trees can be planted for:

1. Wind protection for farm homes, farm lands and live stock.

2. Checking wind and water erosion, an enemy of agriculture whose damage can never be accurately estimated.

3. Utilizing waste corners of farm land for the production of fuel, posts, and rough lumber.

4. General rural home improvement.

5. Planting marginal agricultural land to tree species which will produce lumber.

These five phases of tree planting listed above are practical for the individual land owner but he cannot be expected to consider extensive land reclamation for the purposes of checking stream bank erosion, planting headwaters of streams, and other similar projects which are of public rather than private benefit. However, I believe that every land owner would welcome an opportunity to lend his support to such public improvements.

Every City and County government in Nebraska has as a part of its duty


Pine Trees in the Pine Ridge Country

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Aquatic Plants Help Fish and Bird Life


MANY Nebraska ponds and lakes could be made much more attractive to fish and birds by the interduction of aquatic vegetation. This is particularly true with Sand-pits and ponds in southeastern Nebraska, where there is a lack of food for fish and birds.

In order that those who are interested in making aquatic plantings may secure the proper plants, the following information will be of help: —

1st—Wild Rice.

Wild rice is not one of the most essential plants or food for waterfowl because as a food it is only available during a limited period while ripening in the fall, and benefits only the mature birds. It is not available during hatching season. Early in September it begins to ripen and this ripening continues for about three weeks. The lower seed ripens first and gradually the ripening continues on up to the top. The entire plant is never ripe at one time. The ripened rice falls into the water and the long, barb end embeds itself into the rich, soft bottom soil and there lies dormant until the following spring. If the seed is to be used for planting purposes it must be kept wet and cool from gathering to planting time. Stored in fresh water at low temperature and in darkness is the best. It must be wrapped in wet moss and in small lots for shipment as seed, so it will not heat. Drying out or heating will ruin its fertility. Bays in fresh water lakes, or shallow, muddy shore lines of slow moving streams are ideal for its propagation. Eight to eighteen inches of water is a good depth for plantng. High and low varying extremes of water are detrimental. You plant by casting it broadcast over the water area to be planted. The seed if ripe will sink. About 5 0 pounds covers an acre in space. Its care in gathering, cleaning, storing and packing are the things which spell success or failure for the one who purchases it for seed, provided, of course, the bottom soil and water conditions where planted are right and suitable.


Vegetation of this kind is good for both Birds and Fish

The Wapato, or Duck Potato, is a shallow water plant and produces a tuber at its root which this specie of waterfowl especially desire. They can dip down and reach this tuber, which lies buried in the mud near shore, after the plant has rotted away. There are different varieties of this plant but all are known easily by the arrow shaped leaves. Stagnant pools produce good Wapatoes. The tubers are planted in fall or spring by pushing them into the soft mud bottom a few inches. About 1000 of these tubers will plant an acre in area. They reseed and spread rapidly.

Duck Meat, the small clover-like little leaf which floats on stagnant pools and lakes, is a favorite puddler duck food. At a distance it sometimes looks like a green scum on the water. The entire plant is eaten. This also attracts fish.

The Spatterdock or yellow Water Lily is a favorite for Puddlers, especially its seeds—that is the part that they like best.

Bur-Reed grows on the shore and the seeds are relished by Puddlers.

Wild Duck Millet is a heavy seed producer and is easily propagated on muddy flats around lakes or on rich

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Lilies harbor countless insect life upon which small fish feed.


Nebraska's More Important Fish

THE Black Bass belongs to the sunfish family.

There are two varieties, the largemouth (Micropyerus salmoides), and the small-mouth (Micropyerus Dolomieu). Most of those found in Nebraska are the large-mouth, though both varieties are stocked by the state. They are great fighters and popular with sportsmen.

The large-mouth Black Bass is found in considerable numbers in the SandHill Lake Region and along the Platte River in sandpit lakes. In fact, some of the sandhill lakes offer as good bass fishing as is to be found in the middle west.

The bass feeds on minnows, crawfish, night crawlers, insects and flies. It is best to cast for the bass, using any good standard plug. Bass are sometimes taken with flies, and also with crawfish. When using crawfish use a long pole and let the bait move slowly across the bottom of lake.

The large-mouth bass is propagated by the State of Nebraska and thousands of them are planted annually. These fish cannot be hatched artificially. The female carries from 2,000 to 10,000 eggs.


The Rock Bass (amploblites rupestris) belongs to the sunfish family.

This fish can be found in some of the Sandhill Lakes, also a few of them have been planted along the Platte River. He thrives in clear water ponds and lakes and he is quite gamey.

The Rock Bass feeds on minnows, angle worms, insects and flies. He is a splendid pan fish.

This fish is propagated by the State of Nebraska and a limited number are planted each year. The female usually carries from 1,000 to 2,000 eggs at spawning time.


The trout belongs to the salmon family.

There are four varieties of trout now found in Nebraska. First and most important are the Rainbow (Salmo Irideus); the Brook (Salvelinus Fontinalis) ; the Brown, and Loch Leven. The Rainbow and Brook trout are the most common.

The Rainbow is fast coming to the front in Nebraska. Many streams have been stocked with this fish in the last few years. He thrives best in the small, swift streams of the northwestern part of the state, in the Pine Ridge Area and in the tributaries of the Niobrara River. Many of them are now raised in irrigation ditches and reservoirs in western Nebraska.

Both the Rainbow and Brook (or Speckled) Trout feed on flies, insects, minnows, grasshoppers, worms and salmon eggs. Great sport can be had in fishing for trout with flies. Watch the trout feed and use flies accordingly.

The trout is hatched artificially at State Hatcheries. Several million eggs are hatched each year. Hatching begins in January and continues to April each year. The female carries from 5,000 to 12,000 eggs.

PERCH (Yellow or Ringed)

The Yellow or Ringed Perch (Perca Flavescens) belongs to the perch family.

The perch is readily identified by yellow rings which circle his body. They are very abundant in the sandhill lakes of northern Nebraska, where thousands of them are taken every year. He is a fine pan fish and quite easily taken.

The perch feeds on angle worms, minnows, and small insects, but they can usually be taken with any bit of meat. Many of them are taken through the ice during the winter months.

The perch is not raised at Nebraska Hatcheries because thousands and thousands of them hatch naturally in lakes, ponds, irrigation ditches and river overflows.

The female carries from 15,000 to 100,000 eggs at spawning time. The eggs are concealed in ribbons from ten to thirty feet long, which are hung upon reeds.


The crappie (Pomoxis Annularis) belongs to the sunfish family. He is sometimes known as "eroppie." Either spelling is correct.

This fish is found in all parts of Nebraska, especially in lakes and sandpit lakes or sloughs. He is easily caught taking bait readily.

The crappie feeds on minnows, insects and flies. Most crappie fishermen use minnows, though they frequently bite readily on worms.

Thousands of crappie are hatched at state hatcheries or transplanted each year. Many lakes and ponds have too many and these are taken to waters where fishing is heavier. The female usually carries 3,000 to 10,000 eggs.


The Blue Gill (Lepomis Pallidus) and the Pumpkin Seed (Eupomotis Gibbosus) belong to the sunfish family. Both of these varieties, are found in large numbers in Nebraska.

The Blue Gill is found in large numbers in the shallow lakes in the sandhill region where he thrives. While he does not get very large he is quite gamey and an excellent pan fish.

The Blue Gill and Pumpkin Seed both feed on angle worms, field and water crickets, grasshoppers, insects and flies. The Blue Gill will readily take a fly.

The female sunfish carries from 1,000 to 2,500 eggs at spawning time.


The catfish family is a large one. The following members are found in Nebraska: Channel (Ictalurus Punctarus) ; Blue Cat (Ictalurus Furcatus) ; Yellow Cat (Ameriurus Lacustris); Mud Cat

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Can You Answer These

1. Name three native fish of Nebraska? 2. What three important fish tvere brought into Nebraska? 3. To what family do Trout belong? 4. In what part of Nebraska are Perch found in large numbers? 5. Name two species of Sunfish? 6. What fish is the most common in Nebraska? 7. What food fish is found in large numbers in the Platte River? 8. What is the origin of the Carp? 9. How many eggs does a female Bass lag? 10. Name seven Nebraska fish. Answers to questions found on Page 11.


Official Publication of The Nebraska State Game Forestation and Parks s^M^s. Commission COMMISSIONERS Chas. W. Bryan, Chairman E. R. Purcell George B. Hastings Guy R. Spencer M. M. Sullivan J. B. Douglas Frank B. O'Connell EDUCATION & PUBLICATION COMMITTEE J. B. Douglas, Chairman E. R. Purcell Frank B. O'Connell EDITOR Frank B. O'Connell Vol. VIII APRIL, 1933 No. 2 The Commission's Program GAME: Statewide pheasant hunting. Rehabilitation of the quail. Stocking of Hungarian partridge. Reserves and feeding grounds for migratory waterfowl. Public shooting grounds. FISH: Fish for every angler. Reduced cost and common sense business in fish production. Good fishing at state-owned lakes where public can fish free. Preservation of lakes. RECREATION: A statewide system of recreation grounds for Nebraska citizens. Shade and picnicking facilities at fishing lakes. Conservation of Nebraska's outdoors. LAW ENFORCEMENT: Equality for all. Constant war against the despoiler and destroyer of wild life. Strict observance of game laws by all citizens. EDUCATION: Appreciation of Nebraska's outdoors through education. Make the boys and girls of tomorrow lovers of wild creatures and nature's handiwork. Cooperation of all citizens to the end that Nebraska shall have suitable recreation and wholesome outdoor activities. Program of forestation throughout Nebraska. GENERAL: Full value to the purchaser of hunting and fishing permits. Square deal to farmers and sportsmen. Stabilization of water in Platte River. BUY YOUR PERMIT NOW!


"Get that Crow" has become the slogan of many sportsmen. The crow has been found to be a great enemy of all bird life.

All chapters of the Izaak Walton League, posts of the American Legion and other interested groups should organize hunts for these pests. Unless their number is reduced they will wipe out all other species of birds in many localities.

The Ten-Year Program

The adoption of a ten year program of building up Nebraska Outdoors has not only received the commendation of the state press and many citizens of Nebraska, but it has attracted attention elsewhere.

Paul A. Redington, Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture, writes as follows:

"I took great pleasure last night in reading your '10-year program'. Apparently the whole field of recreation has been considered most thoroughly and I congratulate the Nebraska Commission on its splendid conception of a very constructive plan. This is one of the most forward looking moves that has taken place in any state. I want to assure the Nebraska Commission that within the limit of our resources we shall give all of the cooperation that is desired." Another letter from Earl A. Fry, of Seattle, Washington, a Western authority in game affairs, reads in part:— "May I take this opportunity of congratulating the Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission in adopting the 'Ten-Year Outdoor Program'. It shows the same constructive spirit which has always dominated the Nebraska will possibly be interested to learn that the State of Oregon has just adopted the Nebraska scrip plan of bird shooting."

Roosevelt for Outdoors

What will President Roosevelt do to aid in restoring wild life?

This question is being asked by sportsmen of three countries, according to a Bulletin of the American Game Association; for the United States, Canada and Mexico are mutually interested in a number of species of migratory birds and wild fowl that frequent all three countries. There are some 15,000,000 hunters and fishermen in the United States alone, and several million more in Canada and Mexico.

President Roosevelt is a conservationist. His record of achievement as governor of New York is pointed to with satisfaction and some degree of hope by the sportsmen; they believe that his state attitude may   OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 7 foreshadow a national inclination.

While reforestation holds the spotlight in his conservation activities, Mr. Roosevelt has done much to restore fish and game through the New York state game commission, which he caused to be reorganized. Forestation and reforestation will help both fish and game immeasurably in an indirect way, officials of the American Game Association point out. However there is another phase of conservation that needs attention immediately—the elimination of pollution from all public waters. Nearly every river and many of its small tributaries are nothing more than running sewers, officials of the Association declare. This condition is a menace to public health and takes its toll in human life every year, to say nothing of making the streams unfit for any kind of useful aquatic life. "There is need for a definite and comprehensive national plan for land use," Mr. Roosevelt has said. "The first step in this direction would be to conduct a soil survey of the entire nation. This action would separate the profitable from the submarginal agricultural land. Farm lands which are unprofitable should be used to raise crops of timber instead of annual staple crops." Therein lies hope, sportsmen declare, and they are further hoping that he will include direct restoration of wild life and elimination of pollution in his program, the Association bulletin says.

Trees Demonstrate Their Worth

"If there ever was a time in the history of Nebraska when we should plant trees it is now," says Outdoor Nebraska.

The advice is undoubtedly good. There never was a time when Nebraska had more trees than were good for it, and the past two years have seen heavy inroads made on its comparatively scanty crop. In the warmth they have furnished as firewood our trees have been given an impressive demonstration of how very valuable they may be in an emergency. Not only should they be replaced for all the other reasons that make tree planting desirable but for the benefit of a future generation, which may find as urgent need for a handy firewood supply as many are finding it now.

Forest conservationists have long urged the remission of taxes on land devoted to growing a forest crop until that crop has reached maturity and become marketable. It takes so long for trees to mature that persons who might plant trees as a commercial venture are unwilling to gamble annual taxes against a crop that can be harvested only once in about 50 years.

Whether a policy of tax remission would stimulate extensive tree planting in Nebraska is doubtful but the suggestion is interesting in connection with the current proposal to remit taxes on crop land which the farmer volunteers to withdraw from production.----Lincoln Daily Star.


Dr. M. M. Sullivan

The Nebraska Game Commission loses an old member and gains a new one each year. All members hold office for five years, thus the commission as a whole is made up of men familiar with the work.

The neiv member appointed in 1933 is Dr. M. M. Sullivan of Spalding, ivhose likeness is shown herein. Dr. Sullivan is a prominent citizen and sportsman of northern Nebraska. He has hunted and fished for many years and is a great lover of the outdoors. He is a man of wide business experience and mature judgment, and therefore will be of great value to the Nebraska Commission.


Commission Field Activities


The ditch leading from Gordon Creek to five meandered Cherry county lakes was opened this spring and reports indicate that a flow of approximately 7 5 acre feet a day is heing obtained.

The ditch was constructed last fall when it was found that these lakes were exceedingly low and a great loss of fish would result in the next three or four years unless means were found to replenish the water supply.

With a large flow of water diverted into these lakes, they should now be in excellent shape and their value for fishing greatly improved.


With the advent of spring, fish distribution is again under way. The Commission hopes to stock three quarters of a million adult bullheads this year. It is also planned to trap as many channel catfish as possible from the Missouri and lower Platte and to stock them in smaller streams, especially above power dams. A considerable number of crappie will also be distributed from the hatcheries.


The Nebraska fish hatcheries are making an attempt this year to propagate channel catfish. Up until this time none of these fish have been raised in any of the state hatcheries.

The State of Kansas has been experimenting with channel catfish for a number of years and have finally found the equipment and food which has proved partically successful. Last summer the Nebraska Commission sent several of the Nebraska hatchery superintendents to Kansas to study the methods in use, and this year the work will be begun here. Special equipment is required in the work. The hatchery troughs must have agitations which keep the water in constant motion, similar to a running stream. Great care must he exercised in the feeding of the baby fish after hatching, as they are very delicate and require certain foods such as dried buttermilk, fish oil, etc.


Antelope County Hunters Swat the Crow


Bass and Perch from Pelican Lake (Cherry County)


Mr. Guy R. Spencer of the Nebraska Commission has been devoting considerable study to pond production at the several Nebraska hatcheries. Commissioner Spencer has been endeavoring to ascertain just how many fish can he reared to the acre of water, and what effect fertilization of ponds have on production.

The following results were obtained in the study made during the summer of 19 32, and Mr. Spencer reports:

"The total bass production of the hatcheries exclusive of those ponds yet to be drained is as follows:

Fingerling Fry Valentine ............129,207 45,000 Sub-Station ..........108,519 Rock Creek ____ 69,007 Gretna.................. 15,449 85,000 Benkelman no Bass 322,182 130,000

These were raised in 48.02 acres of water by 472 spawner bass, averaging 682 fingerling and 27 5 fry per spawner and 6,70 9 fingerling and 2,707 fry per acre.

Average production per acre and stocking per acre of the several hatcheries follow:

Finger- Spawner ling Fry Per Acre Valentine ......5,865 2,042 11 Sub-Station ....7,993 ........ 4.5 Rock Creek ....6,572 ........ 8.6 Gretna..........6,896 37,946 26.

For comparison, last year's averages follow:

Finger- Spawner ling Fry Per Acre Valentine ___4,297 400 10 Sub-Station ....3,216 676 3 Rock Creek & Benkelman 3,857 45 7 Gretna _______2,203 6,357 31

"The best ponds were Nos. 17 and 11 at Valentine, 1.44 and .56 acres respectively. No. 17 produced fingerling at the rate of 2 8,680 per acre and No. 11 at 22,2S9 per acre—1,877 and 1,040 fingerling per spawner. These two and little No. 3 at Gretna were the best—proportionately—of all ponds at all hatcheries. The Gretna pond .23 acres, stocked with 4 males and 7 females, turned out bass at the rate of 22,082 fingerling and 43,487 fry per acre."

"The poorest ponds, were Nos. 2 and 8 at the Valentine sub-station, producing 4 61 and 69 7 fingerling per acre— 150 and 3 62 per spawner. However, the young bass averaged larger than any other pond in the hatcheries, fire inches."

"No. 9, Valentine sub-station next in the series to 8 made the best showing of any of the sub-station ponds: 16,221 per acre, 7,462 per spawner. Last year these same ponds (then No. 9 and 10) made a somewhat relative showing, No. 8 producing 550 per acre and No. 9 4,234 per acre. It would be interesting   OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 9 to know why these two ponds situated on the same stream, next to each other, apparently exactly alike have in those two years shown so much difference in producing possibilities.


"A good many of the crappie ponds will not be drained until spring so the pan fish figures are very incomplete but here's what I have to date:

"Crappie" At the rate of Per Acre Valentine ............398,586 25,068 Sub-Station .......... 42,620 9,796 Benkelman.......... 9,856 20,917 Gretna.................. 41,000 14,822 Total ................490,062 "Sunfish and Rock Bass" At the rate of Per Acre Valentine............ 18,733 13,773 Rock Creek..........161,286 32,387 Benkelman.......... 19,025 24,781 Gretna.................. 2,7 00 Total ___..........201,744 Total Pan Fish 691,806

"The Gretna sunfish, except for the experimental pond, were from ponds in which crappie were spawned and no per acre figures which would mean anything could be made. The Valentine figures do not include some 3,540 Blue Gills and Rock Bass taken from a pond in which Fair stuff was held all summer and should be added to the above totals."

"Besides the above fish we are hatching around 100,000 trout at Gretna each year. We also trap and distribute through the Gretna Hatchery some 75,000 catfish each year."

The following letter from Al Swanson, well known Omaha sportsman and brother of Harry Swansoh, Secretary of State, explains how he recovered from a recent accident. It seems Al has the right system which is superior to remaining in a hospital. His letter follows:

"Glad to get your letter of the 16th. It seems good to hear from Nebraska when you are 2000 miles away. We like it here at Miami (Florida) very much. It is the most beautiful spot I ever hope to see, and the climate is ideal. We go ocean bathing every day and are getting as brown as Indians. My neck is improving—I am giving it all the sun and exercise I can stand.

"We have been out deep sea fishing several times. We go out into the ocean and Gulf Stream about 2 6 miles from Miami, and it certainly is a thrilling adventure. Fishing here is an entirely different sort of a story than in the lakes in our middle west. We fish part of the time among the coral reefs, where the water is as clear as crystal and you can see the bottom of the ocean, with its wonderful coral formations, and see the different fish swimming around, and see what happens to your bait, too. My wife had an experience that was quite interesting. While trawling with a ballyboo bait, about 10 inches long, a mackerel got on her hook, and as she started to reel in, a huge barracuda came up and snapped the mackerel almost off leaving just the head, then a Gruper, which the captain thought must have weighed about 500 pounds, snapped the head and hook, but in the fight that followed, the Gruper made for the rocks, and got underneath one, which was the finish, as it broke the swivel. This incident happened in the coral fishing hole where we could see the whole thing. On this particular trip, we caught sixteen Barracuda weighing from 15 to 35 pounds each. The Barracuda is a vicious fighter,—they have large pointed teeth which are very dangerous.

"On another trip out, we left at 4 o'clock in the morning, and the sunrise out on the ocean is something too beautiful for words. On this trip, one party got a 4 or 5 pound parrot fish on his bait, while reeling it in, a huge amber jack, weighing over 50 pounds grabbed the parrot fish. It took 3 5 minutes to land that jack. On this same trip we got a good many different species. Grupers, Barracudas, Wahoos, amber jacks, red snappers; also I happened to get one which is very rarely caught in these waters. It was a triple tailed fish of the Gruper family, weighing about nine pounds. It is so rare, that the taxidermist is forwarding a cast of it to Washington, D. C, for identification. The Rod and Reel club of Miami Beach, of which I am now a member, are having it mounted to add to their collection. I understand there are over 7 00 different kinds of fish in the ocean. It is my ambition now to get a sail fish and a marlin, which are two of the gamiest fish, they tell me, and very, very wary."


Two large reforestation projects in the Pine Ridge district and along the Platte valley will take precedence over others when President Roosevelt's reforestation program extends to Nebraska.

The state Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, recommended the Pine Ridge and the Platte valley projects as deserving of attention if federal funds are expended in Nebraska.

The Pine Ridge project would involve replanting of hundreds of small seedling pines, growing in clusters now, along the Ridge and in the Niobrara river valley country.

All the islands and sandbars along the Platte rover have thousands of Cottonwood and elm seedlings growing. These could be removed and transplanted in the adjacent farming areas and waste lands.

The game commission recommended several other projects that could be started to employ men. These included forestation work on school lands, soil erosion work, and work at the Nebraska national forests and at the Crescent game refuge in Garden county.


Entrance to Chadron State Park


Outdoor Gossip

By the Editor'

Citizens of Nebraska and visitors to the state should visit one or both of Nebraska's two national forests. The larger of these is located in Thomas county near Halsey and the other forest is located in northern Cherry county. Here thousands of acres of arid land have been transformed to pine forests. Small trees by the millions are raised and distributed throughout the state. These two forests show the visitor amazing transformation of the sand hills into beautiful forests and are very interesting to see.

* * * * *

Old timers who hunted and fished in Nebraska in the early days were saddened to learn of the death of John S. Kirkpatrick who at one time served as a member of the Nebraska Game and Fish Commission. He served when Governor Holcomb headed the state government.

* * * * *

Residents of Inman, Nebraska were shown an albino pheasant, which was killed by a dog. The bird was snow white.

* * * * *

A freight train near Holbrook, Nebraska killed a buffalo recently. Sounds like old times. The animal escaped from a pen on the W. A. Luther farm and parked itself on the railroad track. Not so very long ago—last winter —seventy-six Nebraska buffalo on the federal preserve near Valentine were killed by drowning, while attempting to cross the river on the ice.

* * * * *

Two deer have been seen on farms a few miles north of Greeley the last few weeks. The animals probably have strayed from the Nebraska National Forest near Halsey, where there is quite a herd of the fleet-footed creatures.


Two walnut trees, produced on the historic Gettysburg battlefied were planted recently at the State recreation grounds near Arnold. They were secured by Eleanor Mudd.


Clarence Mitchell, big time ball player, keeps himself fit during the winter months by hunting Nebraska coyotes. This winter he took over 40 with his dogs. Most of them were taken in territory near Franklin.


Blair citizens were in a quandary recently to identify a strange creature that was part fish and part mammal. It turned out to be a fresh-water lizard, better known to sportsmen as a "water puppy." These creatures are quite numerous in certain alkaline lakes in northern Nebraska.


Farmers in western Nebraska are being damaged by semi-wild dogs, including police dogs and collies. These dogs gathered in a pack near Gurley and attacked livestock on several farms.


Is This Picture Upside Down?

A Cormorant, brought down by mistake by Mr. Chas. Burke while hunting last fall near Bassett has been identified by the TJ. S. Biological Survey. This particular bird was banded by Arthur Lloyd, at Davison, Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1929. Two birds were banded by Mr. Lloyd. The other one was shot in South America.


The Nebraska Game Commission gave the TJ. S. Army twelve pheasants this spring to be used as breeding stock on the Fort Sell military reservation in Oklahoma.


Frank F. Simpson of Omaha brought five partridges to Nebraska from India last month. The birds are considerably larger than quail and are claimed to be a better table bird than the Chinese pheasant.

Nebraska farmers from 7 0 counties have expressed a desire to plant trees this spring and it is expected that 8 5 0,000 seedlings will be planted for windbreaks and woodlots. This forestry project, as sponsored by the agriculture extension service and local farm bureaus with the co-operation of the state nurserymen's association, is becoming nationally known.


York's champion fisherman, W. L. Kirkpatrick, caught a 55 inch muskellunge, weighing 53 p o u n d s at St. Francis, Ontario last summer. The "muskie" has been mounted and will be shown at Morrill Hall, University of Nebraska.


What is believed to be the largest tree in Wayne county was cut down on the Ed Trevert farm this winter. The tree, a cottonwood, was planted 63 years ago by Isaac Richardson. It was 9 0 feet in height and measured over 15 feet around at the base.


Fishermen in the southeastern part of the state will be restricted to a day's catch of 15 under regulations of the state game commission announced recently.

The bag limit—day's catch—for the state as a whole is 2 5 and the most which the individual can legally have in his possession is 5 0. Under a new law, the game commission has the authority to fixe the limit at the various state lakes in order to conserve the fish in these waters.

The bag limit and also the possession limit was fixed at 15 by the commission at its meeting Monday for ten lakes where fishing is the heaviest. Not more than five of the fish can be bass. Waters in this class are: Cottonmille lake at Kearney, Louisville sand pits, Fremont sand pits, and the Oxford, Memphis, Litchfield, Loup City, Alexandria, Arnold and Verdon lakes. The last three of these lakes have not yet been opened to fishing, however.

The bag limit is fixed at 2 5, not more than 10 of them bass, for the Pibal lake in Greeley county and the Wellfleet lake in Lincoln county.


A proclamation for the observance of Arbor day, April 22, was issued recently by Governor Bryan.



Many Nebraskans at this time of year are asking about where and when to go fishing.

As to the time to go, it is best to consult the weather man. However, good bags of catfish, crappies and perch are taken early in the season. The season is now open on all these fish, as well as bass and trout. The bass season closes May 1st to June 10th (unless changed by the Legislature now in session) and the trout season opened April 1st.

When it comes to stating where to go, the problem is more difficult. Those fishermen residing in northern and western Nebraska, however, should have no difficulty in finding a place to fish. Those persons living in southeastern Nebraska should get a copy of "Outdoors in Nebraska" which is furnished free of charge by the Nebraska Game Commission.

Generally speaking one should go to the drainage ditches of Scotts Bluff and Morrill counties, or the rivers of Sioux, Dawes, Sheridan and Cherry counties for trout. For bass and perch the lakes in Cherry, Brown, Grant and Sheridan counties are considered the best. For crappies try the Platte river, Sandpits, state-owned lakes and Missouri river cutoff lakes.

* # * * *

How big do game fish grow? That is a question asked by many anglers. Here are the prize winners in 1932. Have you caught any bigger than these.

Brook Trout Weight—9 lbs. 12 oz. caught on September 9th, 193 2 at Silver Lake, California with a Cahill fly.

Brown Trout Weight—10 lbs. 8 oz. caught on August 18th, 1932 at Meade Pond, West Plattsburg, N. Y., with a South Bend Feath-Oreno.

Rainbow-Steelhead Trout Weight—14 lbs. 4 oz. caught on June 1st, 1932 at Little Manistee River, Michigan with a No. 6 Royal Coachman fly.

Lake Trout Weight—41 lbs. 4 oz. caught on September 27th, 193 2 at Lake Superior, Isle Royal, Mich, with a Spoon.

Small-Mouth Black Bass Weight—8 lbs. 11 oz. caught on June 30th, 1932 at Pate's Pond, N. C. with a Creek Chub Bait.

Large-Mouth Black Bass Weight—8 lbs. 8 oz. caught on May 1st, 1932 at Merced River, near Snelling, Calif, with a Al Foss Oriental Wiggler.

Big Fish

Outdoor Nebraska would like to tell some big fish stories this year.

If you catch a big one in Nebraska, send in a report and if possible a photograph of your whopper. These will be published from time to time.

Come on, all you anglers, and let's see who captures the biggest fish in the season of 1933. Only fish taken in Nebraska are eligible to this contest.

Muskellunge Weight—58 pounds 4 oz. caught on September 24th, 1932 at Lake of the Woods, Ont., with a Pikie Minnow.

Great Northern Pike Weight—28 lbs. 8 oz. caught on September 24th 1932 at Green Lake, P. Q., Can. with a Spoon.

Wall Eyed Pike Weight—14 lbs. 2 oz. caught on July 29th, 1932 at Lake Rudolph, Wisconsin with a June Bug.

Crappie Weight—3 lbs. 8 oz. caught on June 1st, 1932 at Lake Okmulgee, Oklahoma with a live minnow.

Striped Bass Weight—46 lbs. 8 oz. caught on September 7th, 19 3 2 at Newport, R. I. with a mackerel.

Channel Bass Weight—63 lbs. 4 oz. caught on July 14th, 1932 at Browne Inlet, N. C. with a Salt Mullet.

Weakflsh Weight—16 lbs. caught on May 13th, 19 32 at Jessup's Neck, L. I. N. Y. with a shrimp.

Bluefish Weight—13 lbs. 12 oz. caught on May 3rd, 1932 at Palm Beach Inlet, Fla. with a Kingfisher.


Success or failure in landing big trout often may depend upon the tackle. For this reason, the time to check angling equipment is not when a coveted brook or brown trout rushes toward a snag, but during long winter evenings devoted to planning that trout fishing trip. Following are some timely suggestions on fishing tackle repairs submitted by Howard W. Morris, tackle expert, of South Greensburg, Penn.

Examine the fly rod carefully. In this checkup, particular attention should be given the windings, loosened ferrules, cracked or broken tip joints, or perhaps a guide that may be nearly worn through.

First try the end of the line that was used last season, ascertaining that there are no weak spots. This may be accomplished by taking about two feet of line at a time between the hands, giving it a series of light jerks. The entire line should be checked in this manner. If weak spots are found in the portion used last season, the line may be reversed for use this year. But if doubt exists, a new line is perhaps the most logical solution of the problem.

Last year's leaders are seldom trustworthy, if they were used during the season. Leaders that were not used may be given a test by soaking thoroughly in water, and then submitting them to a steady pull to determine their strength. Preparatory to starting on that fishing trip, it is advisable to soak two leaders thoroughly, placing them between damp layers of cloth in a leader box or paper wrapping. Weak leaders are responsible for the loss of many fine trout each season.

Selection of flies for a day stream is of first consequence. It is generally advisable to have at least two flies of the same pattern, and a number of different varieties of flies in the book. A number of strikes on an artificial fly frequently fray it, making necessary a change to a new fly.

Answers to Questions on Page Five

1. Catfish, buffalo and bullheads. 2. Trout, bass and perch. 3. Salmon family. 4. Sandhill lakes. 5. Bluegill and Pumpkinseed. 7. Channel catfish. 8. Imported from 0 e r many. 9. From 2,000 to 10,000. 10. Bass, Trout, Perch, Catfish, Sunfish, Bullheads, Crappie.

A drop of oil in each bearing of a   12 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA reel is usually sufficient to keep it in working order. More oil may spread to the line, with the result that a slight film of oil on the water will accompany each cast. Exceptional care should be taken in keeping water from the reel as grit and sand in water are harmful to reel bearings.


A good rod soon makes a friend of the fisherman. Such a rod should in turn receive good treatment in order to prolong its usefulness.

Care should be taken in joining a rod. Lubricate by rubbing the inner ferrule along the nose or through the hair and join the tip to the middle section, putting the butt on last. The tip is the most delicate part and should not be subjected to undue strain.

In taking down the rod, grasp the section firmly in both hands, holding the butt away from you and the tip underneath the arm. Pull apart, removing the butt, then the middle joint from the tip, just the opposite as done in assembling. If the rod joints stick tightly, a good way to disjoint is by slightly stooping, holding the rod or two sections underneath the knees. Then grasp the two sections of the rod with the two hands and press outwardly against them with the knees. Do not pull with the hands, but let the knees do the work. This method will disjoint most sticky rods and will eliminate the danger of sudden jerking and breaking. Never twist a rod either in putting together or disjointing, and keep all pressure off the guides. In extremely bad cases, where the rod is badly gummed," drop a little kerosene around the rim of the ferrules and let stand a day or two.

In case a section of your rod is accidentally bent, lay the bent section on a board and drive in two nails, one near each end. Then bend the rod section back to a little more than straight and secure that position by driving in a third nail. A week or so of this treatment will take the "set" out sufficiently so that you can finish the job by hanging the section up with a weight attached to the bottom.

All split bamboo rods should be kept well varnished, as so doing will greatly prolong their usefulness.

When placing a rod away for the winter, all split bamboo rods should be stored in a moderately cool place as heat shrinks the mountings. Hang up the rod by the tip. The suspended weight will straighten any tendency to "set" that may have developed during the fishing season. Lubricate the ferrules with vaseline before hanging up.

Ridding the Elkhorn Valley of Crows


DURING the early winter of 1922, the Elkhorn valley from O'Neill to West Point was literally overrun with crows. Great flocks of the black pests swarmed everywhere. From every part of the valley came stories of depredations committed by the bold robbers. Eyes were pecked from new born pigs and calves. Eggs were stolen from hen's nests. Housewives told of raids made upon flocks of baby chicks the previous summer, many being carried away in the beaks of crows. Hog cholera was prevalent. It was evident that the spread of the disease was due to those birds. And thus so much guilt was fastened upon Corvus Amej-icanus that gunners of Antelope and Madison counties organized to make systematic war upon the crow wherever it flew or roosted.

Late in January, 1923, a crow shooting contest was arranged between the two counties mentioned. A captain for each county was elected and it was agreed that the county making the greatest kill during the month of February would be entertained at a banquet provided by the losers. The captains appointed lieutenants in each neighborhood to organize squads ready for action at daylight February first.

The eventful morning came and with it a bombardment that echoed and reechoed along a battle front of one hundred miles. All sorts of mechanical crow calls, live and manufactured decoys, and even live cats and stuffed owls were used to lure the black rascals to their doom. It was interesting to note that these wise birds soon caught on that every man's hand was against them. Where one sentinel had formerly been to give warning of danger a dozen were stationed in trees or on fence posts. In spite of all such precautions gunners found no difficulty in making telling shots every few moments from daylight until dark for several days.

After the first week the ranks of the birds had become thinned and survivers were more wary. They no longer came to calls and decoys as readily as before. A new plan of warfare was then instituted. Squads sallied forth in the night to shoot out crow loosts. The real killings were then made. A squad would creep upon a roost and surround it. At a given signal all " would fire into the black mass and as the crows arose in clouds guns were emptied into the fluttering flock. It was reported that in one instance over seven hundred birds were killed by one volley by one squad armed with automatics and repeaters.

And so the slaughter continued all through the month. The last week, however, added but few pairs of feet to the collections. Some of the wiser old birds evidently decided that it was time to sound retreat. Many flocks were seen to circle high in the air and then sail off to the north or south and disappear in the distance. But wise as crows are said to be they must have forgotten the harsh treatment for thousands again nested along the valley that spring.

In February 1924 another organized hunt was arranged. During this campaign nearly twenty thousand crows were killed and since then their numbers have been limited to a few scattered flocks. It is reported that there is a marked increase in many localities this winter. It is well to declare another war upon these destructive birds right now, as every female that nests means a half dozen more to break up nests of game and song birds.


Warbonnet battlefield is on Warbonnet Creek in the extreme northwestern part of Nebraska. Here the Fifth Cavalry ,under the command of General Merritt, fought the Cheyenne Indians. Chief Yellow Hand was killed here. It is claimed by some that this chief was slain by Buffalo Bill.

President Roosevelt proposes as a practical relief measure for the unemployed to establish and maintain camps to care for 250,000 men to be employed in forestry work, consisting to a great extent of the planting of a large area to trees. We of Nebraska who were honored by the presence, precepts and example of the greatest tree planter of all time in the person of J. Sterling Morton during the greater part of his lifetime, commend the foresight and judgment of our president in this movement.



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the care and development of the area under its jurisdiction. At the present time they are faced with the problem of furnishing and even creating employment in order to care for families who are victims of the curtailment program. Much of this employment during the present winter has been the harvesting of trees for fuel. These fuel projects have been handled under several different plans, but all have served a very worth while purpose. However, unless someone takes the lead in replanting these cut-over areas the next economic depression may find our supply of timber insufficient to meet the demand. This will not be the fault of the trees, but the fault of those who failed to plant them.

What City or County governments, or organizations within these units, can do:

Plant city or county forests for the primary purpose of employing labor but also to furnish future fuel.

These can be a series of small units, if large areas of land are not available, including banks of streams, waste land, or tracts owned by the city or county where trees would add to their value. In some states land owners have executed leases to city or county governments on idle or waste land providing such land was planted to trees and that the owner receive one-fourth of any harvested products. If the land is unproductive such a plan should appeal to the owner because it would increase the value of adjoining land even though three-fourths of the final crop belonged to a city or county government.

The cost of such a project:

The problem of financing such a project is the first to solve, but since the majority of expense is labor, money that is being used for direct relief could be disbursed through this labor project. Or money can be borrowed from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to carry on constructive reforestation programs. Records show that some City and County forests have developed into satisfactory investments although this should not be the primary consideration. The cost for planting stock; labor for planting and care, such as cultivation for three seasons and watering when necessary the first summer; will be from $15.00 to $25.00 per acre depending on the size of planting stock used. Rapid growing trees on a favorable site will produce eighty cords of fuel wood per acre in twenty years. Further, the value of forest plantings as recreation grounds, game and bird refuges, and general civic improvement could well be given consideration by some cities and counties. These values, of course, cannot be measured in dollars but they are of equal if not greater value than the board feet of lumber or the cords of wood the area will produce.

Organizations interested in game conservation can well afford to lend their support to Nebraska's tree planting program because every acre planted to trees adds to the game cover which during the last twenty-five years has rapidly diminished. This should be of some concern to every citizen of the state because game, if given a chance, would be a source of increasing instead of decreasing income. Farmers in some eastern states have found practical game management a source of considerable income and an activity that works very well with general agriculture.

Establishing a planting of trees in Nebraska is more difficult than in some sections of the United States, but some varieties will grow in any part of the state. If any of the suggested projects are undertaken, complete plans should be made not only to plant but also to give the trees cultivation for two or three years. On land that cannot be plowed this will mean an occasional hoeing. The actual planting of trees is not a complicated or difficult task but where unskilled labor is used careful supervision is necessary.

A committee for planning a city or county tree planting program should represent every organization interested in conservation and development. Many of these organizations have already indicated their interest by appointing a standing committee on tree planting, or by adopting reforestation as a major project for 1933. The County Farm Bureaus of Nebraska have had tree planting as a part of their programs since 192 6 during which time nearly 5,000,000 trees have been planted on farms throughout the state.

Arrangements have been made whereby stock for planting approved reforestation projects can be secured at cost of digging and packing plus transportation from point of shipment. This is made possible by the cooperation of the Nebraska Nurserymen's Association and since it is strictly an emergency project, stock can be secured only where definite forest planting plans have been made by an organization or group of organizations. Detailed information regarding this proposed plan can be secured by writing State Headquarters, American Legion, State Capitol, Lincoln; Game Forestation & Parks Commission, State Capitol, Lincoln; Nebraska Division, Izaak Walton League, 323 South 12th Street, Lincoln; or Extension Forester, College of Agriculture, Lincoln.

"A people without children would face a hopeless future; a country without trees is almost as helpless; forests which are so used that they cannot renew themselves will soon vanish, and with them all their benefits. When you help to preserve our forests or plant new ones you are acting the part of good citizens."—Theodore Roosevelt.


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peat bogs.

All the Pond Plants are desirable for Puddlers. Their seed is eaten by them all; the leaf of one variety floats on the surface.

Water Weed, including Naias, Muskgrass, Coontail, Milfoil, Pickerel Weed, etc., produce food desired by Puddlers and at the same time are the leading plants for food and cover for fish. They are good oxygenitors and also have more or less animal food attached to them which fish so desire. In planting, the entire plant is removed with its root well surrounded with dirt, and shipped in damp moss. The plant is weighed down at the root with mud or clay and dropped into a soft bottom soil. They grow fast and attract both fish and all Puddler ducks. On examining Mallards which were killed this fall we found their crops filled with Naias seeds.

We must remember that 95% of the diet of waterfowl, other than what we call fish ducks, such as the Maganzer family, is vegetation.

The Divers specie of waterfowl is fewer in number, the principal ones being the Canvas-Back, Red Head and the Greater and Lesser Scaup or Blue-bill.

The first food on their list is Sago Pond Plant. This submerged plant, growing best in from 3 to 8 feet of water, is perhaps the most generally satisfactory food there is to plant. It grows in nearly every water and soil condition. Where water is alkaline the tuber produced is smaller, but still a favorite food. It also grows in shallow water and provides a food for the Puddler ducks also. A brackish condition also causes small tubers, but of all foods, it is the greatest food producer for all kinds of waterfowl and fish under most all conditions. The ideal condition is a soil rich in Calcium. An analysis of Sago Tubers from our locality by the Boyce Thompson Institute   14 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA for Plant Research, at Yonkers, New York, showed them to have 1 times more cane sugar than in potatoes and 10% less moisture. The plant separates from the tuber late in summer and the tuber remains embedded in the mud, where the Divers busy themselves going down after it. These tubers must be balled in clay before planting as they will not sink otherwise. A clay that is not easily disintegrated with water movements is the surest for this work. Care in balling must be taken so the tender sprouts will be left intact. Wherever beds of Sago thrive you will be assured of the Diver ducks in large numbers. It is one of the surest submerged growths of great food value to propagate. The seeds of the Sago plant as well as the tubers are desired by the Divers.

Next to Sago for this specie of waterfowl comes Wild Celery. Wild Celery does best in fresh water lakes and streams and wants a soft bottom soil. Water from 4 to 12 feet deep is best. A slight movement of water, such as opposite inlets and outlets is still more desirable. Wild Celery is propagated from the tuber or seed. Both must be balled in clay for planting. It is planted either spring or fall. Quickest maturity of the plant results from the tuber planting. The Divers relish the entire plant. They eat the tender leaves, the seed and tubers. This plant like the Sago plant separates from the tuber in late summer. By walking along the shore of lakes late in August you can tell what growths are in your lake by the plants which have washed ashore.

In a lake in Northern Ontario, onehalf bushel of Celery Pods were planted and in 1911 three bushels more. The following year the men making this experiment noted a thickly covered growth of at least ten acres. It has been noted that where the tubers of these submerged plants were disturbed and dug into, the result is a more generous growth the following year. About 1,000 Wild Celery Tubers will sow an acre. Eel Grass is similar to Wild Celery and is more common in brackish water conditions. Aquatic plants know nothing about geography. Wherever water and soil are suitable they will grow.

Practically every lake of any size has its open water spaces and its shallow bays. Such a condition means the opportunity is there for attracting both the Diver ducks and the Puddler ducks with the food each specie likes the best. No body of water attracts waterfowl unless a generous quantity of food is present. It is necessary to have some soft muck bottom soil for the propagation of most all aquatic plants and tubers. Some cover plants like Bulrush and Canereed can be planted in sandy bottom soil, but practically every aquatic plant or tuber which is of value as duck food needs five to eight inches at least of rich, loose soil to allow for a root base. In a general way it has been discovered that Duck food plants thrive best in surroundings that are not acid in reaction. Bottom soils that are soft and with more or less calcium produce the strongest growth.

The greatest enemy we know of for aquatic growth is Carp. This rightfully named "hog of the water" makes a complete job of devastating the plant life within his reach. He takes it from the roots up and besides this, his method of digging into the bottom soil causes a continual turbid condition of the water which is injurious to all aquatic growth. Some have exterminated Carp by lowering lakes thus causing it to freeze to the bottom and then damming the inlets and covering them with screens. Carp multiply quite fast and once established are difficult to keep down. Where Carp are not too numerous aquatic growth will keep ahead of them; but they are the greatest known enemy to aquatic growth.


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(Leptops Olivaris).

The catfish is one of Nebraska's native fish and perhaps the one of greatest food value. All of the above species are found in Nebraska rivers and creeks, but the Channel Cat is far the most popular and provides the best sport.

The Channel Cat is taken in large numbers through the use of "night or set lines." These lines are baited with minnows, crawfish, liver, blood clots, or perpared bait and left out at night. A good cat fisherman will run his lines three or four times each night.

Thousands of channel cat are taken from the Missouri and Platte Rivers each year. The state of Nebraska has never been able to raise them successfully at its hatcheries, but must depend on getting its stock from the rivers.

The Channel Cat feeds on minnows, grasshoppers, crawfish, green corn, and other vegetable and animal matter.


The Bullhead (Ameriurus Olavaris) belongs to the catfish family.

The bullhead is found in all parts of Nebraska. He thrives in muddy water in cultivated communities and is therefore one of the main fish found in southeastern Nebraska. He also does well in clear water lakes and ponds and millions of them abound in the sandhill lakes.

While the bullhead is not highly rated by sportsmen, nevertheless he is popular with many fishermen and he is excellent pan fish. He is easily caught. Boys, in particular, like to fish for the bullhead.

The bullhead lives on angle worms, grasshoppers, and small insects. He is usually caught with angle worms.

The State of Nebraska does not raise the bullhead at state hatcheries because they can be found in many lakes. Thousands of these fish are now taken from sandhill lakes where in many cases there are too many of them and transplanted in eastern Nebraska.

The bullhead carries from 1,000 to 3,000 eggs and the young fish cling together in clusters until quite large.


The Spoon-Bill cat, or Paddle Pish, as he is sometimes called, is a curious fish found in the large rivers of the state.

He is readily identified by a large spoon-shaped bill. His food is edible, tasting much like the Mud or Yellow Cat. The Spoon-Bill seldom can be taken by hook and line.


The Carp (Cyprinus Carpis), Buffalo, Sucker, Gar, and Quillback in Nebraska are considered under the state laws as "Coarse Fish", and should not be confused with "Game Fish".

The coarse fish are not protected by limits in size and bag, but must be taken with hook or line as it is illegal to fish in Nebraska in any other manner than angling.

The carp was imported from Germany and planted by the State of Nebraska some fifteen or twenty years ago. Since that time they have increased rapidly until today it is necessary to remove thousands of them to keep them from crowding out the game fish which are not so hardy.

The buffalo is a native fish of Nebraska and less harmful than the carp. He is good to eat, but is disliked by anglers because he will seldom take a hook.

The gar is of little value and is very harmful to other fish. Thousands of these fish migrate up the Missouri river each year and get into overflow ponds and lakes where they must be removed.

The suckers and quillbacks are too boney to be of much food value and are harmful to the spawn of game fish.


Other fish found in Nebraska are the following:

Shovelnose Sturgeon Dogfish   OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 15 Goldfish Pickerel Sauger Pike Sheepshead or White Perch Lake Lawyer

The pickerel at one time were found in considerable numbers in northern Nebraska. Today they can be found only in a few lakes.

Before cultivation began there were many pike in the Platte and Blue rivers. However, only a comparatively few are taken now, though during the past year they seemed to be returning to these waters in considerable numbers.


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6. A plan of utilizing waste and marginal land for reforestation on a cooperative basis between the Federal government, the state and the land owner.

7. A plan for the better control of pollution, irrigation canals and ditches, power dams and river floods.

8. A plan for a state-wide system of game refuges and sanctuaries.

9. A plan for predatory animal and bird control, with especial attention to the crow situation.

10. A broader and more comprehensive plan of conservation education.

11. A plan for better cooperation and coordinated action with sportsmen's and civic organizations and agencies interested in the protection and conservation of wild life.

12. A plan for better law enforcement with particular attention to the possibilities of getting a higher type of law enforcement officer and better services from such employees."

The organization of the commission for the plan is. as follows:

"The Commission as a whole should decide upon general policies and fix budgets for all activities. Both policies and budgets should be considered as far in advance as possible in order to give sufficient time of execution. Since budgets must be based on revenue earned through the sale of permits, this phase of activity should be given considerable study. Consideration should at all times be given to proposed plans and activities to make certain that the proposed plan or activity will not involve ramifications that would eventually exceed anticipated revenue.


The Commission should after deciding upon general policies and fixing budgets, provide the following committees and allot activities as follows:

Administrative and Revenue Committee. Personnel: Two Commissioners and Secretary.


(a) To work out details of the general policies laid down by the Commission.

(b) To plan for the general administration of the Plan, especially the placing of responsibility and the carrying out of detailed phases of activity.

(c) The fixing of budgets and the study of ways and means to increase the revenue.

Educational and Publication Committee: Personnel: Two Commissioners and Secretary.


(a) To formulate plans for education along conservation lines.

(b) To foster and promote greater cooperative effort among sportsmen's organizations, schools and civic agencies.

(c) To plan and arrange the details of the various publications of the Commission.

Hatcheries, Nurseries, Fish Conservation and Distribution Committee:

Personnel: Two Commissioners and Secretary.


(a) To plan a ten-year program of fish and game bird production, with especial attention to the future need in the way of hatcheries, nurseries, breeding grounds, etc.

(b) Arrange for a better system of distribution of game and fish with especial attention given to suitability of cover and water, the hardiness, desirability and future need of species.

(c) A plan of stocking larger fish.

(d) Reduction in costs of distribution.

Game Reserves, Sanctuaries, Inviolate Areas Committee:

Personnel: Two Commissioners and Secretary.


(a) To formulate a ten-year plan for the setting aside of areas suitable and needed in the conservation of game and fish.

(b) To cooperate with federal government in the establishing and administration of federal refuges and sanctuaries.

(c) To administer reserves, sanctuaries and inviolate areas under control of the Commission.

(d) To encourage and foster the setting aside of propagation areas by local sportsmen's organizations and civic groups.

Lakes and Recreation Grounds Committee. Personnel: Two Commissioners and Secretary.


(a) To supervise and manage recreation grounds.

(b) To plan for development of lakes and recreation grounds acquired by the Commission.

(c) To initiate and put into effect a campaign against indiscriminate draining of lakes and marshes and to encourage the construction of private lakes.

Forestation Committee. Personnel: Two Commissioners and Secretary.


(a) To plant trees on holdings of the Commission.

(b) To take part in an annual statewide educational campaign to encourage the planting of trees on private land.

(c) To cooperate with the federal government and other state agencies in the utilizing of waste and marginal agricultural land for forestation.

State Parks Committee. Personnel: Two Commissioners and Secretary.


(a) To supervise the State Parks.

(b) To develop and improve state parks."

Good game management begins with spring planting, according to officials of the American Game Association, who are striving to institute measures to control the environment of game birds and animals so that they will increase many fold for the enjoyment of all. Farmers and sportsmen are cooperating everywhere, officials declare. As the spring planting goes, so goes the birds in the winter, experience shows. If the proper cover and feed is not planted, then the birds and small game animals are left without shelter and food. They starve or freeze to death or else are easy prey to predatory creatures.

"In arranging the plantings to be made, several important factors enter into the plans," experts of the Iowa Fish and Game Commission advise, and point out that the same principles hold good in every state. "The leaving of standing or shocked corn for next winter's feed for birds is the first thought, and the planting of this particular row or patch of corn should be as near winter cover as possible. Fence rows should be allowed to grow up. Birds will nest in this grass. By encouraging the nesting along the fence row and other grassy spots the loss of nests and eggs in the hay and alfalfa fields will be less; for it is in these fields that the birds will go to nest if the grass along the fence rows is removed or the plow cuts down the amount.

The VANDALS The Crow

Apologists for the crow can see no wrong in this well known vandal. They have failed, however, to tell what real service this predator performs for mankind, wild life or birds. This carrion fowl is immune to natural enemies, perpetuating itself in countless numbers.

There are effective ways at hand for curtailing its increase and holding this menace to wi'd life in check. The effective shotgun, the crow trap, and the destruction of its eggs. The sportsman and the farmer should eliminate this destroyer almost to the point of extinction.

The Cat

Sentimentalists and other well intentioned persons tell us that kittens and purring tabbies can do no harm. Sportsmen, conservationists, and farmers know better! This prolific producer of its kind is a killer by instinct, and knows no restraint, destroying quail, partridge, pheasant, song birds, and other wild life of the country.

It is said that there are 78,000,000 stray cats in the world. Let us pledge ourselves to destroy them, and to persuade our families never to abandon a cat to prey upon the wild life of the country.