OUTDOOR NEBRASKAJANUARY 1933 Devoted To The Conservation Of Nebraska Outdoor Resources
Increasing Our Game CropBy FRANK B. O'CONNELL
DURING the past several years we have heard much about over-production and surpluses, but not with game. There is a distinct shortage in game birds and unless state authorities, hunting clubs, conservation societies and citizens work together, it will be impossible to increase this crop to any great extent.
The shortage of game birds in Nebraska today is due to several contributory factors. The large number of hunters now taking to the field has some bearing on the problem, but not as much as many sportsmen think. More important is the lack of suitable cover and winter food, disease, predatory animals and birds, such as prowling house cats, coyotes, hawks, crows, mink and snakes. That the hunter is not altogether responsible for the decrease in game birds is proved in the case of the quail. This bird has enjoyed closed hunting seasons for a number of years, yet the increase in the bobwhite quail has been very unsatisfactory.
For a number of years our agricultural colleges, farm magazines and convention speakers have been educating the farmer to burn out draws, corners of fields, brush thickets and other natural cover for game birds. The idea back of this movement was the elimination of weeds and to kill off insects injurious to crops. But the economic value of the bird was lost sight of altogether in this program. It was apparent that the originators of this idea overlooked the fact that the game bird, especially the bobwhite quail is one of the greatest insect destroyers to be found and that the major part of his winter diet is weed seed. Quail eat practically all kinds of insects found in their zone of operation. In many cases potatoes, squashes, wheat and other low-growing crops are relieved of untold numbers of damaging pests. Then when winter comes and the insects are no longer available the quail feeds upon seeds of ragweed, pigweed and other plants of no value - - - plants which the farmer is forever waging a bitter war.
Recent studies of the game bird situation, and more particularly of the quail, would indicate that the state authorities, the farmers, sportsmen and bird-lovers must all join hands in providing more suitable cover and food for the birds. Nebraska usually has quite severe winters, with considerable snow, and unless the game bird is given a fighting chance during this time he cannot survive in great numbers. Then more attention must he given him during his nesting season. Each year countless thousands of game bird eggs are destroyed in farming operations and by the numerous predatory animals and birds that are forever looking for the nests.
How shall we approach the difficult problem?
First of all, it is obvious that the greater burden of rehabitation of game birds falls on the farmers. While most farmers recognize the value of the game bird and want to see his increase, the farmer cannot carry on alone. Sportsmen and bird-lovers of the towns cities must do their share.
Ducks and shore birds soon find ponds where they are safe
Releasing Game Birds in favored cover near Waterloo.
Perhaps the first consideration of those wanting to increase the gamebird crop is "refuge and nesting cover." Suitable field corners, brush thickets and waste land should be fenced off and allowed to grow as nature arranges it. Now too many such places are pastured, with the result that no cover is available for the birds and they are forced to nest in open fields where the farmer must harvest his crop. There is much that sportsmen's organizations and hunting clubs can do in this respect. They should arrange with farmers in their communities for suitable cover, and then in the winter provide feed for the birds. They should urge county commissioners, state road authorities and railroad officials to utilize waste land along highways and right-of-ways, leaving brush and thickets where possible instead of burning it out and leaving a bare tract. Railroads, in particular, could save hundreds of dollars each year and save thousands of birds if they got i away from the mistaken idea that their right-of-way looks better as a desolate charred stretch of black instead of growing grass and thickets where innumerable wild creatures could be seen and heard.
Secondly the private i organizations and the .(Continued on page 15)
Many Trees Planted In ContestBy CLAYTON W. WATKINS, U. S. Extension Forester
IN the spring of 1932, the Game, Porestation and Parks Commission of Nebraska offered two trips to Yellowstone Park as an award to the two County Agents conducting the best county-wide program in farm forestry and home beautification. Every county in the state with a county agricultural organization was eligible to enter the contest. The contest was highly successful and it is believed a movement has been started in many counties that will be of great benefit to the citizens therein.
A number of points covering various planting activities was carefully worked out and each agent graded accordingly. The following were the points considered in 1932:
All types of tree planting.
Community projects on grounds development.
School or churchyard improvement.
City entrance improvements such as cleaning up or screening unsightly views.
Any other civic improvement projects related to this as a county program.
Eight counties entered the contest and after careful consideration by the judges, P. B. Throop, of the Lincoln Star, Thomas A. Leadley, of the Nebraska Farmer and J. B. Douglas of the Nebraska Game Commission, the counties were scored as follows:First—Adams Second—Custer Third—Polk Fourth—Dawson Fifth—Lincoln Sixth—Sheridan Seventh—Frontier Eighth—Dodge
The results of the contest were quite satisfactory, as the following accomplishments will testify:14,0 61 people attended tours, demonstrations and meetings. 865 farm windbreak plantings made. 20 farm woodlot plantings made 75 8 home beautification plantings made 234 rural school plantings made. 5 churchyard plantings made. 332 plantings inspected by the agents. 3 70 individual reports on plantings received. 81% average survival of newly planted stock on July 1, as shown by 702 reports and inspections. 199 Arbor Day and other tree planting programs. 118 organizations cooperated with the County Farm Bureau. 136,000 trees planted in these counties in 1932.
A view of forestation work being carried on by the Nebraska Game Commission.
The judges were impressed with the results of the contest because of the widespread activities and the breadth of cooperative action. They felt that such an undertaking was very much worthwhile because it was stimulating a home development program from which only good could result and which, when given a start, would carry itself for many years.
It is believed that other counties may wish to carry on a farm forestry and home beautification program during 1933 and for that reason the following outline showing how to organize and carry on is published. It is hoped that all counties will carry on this work as it will mean a great deal to the future of Nebraska.
Tentative Outline for a County Farm Forestry and Home Beautification Program, Secure support of local organizations and individuals.Service Clubs. Garden Clubs. American Legion. Izaak Walton League Chapters. Schools. Parent-Teachers Association. "Women's Project Clubs. County Superintendent. County Commissioners.
Select a County Chairman and with his help present a very definite proposed county program to these organizations and ask their active support. They will be interested in what has been done in the county during the last few years on tree planting and home grounds improvement and in something pretty definite on the practical possibilities of its continuation. Determine what phase of the program should interest a particular group and ask that they accept it as of their 1933 projects.
Some phases of the program to be presented to organized clubs:
Yard and Garden contests.
City and Farm Entrance beautification.
Planting memorial drives.
The yard and garden contests can be a community, city, or county project and has served very well in developing interest in civic improvement generally. Rural homes in a local contest should be urged to enter the State Farm Bureau Federation Home Beautification Contest.
The City Entrance or Farm Entrance beautification might be made a part of this contest or handled separately, whichever seems best.
Park Improvement or Highway Beautification might involve the planting of trees, flowers or shrubs; the pruning or thinning out of trees that are now planted; or merely a roadside or park clean-up. Screening unsightly views with rapid growing trees or shrubs shows results quickly and is something in which people are easily interested.
Planting memorial trees along highways or drives is a project often under(Continued on Page 15)
Why You Should Buy a Hunting And Fishing Permit
HERE are still a great number of Nebraska citizens who are unaware of the fact that the Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission is self supporting and that all its funds are derived solely from the sale of hunting and fishing permits.
Not only are the fish hatcheries, recreation grounds, stocking of fish, game wardens salaries and expenses paid for by the permits sold, but the state parks are maintained as well. Until three years ago the state parks were supported by property taxes, but now ten per cent of the game funds go for that purpose.
It should be kept in mind that those who buy hunting and fishing permits are the ones who are paying the bill for the protection and conservation of our wild life. No person is forced to buy a permit for this purpose unless he wants to hunt or fish. Therefore, each one of the several hundred thousand out-door lovers who spend a dollar each year for a permit are the ones who should receive credit for the rapid strides Nebraska has been making in recent years in the development of the outdoors.
"When I look at the many recreation grounds in Nebraska," said a sportsman recently, "and realize that all these, as well as the fish and birds have been saved for the public by my dollar a year, I am very proud to carry a hunting and fishing permit. I am glad to contribute with a small sum annually to keep the good work going."
As a matter of fact, there are thousands of Nebraskans who rarely ever hunt or fish who buy permits. They do this because they are interested in the welfare of their state and realize that the outdoors is a valuable asset. They realize that thousands of dollars are brought into the state and spent for transportation, lodging, food, clothing, gas, ammunition, etc. because of the lure of the outdoors, and they know that wholesome outdoor recreation is a very important factor in times of economic stress and hard times.
Every citizen who is looking to the future and who wants to see Nebraska made a place of beauty and interest should buy a hunting and fishing permit. There is no way a dollar can be spent to better advantage and bring so great a return.
Here are some of the things you will do when you buy your permit: —
Maintain four state parks where thousands of our people can go free of charge for wholesome recreation and rest.
A unique collection, consisting of game-bird wish-bones and hunting permits, collected by Joe E. Gunnerson, Aurora. Mr. Gunnerson is one of the builders of Outdoor Nebraska, for he has purchased a permit every year since 1904, as the above collection testifies. Many Nebraska citizens buy these permits every year in order to help preserve and conserve our great outdoors.
Maintain and develop some twenty recreation grounds where thousands of citizens can go free of charge to camp, fish, boat ride, etc.
Protect the wild life of Nebraska and save our birds and animals from becoming extinct.
Provide hunting for thousands of citizens who enjoy this pastime. The food value of the game taken each year is three times the entire amount paid for all permits each year.
Provide fish and fishing holes for thousands of boys, both young and old, who love to indulge in this great sport. The food value of fish taken each year is more than the cost of all permits sold each year.
Protect and supervise the trapping of fur-bearing animals. The value of the fur taken in Nebraska each year in normal times is three times as great as the entire cost of all permits for that year.
Carry on a reforestation program which not only encourages land owners to plant trees, but which beautifies parks, recreation grounds and other public holdings. Thousands of trees are being planted and cared for each year by your dollar permit.
Provide game reserves and sanctuaries where our birds and animals are protected from all hunting and where they can feed in their flights or during the winters.
The Nebraska Game Commission has a big program under way and if all citizens will help by the voluntary purchase of a dollar hunting and fishing permit, the work can be carried on to a far greater extent. Today only about one-tenth of our people buy these permits. Even if one-third could be induced to buy, the work being done could be increased to the place where our outdoors would be equal to that of any state in the union.
At all events, all citizens should keep in mind that the game commission is operating on permits and is entirely self-supporting. There are no legislative appropriations available to maintain it, nor are the people of the state taxed to support it. Hence, when the number of permits sold falls off, it is necessary to cut out some activities in order to balance the budget. Expenditures cannot be greater than the amount received.
There are a number of permits sold by the Game Commission, but those bringing in the greater amount of revenue are the hunting and fishing permits. These are combination hunting and fishing and cost one dollar a year. A fee of ten cents is usually charged for issuing. Besides the hunting and fishing permit there are those for trapping. About five thousand of these are issued each-year. They cost $2.00 each. Then there are non-resident hunting permits which sell for $10.00 each; non-resident fishing permits which sell for $2.00 and a number of special permits such as game bird breeding, fur farming, selling fish, seining in the Missouri river, etc.
Nebraska has much to offer those who love the outdoors. Therefore you should boost Nebraska and spend your money at home.
Get That Crow!(From Fins, Feathers & Fur, Publication of the Minnesota Game Commission)
SPRING is the season of the year when we should concentrate all our efforts to eliminate the natural enemies of our game and song birds, so this month we are asking all sporting clubs of every nature to join with us in promoting crow shoots. Not only the crow, but the harmful species of hawks and owls, the weasel and other enemies should be included.
There is little question but what the crow is largely responsible for the loss of most of our prairie chicken and quail.
Recently we have had reported to our office an instance where last season crows destroyed eight prairie chicken nests in one meadow, eating the eggs. Another instance where they destroyed eleven nests of mallard ducks in a slough. Still another where they destroyed turkey eggs close to a farm residence which would have resulted in an income to that farmer of at least $200.00.
The crow is a merciless murderer and does not confine his depredations to eating song and game bird eggs, but also devours the young birds in their nests. Some maintain, however, they do some good in eating injurious worms and bugs, but a careful analysis discloses the fact that the harm they do is a hundred times more than the good with which they are credited.
It is a noticeable fact that in sections where crows are plentiful, game birds are scarce and where crows are few, game birds are more plentiful.
If we want more game and song birds we must gst rid of the crow. It is interesting sport to outwit the crafty plunderer and a real satisfaction to feel you are protecting our game and song birds.
This is the time of the year when many sportsmen's organizations throughout the state are conducting crow shoots, a most commendable form of recreation for the hunter who likes to feel the swing of his gun during the interminable period between December and October, and at a season when any excuse for getting out in the open is better than none.
He who does is pitting himself against a worthy antagonist—the crow is so wary that we need not fear bringing his kind to the point of extinction. Many stories have been told of his sagacity and those who have had a crow for a pet can at least vouch for his ingenuity. That they are able to count to at least three has been proven by an experiment tried some years ago. A blind was built near some carrion on which crows had been feeding, and one hunter went into the blind. The crows watched from a distance but did not go near the bait until the hunter left the blind. Two hunters went in (and one came out—and the crows stayed away. Three hunters went in, and two came out, and they remained away. Four hunters entered the blind, and three left, and the crows came back, indicating that three was as far as they could count.
Mass formation may be good football strategy but for crow-hunting the solitary stalker has the edge, particularly if he takes advantage of the crow's natural and overpowering hatred of owls.
In nearly every community there is at least one more or less life-like mounted specimen of the horned owl, or snowy owl which can be used to very good advantage by the crow-hunter. The method of procedure is as follows: Secure the owl to the top of a post set out in the open within easy range of a blind built in nearby cover. Get a crow call, or if you are adept at it, use your own ability, get into the blind and start giving the crow's alarm call. If there is a crow within hearing, he will come over to get into the fight, and the time to sock him is when he makes a swoop at the decoy. Sometimes two hunters in separate blinds can use the same decoy, waiting until a good opportunity for a double shot is presented.
A tethered cat, surrounded with wooden crow decoys, and aided by skillful use of a crow call, will sometimes prove effective in drawing the black rascals within range. Or a dead rabbit, or other carrion, may prove effective bait for a good rifle shot lying in ambush.
The use of crow traps is most effective earlier in the spring, when the northern migration of crows is at its height, and they do not seem to have the wariness displayed later in the season.
The destruction of crow's nests, eggs and young will also have a salutory effect on the species. Where the nest is placed in an unclimbable tree, several well-directed shotgun volleys should do the work. BUT, be sure that the nest is occupied by CROWS! Believe it or not, the Department has a record of a mallard's nest built in an old crow's nest.
While on the subject of hawks and owls, it is well to remember that the Horned Owl is an inveterate killer of game birds, and the other owls not nearly as harmful, living mostly on rodents. The hawks that should be relentlessly pursued are not the soaring, slow-flying large ones—they are the slender, long-tailed darters that shoot through the thickets and groves and are quite small. They are the Cooper's and the Sharp-shinned, and in the north, the Goshawk—these live almost entirely on birds, and the hunter that bags one has done something to brag about. All hawks and owls are birds of prey, however, and any individual of any species is likely, just as mankind, to develop criminal tendencies that puts that individual outside the pale of tolerance. This is particularly true in the vicinity of game farms, or any place where there is a concentration of young birds.
PLACES OF HISTORICAL INTEREST
Nebraska abounds in places of historical interest. The old Overland and Oregon Trails cross the entire length of the state and are well marked with monuments and markers. These lead along the famous Platte River and through the Buffalo Bill Country where once countless thousands of buffalo and elk roamed the prairie.
Among other places worthy of a visit is Arbor Lodge State Park near Nebraska City, the home of J. Sterling Morton, founder of Arbor Day and Stolley State Park near Grand Island, home of one of Nebraska's well known pioneers.
The fossil beds of Sioux County near Agate are one of the most famous deposits of its kind in the world and are intensely interesting to those familiar with the history of the rocks and prehistoric life.
Chimney Rock in Morrill County and Scottsbluff National Monument in Scotts Bluff County are national monuments associated with the early history of the state.
Crow Butte, Fort McPherson National Cemetery, Fort Robinson, Massacre Canyon Monument, Pawnee and Warbonnet Battlefields are all worthy of a visit by the tourist and each has a history of its own concerning the Indians and soldiers of the early days.
OBSERVE ALL GAME LAWS Outdoor NebraskaOfficial Publication of The Nebraska State Game Forestation and Parks ^Plfe. Commission COMMISSIONERS Chas. W. Bryan, Chairman E. R. Purcell George B. Hastings Guy R. Spencer F. A. Baldwin J. B. Douglas Frank B. O'Connell PUBLICATION COMMITTEE E. R. Purcell, Chairman Guy R. Spencer Frank B. O'Connell EDITOR Frank B. O'Connell Vol. VIII JANUARY, 1933 No. 1 The Commission's Program GAME: Statewide pheasant hunting. Rehabilitation of the quail. Stocking of Hungarian partridge. Reserves and feeding grounds for migratory waterfowl. Public shooting grounds. FISH: Fish for every angler. Reduced cost and common sense business in fish production. Good fishing at state-owned lakes where public can fish free. Preservation of lakes. RECREATION: A statewide system of recreation grounds for Nebraska citizens. Shade and picnicking facilities at fishing lakes. Conservation of Nebraska's outdoors. LAW ENFORCEMENT: Equality for all. Constant war against the despoiler and destroyer of wild life. Strict observance of game laws by all citizens. EDUCATION: Appreciation of Nebraska's outdoors through education. Make the boys and girls of tomorrow lovers of wild creatures and nature's handiwork. Cooperation of all citizens to the end that Nebraska shall have suitable recreation and wholesome outdoor activities. Program of forestation throughout Nebraska. GENERAL: Full value to the purchaser of hunting and fishing permits. Square deal to farmers and sportsmen. Stabilization of water in Platte River.
Plant Trees Now
If there ever was a time in the history of Nebraska when we should plant trees it is now.
During the past two winters - - and probably for several more to come - - thousands upon thousands of trees are being cut for fire wood. In these days of depression and lack of buying power, it is necessary for many people to cut trees to secure fuel.
But we should not overlook the fact that the supply of trees in Nebraska is not great and can easily be exhausted and that unless we plant to replace those cut, we may suffer in the future.
It takes many years for trees to mature. We should be mindful of the future and replace those that we use. Unless we do this in Nebraska we may have a tomorrow that is treeless.
A Record of Achievement
The Nebraska Game Commission in four years has accomplished the following without a cent of property tax money:
Maintained and improved the five State Parks.
Provided the people of Nebraska with a statewide system of recreation grounds embracing over ten thousand acres of land and water.
Established fish nurseries and improved the fish hatcheries until today fish are being produced at less than one-half the cost under prior administrations.
Established a state-wide system of game reserves.
Planted over 100,000 trees, of which some ten projects are already producing shade.
Enforced the game laws with fairness and impartiality.
Planted over 30,000,000 fish, most of which were partly grown at time of stocking.
Provided hunting of pheasants for thousands of Nebraska citizens and worked to the end of getting a square deal for the farmer.
Aided the federal government and helped secure a 30,000 acre federal migratory waterfowl sanctuary in Garden County, Nebraska.
Carried on an educational program for the conservation of outdoor resources.
Made extensive plantings of Hungarian Partridges.
Salvaged thousands of fish from drying-up or freezing-out ponds.
Furnished a free fish exhibit each year at the Nebraska State Fair.
Published thousands of maps and folders calling attention to what Nebraska has to offer in the way of outdoor recreation.OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 7 Growth of Game Department
It is interesting to note the growth of the Game Department by a comparison of its assets of the present with those of thirty years ago.
According to a report made thirty years ago the property of the Game Department was estimated to be $19,584.00. Today it is estimated around $750,000.00.
Here is a list of the more important items making up the $19,584.00 of thirty years ago:1 Fish Hatchery 1 Fish Railroad Car 1 Windmill 1 Row Boat 1 Team of Horses 1 Plow 2 Wheel barrows 1 Scraper 2 Seines
And here is a list of the more important items owned today:8000 Acres Water 6000 Acres Land 5 State Parks 26 Recreation Grounds 5 Fish Hatcheries 1 0 Fish Nurseries 2 Game Reserves (Owned) 14 Game Reserves (Leased) 35 Buildings 89 Dams 1 Fish Railroad Car 1 5 Trucks 20 Automobiles 50 Seines
All of the above property has been paid for out of hunting and fishing permits except one fish hatchery and the state parks. Besides this, some $400,000.00 in license money was used for other purposes during the past years, the same being placed in the general fund at the end of each biennium. During the last eight years all the license money has been used to build up the outdoors.Natural History Series (The Skunk)
Probably no Nebraska fur bearing animal is better known and less popular than the skunk. This odium is due largely to the ability of containing a most disagreeable fluid.
Fur of the skunk is deep, rich, glossy, intensely black and is on a skin that makes strong, durable leather when dressed. For many years the fur was unpopular for use in manufacture of clothing because of its strong, penetrating odor. Improved methods of manufacture now have overcome this objection and coats now are advertised as "real skunk" rather than "Alaskan sable," as was the case for many years.
Skunks most commonly are found in areas of mixed woodlands and fields, valley bottoms and along brushy boarders of creeks. Any convenient shelter will satisfy them, such as deserted burrows of other animals, small cavities in the rocks or a hole dug by themselves. Often they will build their warm nests of grass and leaves beneath houses and barns.
Investigation by the United States Bureau of Biological Survey shows that the main diet of skunks consists of grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, mice, rats, ground squirrels, pocket gophers and sometimes stems of succulent plants. They are not averse to a ground bird if they can catch them, and now and then, they are caught raiding a farm chicken house. However, Bureau of Biological Survey reports show that skunks rarely make these raids, preferring to do their hunting at greater distances from the haunts of men. Civit cats are more likely to visit the chicken house and the skunk often blamed for such depredations.
Although usually safe because of its protective "smell-gun" the skunk sometimes falls victim to wolves, coyotes, foxes, badgers, and great-horned owls.
The general color of the skunk is black with a thin white stripe between the eyes. The stripe forks at the shoulders and continues along the sides until it reaches the tail. The tail is furred with black hairs with white bases, and ends usually in a white tuft. There is much variation in width of these stripes, trappers preferring pelts with the narrower stripes.
Skunks vary in size, but usually weigh from five to ten pounds. Their black and white markings, size and bushy tails make skunks one of the easiest of Nebraska fur-bearing animals to recognize. In northern parts of the continent skunks often hibernate during the coldest part of the winter season, but this has seldom been discovered in Nebraska.
For establishment of a new migratory-bird refuge in the Sacramento Valley California and for consolidations of lands on four refuges now under administration, the Federal Migratory Bird Conservation Commission recently authorized the Bureau of Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture, to acquire 1 1,406 acres, by purchase or by lease.
The tract approved for the new refuge, to be known as the Sacramento Migratory Bird Refuge, includes 5,609 acres in the heart of the Sacramento Valley, about 70 miles north of Sacramento. The new sanctuary will be an important addition to the chain of refuges in the West, as it is 1 75 miles south of the Tule Lake Migratory Bird Refuge, 200 miles west of the Fallon Wild Life Refuge, and 650 miles north of the Salton Sea Migratory Bird Refuge.
At one time the Sacramento Valley was an extensive marsh area that served as one of the most important nesting grounds on the Pacific Coast and also was a resting and feeding area for countless numbers of waterfowl during their migrations. Later, intensive agricultural development destroyed the area's attractiveness to wild fowl except in certain places where water is impounded during the hunting season. The refuge tract will now be improved from the standpoint of its usefulness to birds, and the inviolate sanctuary will offer them an opportunity to rest and feed in safety.
The principal waterfowl found on the proposed Sacramento Refuge are geese, including Canada, Ross's lesser snow, Hutchins's, white-fronted, and cackling geese. Ducks also congregate there in large flocks during their migrations — principally pintails, green-winged and cinnamon teals, mallards, widgeons, and shovelers, though some redheads and canvasbacks also frequent the place. Shorebirds are represented on the tract by killdeers, black-necked stilts, Wilson's snipe (jacksnipe), avocets, and Wilson's phalaropes.
Commission Field ActivitiesFISH DISTRIBUTION IN 1932
During the past year the Nebraska Game Commission made a new all-time record in distribution of Rock Bass, Crappies and Sunfish. More of these fish were placed in Nebraska waters in 19 3 2 than in any other year in the history of the State.
The record on trout, black bass, bullheads, and perch was not as great as it has been in prior years, although very close to the high points for these fish.
In considering the planting of fish made in 19 32 it should be remembered that a far larger number of these fish were of a larger size than have heretofore been stocked. Practically all of the black bass and all of the rock bass, crappies, perch and sunfish were of fingerling size. All of the bullheads and catfish were adults. Only about one-half as many catfish were put out in 1932 as in 19 31. These fish cannot be raised at the hatcheries but must be captured from the Missouri and Platte Rivers. It is believed that the commercial fishing in the Missouri River has had some effect on the catfish, as they did not seem to be nearly as numerous in the lower Platte as heretofore.
The total fish distributed for the year is as follows:Bass, Black .............. 712,300 Bass, Rock.............. 91,600 Trout ........................ 390,800 Crappie .................... 497,400 Bullheads ................ 770,300 Catfish ...................... 62,000 Perch ...................... 444,300 Sunfish .................... 308,700 Pike.......................... 500 Total................3,277,900 Lake Improvement
In order to save thousands of fish in some of the Cherry County Lakes, which are very low, a dam was placed in Gordon Creek near. Simeon and a canal constructed to divert the water from that stream into Hackberry, Dewey, Clear, Willow, Trout and Red Deer Lakes and Ballard's Marsh. The State owns all of these lakes except Hackberry, although the latter is open to public hunting and fishing. It also owns Ballard's Marsh.
The work was rushed through this fall in order to get the flood water which comes early in the spring. The cost of the dam and canal was approximately $3,500.00. The canal was about four miles long.
It is believed that this improvement will be of great value in the future in raising the level of these valuable lakes and will save many thousands of fish.
Retards like the above have been built by the Nebraska Commission to provide cover for trout.
Owing to lakes being low in Cherry and Grant Counties, the Commission was obliged to do considerable salvaging of fish during the past autumn and early winter. While fish were removed from a number of lakes, there were other lakes very low which were so full of vegetation that it was impossible to remove the fish and there will undoubtedly be a considerable loss this winter if the weather is severe. Marsh Lake is exceedingly low, but it was impossible to remove any great number of fish owing to vegetation.
Approximately one hundred thousand fish were salvaged from lakes in the vicinity of Hyannis in Grant County, and over one hundred fifty thousand adult crappies were taken from Duck Lake in Cherry County and placed in nearby deeper water. Numerous other smaller ponds and lakes were seined with the result that approximately one quarter of a million adult fish were saved for future anglers.Coarse Fish Removal
During the present winter the Game Commission is seining coarse fish from Moon Lake in Brown County. Most of the carp in this lake are too small to sell on eastern markets as the price secured would not even pay transportation costs. Therefore the Commission has been giving all of these fish for charitable purposes. Several hundred thousand pounds have been given away in northern Nebraska, and a carload shipped to Omaha to the needy at Omaha and in Lincoln. Carp will probably also be removed from the sand pits at Fremont and in Chase County, which will be given for charitable purposes.1933 Permits
The hunting and fishing permits for 1933 are now available to all hunters and fishermen, and same can be obtained from county clerks, sporting goods stores, hardware stores, banks, etc. If you are unable to get a permit in your community write to the Game Commission at Lincoln and you will be advised the location of the nearest dealer.Spring Fish Distribution
The Game Commission is going to be able to make a much larger distribution during the coming spring season than any spring season heretofore. A large number of ponds at the several hatcheries containing bass and crappies were held over from last fall. This was done in order to stock places it was feared would freeze out during the winter, and also due to the fact that distribution was so heavy this fall that it was impossible to remove all of the fish in so short a time.Mountain Sheep for Reserve
Wild game population of the State Game Reserve in Scotts Bluff County is being increased by four Rocky Mountain Sheep, which have been secured OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 9 from Canada. Efforts were made to secure some of these animals in the United States but they were not available, so through the efforts of Senator R. B. Howell, Canadian authorities agreed to donate two pair. Transportation costs are to be paid by the Nebraska Game Commission.
This game reserve is rapidly becoming one of the interesting spots of the country as there are already a number of buffalo, deer and elk to be seen.Fort Kearney Park Improvement
The Park Committee of the Nebraska Game Commission has plans under way for the beautifying of the Fort Kearney Park grounds near Kearney. A large number of trees will probably be planted there this spring, according to plans which have been agreed upon by the Fort Kearney Memorial Park Association and the Park Committee of the Game Commission. This park is one of the historical spots of Nebraska, and it is desired to make it more attractive to visitors.Skating on State Lakes
A considerable number of Nebraska young people are taking advantage of the numerous recreation grounds provided by the Game Commission for skating.
Reports received from Fremont, Louisville, Loup City and other points indicate that excellent ice skating is to be had on the lakes in the state recreation grounds. The Game Commission was pleased to have this use made of the lakes as it is their desire to make them as attractive to the public as it is possible.Valentine Hatchery Fish Distribution
A new production record was established in 19 32 at the Valentine Hatchery where a total of one million seven thousand fish of various kinds were produced with a carry over of one thousand fish for the distribution in the spring.
Of this number 2 6 8,0 00 were bass, 431,000 were crappies, 29,000 were sunfish, 21,000 were perch, 5,000 were bullheads, 195,000 were brown trout, 56,000 were rainbow trout. The carry over consists mostly of bass, crappies and sunfish.
It should be remembered that the Valentine Hatchery also controls the substation near Schlegel Creek south of Valentine, and the above production is from both the old plant and the substation.
The greater number of fish produced here were used for stocking the Cherry County Lakes. The number that were placed in some of these lakes is as follows:
Dewey Lake: 43,209 bass, 62,000 crappies, 18,600 sunfish.
Dads Lake: 43,8 6 9 bass, 10,599 sunfish.
Rat and Beaver Lakes: 25,675 bass, 32,500 crappies.
Pelican Lake: 9,500 bass, 47,030 crappies.
Whitewater Lake: 13,550 bass, 15,936 crappies.
Trout Lake: 9,480 bass, 33,200 crappies.
Hackberry Lake: 19,85 0 crappies.
Watts Lake: 4,500 bass, 10,000 crappies.
Marsh Lake: 40,000 crappies.
Mule Lake: 4,500 bass.
Lakes in Brown, Rock, and Holt Counties, as well as some lakes farther east were stocked from Valentine. The mill ponds at Valentine and Long Pine were supplied with a goodly number of fish.Buffaloes Auctioned Off
The buffalo, which once roamed the prairie on a free rampage and now is a curio of the old west, was on sale here recently. Eight of them were sold to the highest bidders. The shipment is undomesticated stock from ranches near Minden and Kimball. These sold weighed 520 to 940 pounds and brought from $4.50 to $7 a hundredweight. The buyers were Everett Bowen of Holdrege, six; and one each to V. A. Miller of Aurora, and Ray McDaniels of Mankato, Kas.Nearly Run Down Deer
Bill Anderson, Chet Lacy and Mark Howard of Harrison came near bagging a buck deer while driving down Smiley canyon west of Crawford recently. While taking one of the curves in the canyon they ran into the buck, smashing one of their headlights and breaking one of their fenders. When they went back to the scene of the crash the deer had disappeared.Captured Deer and Placed in Reserve
Two blacktail deer, said to be a year or more old, were captured and placed in the State Wild Game Reserve at Wildcat hills recently. The two deer and a four prong buck were strays and it is presumed they drifted into the valley and took up residence near the reserve. The buck was still at liberty at last reports.Trappers Find Lower Prices
The quest for fur which lured early fortune hunters into the west has sent jobless men to the woodlands again this fall. But low prices indicate there will be no pot of gold at the end of the tr pline.
The trapping season has started in eastern Nebraska with 5,000 or 6,000 men on the trail of muskrat, raccoon, opossum, skunk and mink. Altho a prairie region, the state shipped a quarter million dollars worth of fur to eastern manufacturers last year and three or four times that amount in times of peak prices. State Game Warden O'Connell estimates, however, that this winter's haul even if larger than some others, will be worth little more than $125,000.
The unemployed this year are joining farm boys in setting their lines along the creeks.
Fur dealers say lots of fur might be trapped but sales probably will be small as the trappers become discouraged. Prices are about 50 per cent of those in 1931.
While most trapping in this state is done by farm boys in their own wood lots, a few men still make their living running the lines. They've camped in
Seining Coarse Fish from Nebraska Lakes
Fishermen, large and small, on a Northern Nebraska Lake
Outdoor GossipBy the Editor
This is the time of year when nature is severe, yet the outdoors is not without its beauty. Some beautiful pictures can be formed from frost and ice and snow.* * *
Too many good Nebraska citizens are still uninformed regarding the way the Nebraska Game Commission functions. Every sportsman should do his part in bringing to the attention of the taxpayers that no property tax money goes to the game commission. Every cent now spent for parks, recreation grounds, hatcheries, lakes, etc., comes from the hunting and fishing permit which sells for one dollar a year. Only those who directly benefit from the work of the game commission pay for it.* * *
A number of communities throughout Nebraska are using state-owned lakes and recreation grounds for skating parties. The young folks are urged to make such use of the lakes. The Commissionwants the public to get the fullest value from its property. The only caution sounded is to be careful not to drive over or break down trees and to watch out for holes in the ice where there is deep water.
And in speaking of falling into the water through the ice, here is a good way to rerescue the victim. Four or five huskies should lie prone, taking hold of one anothers feet, making a human chain out over the weak ice to the hole where the No. 1 man can catch hold of the victim. This chain enables you to reach the edge of rotten ice. A plank when available is also an excellent means of reaching the victim.* * *
"What does a game warden do in the winter?" That's a question frequently asked. Here are some of the duties of Nebraska Wardens: Keep lakes open. Collect license accounts. Investigate claims of damages caused by beaver, muskrats, antelope etc. Check hunters. Feed birds. Look after recreation grounds, lakes and other property.* * *
It is rather interesting to know that Iowa and Nebraska both have members of game commissions who are newspaper cartoonists. The two gentlemen with identical professions and public offices are Guy R. Spencer of the Omaha World Herald and Jay (Ding) Darling of the Des Moines Register.* * *
Make it your business to know the game warden of your district. He will do his duty if he dares, and he will dare if he has public sentiment behind him —yours and the other fellow's.* * *
The eel is the only fish that spends the greater part of its life in fresh water which goes to sea to spawn and die.
A game bird check made recently in the state of Washington showed that Hungarian partridges multiply about twice as fast there as pheasants or quail. Their broods average 16 young birds while pheasants and quail show an average of only 8. These are for birds reared to maturity, not the number hatched.
The average Hungarian nest contains 2 0 eggs, Washington game ogficials report, and because both parents take a hand in rearing the chicks the percentage of matured birds is unusually high. The Hungarians remain as a family unit rather than coming together in flocks.
"Where do snapping turtles lay their eggs?" asked a sportsman. According to those who have observed these turtles it is found that the female turtle leaves the water, digs a cavity in a sand bank and. deposits therein from 20 to 30 small round eggs. The sand must be dry and exposed to the sun's rays. The eggs hatch in July.* * *
A new method of protecting trees from rabbits and mice is being tried out by the Nebraska Game Commission. Heretofore sheets of roofing have been placed around young trees to protect the bark from rabbits. Instead of this a new repellent consisting of a simple, non-poisonous vegetable oil, chemically treated to a rubber consistency is to be used. This liquid is painted on the tree trunks. It is claimed that the treated oil repels the rabbits and mice by its bad, nauseating odor, but it will not kill them.* * *
The present winter thus far has been a good one for game birds. There has not as yet been enough snow to endanger quail and there seems to be sufficient food for pheasants, prairie chickens and the larger game birds.
That the reserve system is a benefit to migratory waterfowl was demonstrated in the flight the past fall. Many hunters who hunted near the new federal reserve in Garden county are loud in their praise of the way birds remained on the river and nearby lakes during the opened season. They gathered into the reserve by thousands and some of them worked out to the river now and then, thus providing continued flights for the hunters.
A new folder setting forth the opening and closing hours for hunting ducks, prepared by the Nebraska Game Commission and the U. S. Weather Bureau, met with a hearty reception by into seven zones and the correct time given for each zone. A map shows which zone each county is in.* * *
According to Kit Clarke, noted fisherman, the wary trout can sometimes be fooled by this trick: Take a broad maple leaf; and with a knife slit halfway along the middle vein; suspend the hook and worm, press the leaf together, and send it downstream, and the trout is pretty sure to seize it.
Cody's Ranch near North Platte as well as other famous ranches in that vicinity furnish a bit of color reminiscent of pioneer days.
Sandhill TrailsBy J. M. MERRITT Sandhill trails, they lead we know not where ; Dim trails, inviting us to share An hour, a day, what time we may, The birthright of the Pioneer.
Along the oiled and gravelled highways in the Sandhills are many trails leading off thru the hills or down wide valleys with no apparent destination. These trails are called "hill roads" and are substantially the same as laid out by the early rancher or Kincaider, except for seasonable detours made necessary by wet meadows, snow drifts or blow-outs usually caused by the frantic efforts of quivering "Lizzies".
Except in low meadow stretches, rain makes traveling easier. It is the loose sand of dry weather that is the despair of those not initiated in Sandhill driving. Many of the main roads now have "cross overs", or auto gates—some of them with only a few inches clearance. The traveler is in honor bound to leave all gates as found, either closed or open.
To those who go far into the hills, these dim trails hold a fascination. It is then that the rush of motor cars and the clash and bang of our super-civilization seem a long way off. Here on these trails there is a calm serenity brought about by the sloping hills, the wide expanse of valleys, that makes one feel that he has come to the end of a breathless and nerve-racking journey. The winding trail appears and disappears in the distance. Here no engineer has decreed that this hill shall be levelled, a valley filled merely to save time in traveling. Here time seems unessential; one can sense it in the slow movement of grazing herds, the lazily drifting clouds. Here there is an air of an endless leisure.
Occasionally along these dim trails one finds a marsh, again a grove of Cottonwood trees, an epitaph to some Kincaider's dream of a great ranch. If one wishes, he may stop and enjoy the inviting shade, possibly getting a drink of cool water from a nearby windmill. One may even lie down in the white clover that grows on the damp valley margins, and enjoy the peace and contentment of a summer afternoon.
Or if one prefers, he can use his binoculars on the distant purple hills which scientists tell us were once the bed of an enormous inland sea. If one looks sharply, perhaps he may see a family of coyote puppies playing about a thicket of wild plum brush beneath a steep bank. And perchance one should whistle and the voice will carry that far, he will see the mother coyote prick up her ears, then quickly nose and push her puppies to the mouth of a den, then lope off to a nearby hill to stand guard.
In the evening, too, dim trails offer much. If one is upon them during that enchanted hour between sunset and dark, or perchance he is in a boat on one of the many marshes, he will find an indescribable calm and stillness about him—a stillness disturbed only by the faint, distant ranch sounds and chirruping and calling of the marsh folk. But even these sounds blend into the vast calm that prevails throughout the winding valleys. Here, in the solitude of dusk, one has an understanding and deep appreciation of the adequacy and fullness of nature's plans.
But dim trails are not always calm and serene. Sometimes they are caught in the steel grasp of winter; it is then that the canvas-back rides down upon the roaring north wind, wheeling from one pass to another; it is then that meek herds of cattle are driven before the onslaught of the blizzard to their death in the swamps.
But whether dim trails are serene or severe, they have a beauty that one may find in traveling upon them. And it is then that one thinks that
You may find peace when all else fails, If you follow down dim trails.
It is claimed that American beaver imported into Norway have proved to be a nuisance. They are now so numerous that their dams have flooded meadows, undermined roads and weakened bridges and farmers have petitioned for a repeal of the protective law accorded these animals by the Norwegian government.HOW MANY BIRDS DO YOU KNOW?
According to lists of the American Ornithological Union, there are 7 68 species of birds in the United States. This figure does not include the subspecies of which there are many. How many birds can you name that are common to your locality in Nebraska?
FISHING NOTESWinter Pishing
Many Nebraska sportsmen are unaware of the fact that thousands of fish are taken during the winter months. Ice fishing for perch is quite popular in the Sand Hill lakes. A hole is cut through the ice and a baited line dropped through. Perch taken in the winter are excellent food as the flesh is Arm and sweet.TOO MANY FISH
Though many Nebraska fishermen will probably believe this is the biggest fish story they ever heard, it is a fact beyond all doubt that the reason why fish cannot be taken from some Sand Hill lakes is because there are too many fish rather than not enough. This was proved this year at Duck and Moon lakes. The fishing was very poor in Duck lake this summer and many fishermen went home believing that there were no fish in the lake. Yet this winter when the water got too low for the fish to winter, the Game Commission took out over 150,0 0 0 fine crappies and 5000 black bass. All the crappie ran about one-half pound each and were fat and healthy. At Moon lake where carp removal was undertaken hundreds of fine big northern pike were found, while thousands of big perch like those found in Rat and Beaver lakes several years ago were taken in the nets. Only carp was removed from Moon lake, so the pike and perch are still there. So try your luck, brother!FRIENDS OF FISH
Mr. J. R. Redditt of the College of Agriculture, University of Nebraska, suggests that the following should be placed on all fishing permits. It certainly should be read frequently by all fishermen:
All fishermen are brothers. As a friend of all fish, even if we do fish, do not jerk the fish clear of the water as though throwing it. Pish should be lifted out of the water and not jerked. Again, wet both your hands before removing hook. A dry hand destroys the protective coating on the fish. Thus you can return to the water any undersized fish, and they will not be harmed. Don't throw the fish back into the water, but hold it down and let it swim away. Be humane, as you should be to all God's creatures.
MIGRATORY WATERFOWL IX 1932
Taken as a whole the open season on migratory waterfowl in Nebraska during the past season was quite satisfactory. Many hunters bagged a goodly number of birds, both in the eastern part of the state as well as in the western part.
The season in 1931 was one month only, but the Federal Government extended the period of hunting in 1932 to two months, i.e., from October 1st to November 30th. During these two months there were numerous flights of birds throughout Nebraska; in fact, many birds remained here during the entire two months. The game reserves in Cherry and Garden Counties were at all times filled with birds, many of which occasionally flew to the river and nearby lakes, thus giving an opportunity to get good shooting. The North Platte River was especially attractive to hunters this year, as well as the flats and lagoons in York, Seward, Fillmore and Clay Counties.
After observing the flight in Nebraska this year it would seem that the migratory waterfowl situation is improving. Reports from Canada and the northern states indicate that more nesting grounds were available during the past year and are likely to be available for the coming season. The hatch of ducks in the Nebraska Sandhill country during the past summer was very good, and while some lakes are low at this time, it is quite likely that ducks will find considerable areas for nesting during the coming year.
FLUSHING RAR SAVES BIRDS
A new Flushing Bar that will save an incalculable number of ground nesting birds and their nests has been devised by Frank Boyle, a game warden of the Minnesota Game and Fish Department. This bar, known as the "Gopher Campfire Club Flushing Bar," has been tried out on the thickest of alfalfa and works perfectly. Several mowing machines manufacturers are to include the bar as standard equipment. It is shown in action here. This bar was invented and perfected at Anderson Hill, Farm and Game Refuge of Sam Anderson, near Hutchinson, Minnesota.
Thousands of ground nesting birds are killed or maimed by mowing blades every year. Even greater numbers desert their nests after the blade has cut the cover away—thus many thousands of birds are destroyed and prevented from coming into being.
To eliminate both of these conditions, Mr. Boyle decided that a bar carried through the upstanding hay well ahead of the mowing blade would flush the nesting birds and also give the operator of the mower a chance to lift the cutting knife and leave an island of cover around^the nest. Most birds, it is said, will return to the nest if sufficient cover is left around it.
A round iron bar, 5/16 of an inch thick and sixteen feet long was welded to a small flat piece of iron through which two holes were drilled. Two corresponding holes were bored through the tongue of the mower and the bar fixed to the tongue back of the doubletree with bolts. The bar was so bent that it carried out from the tongue at an angle that took it five feet ahead of the cutting knife and to the outer edge of it. Here the bar was bent again and taken back towards the off horse and fastened to the harness just back of the collar. An eye was turned at this end of the bar, allowing the bar to be securely tied to the harness with a cord. The motion of the horse not only dragged the bar through the upstanding hay but thrashed it up and down, thus creating additional flushing qualities.
A view of Nebraska's Big Game Reserve in Scotts Bluff County
A WORD FROM THE WARDENS
We, of the warden force realize that we are unable to absolutely stamp out violations of the game and fish laws, but that by a determined and conscientious effort, we can discourage violations by prosecuting all cases where we can produce evidence of deliberate violations.
If a record of convictions was our only ambition, many convictions could be secured on what we call "technical violations", but the wardens have definite instructions to prosecute only those cases where an injury is being done to conservation work.
The warden force is a State police force, created and paid for by you for the protection of your wild life, and if the conservation laws are being violated in your community, you have a right to, and should make a complaint, and demand protection. There are two classes of complainants; one who makes a public complaint that the law is being violated and then when interviewed by the warden seems to lose his memory, and cannot even give them any clue on which to start an investigation. This class of complaint is useless, as far as the enforcement of the law is concerned. We are aware that violations of the game laws occur, and will occur as long as this State is blessed with furs, fins, and feathers. What we want is information that will enable wardens to curb these violations.
The other class of people who make complaints are those who deal directly with the warden, or the office at Lincoln, and give them information of the violations that are being committed. To this class we are sincerely grateful, and have reserved in the archives of our memory a place where we can forever remember you as a true sportsman and a square shooter.
We assure you that each warden has been instructed to treat your information as confidential when such a request is made. Our success depends upon your cooperation, and we again thank you for the manner in which you have responded. The entire warden force joins in extending a wish that each of you will again be permitted to meet us on the fields and in the streams of Nebraska during this new year of 1933.
Nebraska is noted for its wonderful breeding grounds for migratory waterfowl and numerous shore birds, as well as the prairie chicken and grouse. The United States government recently established one of the largest sanctuaries for waterfowl in Garden County, Nebraska. Here the visitor can see countless thousands of ducks of all species, nesting during the summer months.
A large number of lakes and swamps are found here, chief among which is Crescent Lake, the largest lake in Nebraska. Some twenty thousand acres here will eventually be given over to migratory waterfowl.
The United States government also maintains a large game reserve for buffalo, elk, antelope and deer in Cherry County near Valentine. Here the visitor may see these animals in their native state roaming over the Niobrara, hills which was once a part of the Government Fort at that place.
BUFFALO AND ELK TO BE SOLD
To prevent over-grazing on its big-game preserves, the Bureau of Biological Survey, XJ. S. Department of Agriculture, has called for bids on this year's surplus animals, including 141 buffalo, 162 elk, and 45 mule deer. It is probable that most of the animals, says the bureau, will be sold, but, by making special arrangements, a State or municipal park or zoos can obtain a few animals at cost of handling and transportation.
Mule deer, biologists state, are suitable only for regions west of the Mississippi River. The bureau will not dispose of these animals for other than exhibition and breeding purposes. Surplus buffalo and elk that can not be disposed of for similar purposes will be sold for meat, though animals less than two years of age will be sold only for breeding and exhibition.
WARN HUNTERS OF FEDERAL LAW RESTRICTING SEASONS
As a warning to hunters who plan to shoot waterfowl in the Southeastern States, the Bureau of Biological Survey calls attention to the fact that no State has authority to extend seasons on migratory birds beyond the period fixed for the area by Federal regulation.
In Louisiana, for example, the Federal regulations provide an open season on waterfowl beginning at noon on November 16 and ending at sunset on January 15, and the State law would permit waterfowl hunting from November 15 to February 15. Under provision of the migratory-bird treaty act, however, the Federal restriction supersedes the State action, and persons hunting waterfowl in Louisiana before or after the Federal season are thus liable to arrest and prosecution in Federal court.
Phosphorus poisoning of ducks feeding near the rifle range at Fort Humphreys, Va., has led officials of the Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture, to act in protecting waterfowl from this peril, says a bureau statement issued today. The action followed the discovery of phosphorus in wild ducks found dead on the tidewater area of Pohiek Creek near Fort Humphreys, where grenades containing phosphorus had been fired at target practice.
BULLHEADS FOR STATE LAKES
In February the Nebraska Game Commission will start stocking stateowned lakes with bullheads taken from Sand Hill Lakes. Each year thousands of adult fish are brought to eastern Nebraska lakes.
THE HONEST FISHERMANHe was an honest business man For fifty weeks each year; His word was good as any bond, His judgment sound and clear. He traded, bargained, bought and sold With wisdom broad and deep— And when he'd spent an honest day Retir'd to honest sleep. But once a year a madness comes And seizes on this man. And shakes him up and inside out, As only madness can. And makes this good man's honest tongue From Truth's dull pathway stray To babble weird tales all about The one that got away! Anonymous.
THE CARE OF CASTING REELS
In order to get the best service out of a reel, it is necessary to give it attention occasionally. The level-winding mechanism, especially, gets full of dust or sand and should be cleaned and oiled frequently.
When your reel has been in use for some time, look it over carefully and remove all particles of dust and sand. Clean all the working parts with a brush and gasoline. Never wipe the inside parts with a cloth as it is likely to leave lint.
After thoroughly cleaning, put a drop of oil in each of the following places:
(a) Ends of level-wind screw.
(b) Line carriage.
(c) Each end of spool bushing.
(d) Crank shaft.
Always keep all working parts well oiled, preferably with oil made for that purpose. A grease—tallow or vaseline —should be used on the gears.
When assembling make sure no screws are left loose, but are securely tightened.
Before putting away a reel for the winter, it should be gone over carefully and every working part well oiled. Then it will be ready when you decide to go fishing in the spring.
HUNT DUCKS WITH AIRPLANE
Somthing novel in the line of hunting was introduced Tuesday in Garden county, where the North Platte river is all under a federal game preserve. An airplane manned by two men, W. R. Kimsey and G. E. Riley, said to be from Hay Springs, Nebr., was used to flush geese from the river sanctuary during a large part of the forenoon. A party of Broadwater hunters watched the maneuvers of the plane and saw it dive low over the river and frighten several flocks of geese into the air. The birds were pursued and driven about for some time and it appeared that the pilot was trying to herd the honkers into a favorable position for ground hunters. Several volleys of shots were heard. The hunters came to grief when they landed to replenish their fuel supply, as Sheriff George Ridenour of Garden county and Deputy State Sheriff E. E. Clary were on hand to place the offenders under arrest. They were given a hearing Thursday morning and a report comes in to the effect that they were assessed fines of $65 and costs for their little air adventure. It is reported that they and companion hunters had geese in their possession and that the aviators had shotguns in the airplane—Broadwater News.
MANY BIRDS IN REFUGE
Wild life is picking up on America's second largest migratory bird refuge the 39,000 acre Crescent lake preserve in Garden county. Established two years ago and under the constant surveillance of a federal warden, the area has become a haven already for many forms of bird life. Blue winged teal and gadwalls nested there in large numbers during the season past. There were two large colonies of avocets and there were broods of mallards, redheads, widgeons, spoonbills, pintails, ruddy ducks and long billed curlews.
The preserve has not been fenced, and since it was created especially for birds rather than for game, it probably will not be. But hunters steer clear of the country because of the known presence of the warden and the trouble and expense of trips to court at North Platte as well as the fines, which an arrest by him might entail.
A report received recently from the U. S. biological survey bureau referred to a recent decision by the Nebraska public works department dismissing an irrigation district's application to drain the refuge's water for a reclamation project as a profound influence in its fight to preserve similar refuges in other parts of the country. It is said ill advised drainage has destroyed other sanctuaries and done irreparable injury to wild life resources all over the country.—Sidney Telegraph.
AUTOMOBILES AND AVILD LIFE
Many city residents feel that there is little opportunity for them to assist in conserving wild life resources. There is, however, always an opportunity for those who drive automobiles, either for business or pleasure, to help in the conservation program by making a determined effort not to strike birds and animals on the road. This opportunity is greatly increased during spring when the young of so many species are abroad, tumbling across the road in front of cars. Unless the motorist is careful he kills a large number of birds and animals each year.
That the destruction of animals by automobiles is an important factor in the rising mortality among wild birds and animals will be apparent to anyone who observes the number of dead to be found along every road. The building of new roads, the improvement of old ones, and the increase in the number and speed of automobiles, has added to this hazard as the years have passed.
There are probably two principal reasons wild life specimens are found on roads—because they must cross them in going from place to place, and because they are attracted by food along the road. Probably some animals also seek the road because of its warmth. Food on roads is particularly plentiful when insects are numerous, as large numbers of them are knocked down by the cars.
Some birds and animals are killed as they attempt to cross the road because they move too slowly in comparison with the speed of the cars. The number of birds struck while flying across a road which carries heavy traffic is astonishing. Others are killed because they are too much interested in feeding to notice carefully, and they consequently often misjudge the speed of approaching cars. Also on some roads they are hindered in making a quick start by the stickiness of the road material, and this fraction of a second means the difference between escaping and being struck.
At night animals are blinded by headlights. They do not know which way to turn and frequently remain motionless in the middle of the road where they are struck. In such cases the driver can usually avoid hitting them if he will.
If every automobile driver in the state will be careful of the wild life found on the highway, much can be done to help this situation. Everyone should remember that when he avoids hitting a bird or an animal, he has done something real for conservation.
The new 1933 Hunting and Fishing Permit is now ready to purchase.
Why not buy a permit this year and help carry on the work of building up Nebraska's great Outdoors?
Every dollar permit purchased helps build more recreation grounds, raise more fish and game and makes Nebraska's outdoors more attractive. No tax money is used by the Nebraska Game Commission. The voluntary purchase of the hunting and fishing permit is the sole means of carrying on the good work.
Do your share this year by buying yourself or a friend a hunting and fishing permit. They cost $1.10 and can be purchased in all communities throughout the state.
Although many valuable trees are comparatively slow growers, some of the best kinds develop to merchantable sizes with surprising rapidity, says the Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Douglas fir in the Pacific Northwest will grow in dense seedling stands, in some cases reach 9 0 feet in height in 3 0 years. At 50 years it will produce 1 to 3 cords of wood per acre per year. In a dense stand the trees produce a high proportion of clean lumber.
Southern pines are among the quickest growing trees, saplings 20 years old often attaining a height of 40 feet. The annual yield in good second-growth stands may by this time reach 1 to 3 cords per acre.
Spruce and fir seedlings in the Northeast are often held back for 15 to 4 0 years by competition, but they never grow up quickly when the old trees are removed. The advance reproduction, as such a stand of little trees is called, when freed by the harvesting of the mature crop, in about 40 years develops into a new pulpwood forest producing acre.
Hardwoods are generally slower growing than the pine family. However, the yellow popular, or tulip tree, in secondgrowth stands reaches heights of 50 to 100 feet in 30 to 50 years.THE AMERICAN BOY
"I'd far rather have a son able to climb a mountain and outwit the wary creatures of the wilderness than be able to dance the Brazilian Busybody or be able to decide whether a lavender tie will match mauve socks. These little lisping men, these modern ruins, these lazy effeminates who could not tell you the difference between a bull and a bullet—it is not in these that the hope of America, that the hope of humanity lies," writes Archibold Rutledge in Field and Stream.
"If the sentimentalist were right, hunting would develop in men a cruelty of character. But, I have found that it inculcates patience, demands discipline and iron nerve, and develops a serenity of spirit that makes for long life and a long love of life. And it is my fixed conviction that if a parent can give his children a passionate and wholesome devotion to the outdoors, the fact that he cannot leave each of them a fortune does not really matter so much. They will always enjoy life in its nobler aspects without money and without price. They will worship the Creator in His mighty works. And because they know and love the natural world they will always feel at home in the wide, sweet habitations of the Ancient Mother.
"I think the rod and the gun better for boys than the saxophone and the fudge sundae. In the first place, there is something inherently manly and home-bred and truly American in that expression "shooting straight." The hunter learns that reward comes from hard work; he learns from dealing with nature that a man must have a deep respect for the great natural laws. He learns also, I think, in a far higher degree than any form of standardized amateur athletics can give him, to play the game fairly."NEBRASKA NATIONAL FORESTS
Citizens of Nebraska and visitors to the state should visit one or both of Nebraska's two national forests. The larger of these is located in Thomas County near Halsey and the other forest is located in northern Cherry County. Here thousands of acres of arid land have been transformed to pine forests. Small trees by the millions are raised and distributed throughout the state. These two forests show the visitor amazing transformation of the sand hills into beautiful forests and are very interesting to see.
MANY TREES PLANTED IN CONTEST(Continued from Page 3)
taken by clubs. Usually each individual furnishes and plants a tree according to a plan worked out in advance, and the care of the whole planting is handled by the club or a committee.Methods of Launching and Conducting Programs: Publicity: Newspaper stories and news items. Window stickers. Poster Contests in schools. Window exhibits. Meetings. Plant Exchange Day. Tours.
Introduce the county program with a newspaper story about January 15, emphasizing the importance of tree planting, how it has helped in home development, and what trees mean to the farmer in dollars and cents. Photographs of local plantings and statements from farmers as to trees as a farm asset will add considerable value to this story. State papers might be interested in publishing such a story.
Prepare or secure some tree planting or landscaping stickers and use them as envelope stuffers and for distribution to all schools. Suggest that grade schools hold tree planting poster contests and display the winning posters as window exhibits.
If time permits one or two especially prepared window exhibits, with some central feature as an attraction, stimulate considerable interest. Sometimes a Women's Project club or Garden club will handle this phase of the program.
Plan to meet organized communities, with an illustrated lecture if possible on tree planting and home beautification either as a part of scheduled meetings or at meetings scheduled for this subject. If meetings are scheduled for this particular project they should be advertised not only through the press but in your window exhibits and through schools.
The following subjects should be discussed:Transplanting and pruning trees and shrubs. Yard development. Planting and care of trees. Slides or film strip of local or general interest. Arbor Day programs for schools and churches.
A plant exchange day where people bring -plants of all kinds to exchange with their neighbors has proven quite satisfactory as a stimulus to a program of this kind. This can be held in early April and made a county wide tree planting day. Local nurserymen will usually cooperate by having trees and shrubs on sale at very reasonable prices, as well as assisting with the exchange of plants.
The planting of windbreaks and yard beautification of rural schools should be a definite part of this project either as a community or school activity.
A county tour in June or early July for the purpose of visiting several of these farm home development projects is a fitting climax to such a program, and if the proper cooperation is secured in the beginning the attendance on the tour will not be disappointing. Do not confine the tour entirely to tree planting and home beautification, but include some of the other agricultural projects.
INCREASING OUR GAME CROP(Continued from Page 2)
state authorities should invite some concerted movement to lessen the predatory birds and animals and vermin that feed upon the eggs and young of our game birds. Here is a task that cannot be left to the farmer but must be carried on by others. Most farmers would be delighted to have predatory birds and animals reduced in number because he suffers from their depredations in his farm lots as well. Something in particular must be done about the crow which is increasing at an alarming rate during the past few years. The coyote has been killed off quite generally but the semi-wild house cat is increasing each year and is particularly a deadly enemy of all bird life. Here again the city dweller can help for no small number of unwanted kittens are dumped out along the highways to later become prowling bird-eating cats.
Another phase of the program must be the introduction of new blood into the state and the furnishing of original seed stock in those communities entirely depleted of game birds. This part of the work can best be carried on by the state authorities. But it is useless to spend large sums of money for seed unless suitable cover and feeding grounds are provided. A good start has been made by the federal government and various states in providing cover and feeding grounds for migratory waterfowl. Now let us do the same for the upland game birds.
COMMISSION FIELD ACTIVITIES(Continued From Page 9)
groves which casual observers suppose shelter only cottontails. Like horsetrading, the pursuit gets into their blood and they follow it even in a day when fur farms loom in the future.
You can now secure your new 1933 Hunting and Fishing Permit.
Why not get your permit now and be ready for the fishing season when it opens - - - a great many sportsmen buy their permits early in the year, thus helping the Game Commission carry on its work.
Permits are on sale at the offices of all county clerks and at banks, hardware and sporting goods stores throughout the state. If you cannot find an agent in your community, write,Secretary, Game, Forestation and Parks Commission Lincoln, Nebraska
The Harmless Kitten
The Abandoned Cat Becomes A Ruthless Deswtroyer of Wildlife
THE PERPETUATION OF UPLAND GAME BIRDS and more especially the quail, partridge and pheasants, depends upon shelter, food, and the control of predatory animals. Nature has so nicely balanced predator control that the strong are saved, but the weak are destroyed. Artificial predators, of which the common house cat is the most destructive of all, were never considered in nature's balancing scheme.
THE INDULGENT, THOUGHTLESS PARENTS AND CHILDREN are responsible for the great increase of this artificial predator and destroyer of bird life. Taken to the cottage, country or lake, a harmless and playful kitten and abandoned to its fate upon the return of the family to the city, the playful kitten fully grown is left through neglectfulness to forage for itself and its kind. Reverting quickly to its habits of the wild, it ruthlessly destroys all bird life.
YOUR OBLIGATION TO A SPORTSMAN SHOULD BE TO DESTROY BUT NEVER ABANDON A CAT. Do not leave this vicious animal to prey upon our valuable game birds. Ask the farmer's assistance, for he, too, will suffer unless he comes to nature's aid. Fewer birds mean more destructive insect pests for the farmer to combat, smaller game bags for the sportsman, and eventually bird life extinguished.NEBRASKA GAME FORESTATION & PARKS COMMISSION LINCOLN, NEBRASKA