Outdoor NebraskaJuly 1929
A-LongingAdolph Philip Gouthey in "Fins, Feathers & Fur" I'm tired of man-made cities With their soot and grime and smoke, I'm tired of man-made buildings Of streets and noise and folk. I am longing for the mountains And for the night bird's lonely call, For the fragrance of the spruces With the moonlight over all. I would tramp some trail a-winding Thru the forests deep and still, Where the bird notes mingle softly With the babble of a rill. I would dream in the lonely valleys When they're full of hush to the brim, Walled in by the mighty mountains Where the light is always dim. And here amid the infinite God-like spaces I would wander adrift like a cloud, Never jostled nor harried nor maddened By the turbulent moiling crowd. I would tune my soul to the silence And walk mystic paths with God, Where the dreamers and seers for ages In peace and contentment have trod.
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAOfficial Bulletin Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission Vol. IV JULY, 1929 No. 3 CONTENTS Commission Now in Charge Game, Fish & Park Affairs _________________ 3 Nebraska Wardens To Wear Uniforms ________________________________ 4 State Parks Mecca for Thousands _____________________________________ 5 Editorial ____________________________________________________________ 6 Effective Game Conservation _________________________________________ 8 Transfer and Holding Station Under Construction _____________________ 9 Fish, Game & Park Activities ___________--------------------------------------------10
The following code of outdoor ethics was compiled by Seth E. Gordon, conservation director of the Izaak Walton League of America, and an outstanding authority on sportsmanship and conservation:
1. Your outdoor manners tell the world what you are when at home.
2. What belongs to the public isn't your own—play fair.
3. Respect the property of rural residents—ask before using it.
4. Save fences, close gates and bars, go around planted fields.
5. People, livestock, trees and birds were never meant to be target practice backstops.
6. Respect the law—catch enough legal fish to eat, then quit.
7. Protect public health----keep springs and streams clean.
8. Clean up your camp and don't litter the highways with trash.
9. Finish what you start—carelessness with fires is cussedness.
1 0. Leave flowers and shrubs for others to enjoy. Do your share.
A scene on the Big Muddy. This picture was taken in Otoe County. It was along this river that the trappers and explorers of a hundred years ago made their way eastward
Commission Now In Charge Game, Fish and Park Affairs
ON May 9 the administration of game, fish and parks throughout Nebraska was taken over by the new Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, created by the 1929 session of the Legislature.
This Commission was created by House Rolls Number 466 and 476. Both of these measures had the backing of the Izaak Walton League of Nebraska, which has been working for a number of years to put in force the Commission form of government in game affairs.
As soon as the two measures were enacted into law, Governor Weaver announced the appointment of six commissioners. The law provides that the Governor shall be the Chairman of the Commission and the Game Warden the Secretary. Frank B. O'Connell, formerly Chief of the Bureau of Game & Fish in the Department of Agriculture, was re-appointed by Governor Weaver. The term of office is for five years.
The other commissioners appointed are as follows:
George Dayton, Lincoln, for a term of one year. Mr. Dayton is well-known in Nebraska as a sportsman. He served for many years as City Treasurer of the City of Lincoln. Mr. Dayton is probably as well posted in wild life of the middle west as any citizen of the state. He has given much time to the study of bird and fish life and has a vast store of knowledge covering practically all species to be found in the state. His term will expire January 15, 1930.
Guy Spencer, Omaha, for a term of two years. Mr. Spencer has been active in Omaha chapter of the Izaak Walton League and is greatly interested in conservation of wild life. He is an ardent angler. He is cartoonist for the Omaha World-Herald. His hobby is making flies. His term expires January 15, 19 31.
Webb Rice, Norfolk, for a term of three years. Mr. Rice has been active in Nebraska Division of the Izaak Walton League, serving as counsel for several years. Like, Mr. Spencer, Rice is an ardent angler. He is an attorney. His term expires January 15, 1932.
F. A. Badwin, Ainsworth, for a term of four years. Mr. Baldwin has been active in Walton League affairs and conservation work in northern Nebraska. His preference in outdoor sports is hunting. He is engaged in the mercantile business. His term expires January 15, 1933.
E. R. Purcell, Broken Bow, for a term of five years. Mr. Purcell is well-known throughout Nebraska, having served in the State Legislature, on the State Board of Agriculture and on the State Park Board for many years. His knowledge and experience in handling parks pakes him an especially valuable member of the board since the game and parks are now consolidated. He is engaged in the newspaper business. His term expires January 15, 1935.
Since the Commission was appointed, four meetings have been held and the new work gotten well in hand. Aside from organization work, many policies have been discussed and action taken on many. Very few changes(Continued on Page 14)
(Reading from left to right) F. A. Baldwin, Ainsworth; Guy Spencer, Omaha; Governor Weaver, Chairman of the Commission; Webb Rice, Norfolk, Vice-Chairman; George Dayton, Lincoln; E. R. Purcell, Broken Bow; and Frank B. O'Connell, Lincoln, Secretary and Chief Game Warden.
Nebraska Wardens to Wear Uniforms
Following the favorable reports received from Michigan, Wisconsin and New York, the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission has decided to put Nebraska wardens in uniform.
Last year Wisconsin and Michigan placed their law enforcement officers in uniform part of the time. The experiment at once became popular with the sportsmen. It was found that suitable uniforms not only helped to dignify the position but it helped the sportsman identify the authorized representative of the state and kept them from being the victim of unscrupulous persons.
Of course, it is realized that it would be impossible for game wardens to wear the uniforms at all times, since part of the wardens' work is to bring game violators to justice. Sometimes it takes several days of "shadowing" to catch a spring-hunter or a seining party. The uniform would be a give-away in such cases. But rounding up the habitual law-breaker is only a part of the warden's work. He must investigate complaints sent in to the office, check thousands of hunting and fishing permits, appear in court and give advice and instruction to the hundreds of persons who hunt, trap and fish. In these latter tasks the uniform can be worn to great advantage both to the state and to the sportsmen.
The new Nebraska uniform consists of a semi-military style and is forest-green in color. Belts and hats are worn with the uniform in the summer and caps in the winter.
COOKING DOMESTIC RABBITBy Fannie Walker Yeatman, assistant in food preparation, Bureau of Home Economics; and Frank G. Ashbrook, in charge, Division of Fur Resources, Bureau of Biological Survey.
The Domestic Rabbit provides meat that is delicious, tender, and fine flavored. One does not have to wait for the hunting season to open to enjoy rabbit, for there are hundreds of domestic rabbit farms throughout the country where the animals are being raised for the market. Hutch-raised rabbits are produced under the best possible conditions and are marketed while young and tender. Relatively few housewives in the eastern part of the United States are acquainted with the delicious flavor of domestic rabbit meat. Most of them have been accustomed to think of rabbit in terms of the cottontail, the small game animal that is hunted so extensively. Others have thought of rabbit only in terms of jack rabbit, which is even less attractive than the eastern cottontail. When cooked, the meat of wild rabbits is dark and is objected to by some housewives because of "that gamy flavor", and because of the lead shot that persist in getting in one's teeth when eating it.
The industry of raising domestic rabbits is most flourishing in the West, particularly in California, but increasing interest in it is developing in the Eastern states also. The bureau of biological survey maintains a rabbit experiment station in California and has issued several publications in which are recommended the most satisfactory methods of raising rabbits for both food and fur. Hutch-raised rabbits are carefully bred and fed for table use. They eat rolled cereals, alfalfa hay, and leafy vegetables. The nature of their food makes the meat sweet, tender, and excellently flavored. In fact, it can be better compared with chicken than with wild rabbit. Furthermore, rabbits that are raised in small hutches or on fur farms are cleanly in habits and can be produced under sanitary conditions and their diseases and parasites controlled.
Just as with poultry or with various cuts of meat, young tender rabbits may be fried or roasted, while the older ones with tougher muscles require longer, slow cooking. Domestic rahbitries specialize in the "fryer" class of rabbit meat, and this is to be had in animals that are marketed when eight weeks old. The Bureau of Home Economics is conducting experiments in the various methods of preparing domestic rabbit meat for the table and recommends the following recipes:
Young tender rabbits may be fried or broiled, or if just a little larger than the frying and broiling stage, smothered according to the method southern cooks use for chicken. The older, larger rabbits may also be used for short orders by parboiling whole, then cutting into pieces suitable for serving, and frying in batter according to the method given below. Or they may be simmered and served with dumplings or used in chop suey or salad in the same way as chicken.Fried Babbit.
Make a batter using the following for each rabbit: 1 egg, % cup flour, % cup milk, and % teaspoon salt. Beat the egg, add the milk and salt, and stir into the flour to form a smooth batter. Wipe the rabbit with a clean, damp cloth and cut into pieces of the right size for serving. Dip each piece of rabbit into this batter and be sure that it is thoroughly coated. In an iron skillet heat well-flavored fat until it is hot enough to set the batter quickly. Brown the pieces of rabbit evenly, then reduce the heat, and cook at lower temperature for 2 5 to 30 minutes, or until tender. Serve on a hot platter and garnish with parsley.
Gravy to serve with the rabbit may be prepared as follows: With each 2 tablespoons of the fat in which the rabbit was cooked blend 1 % tablespoons flour and 1 cup milk. Cook until thickened. Add 1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley, % teaspoon salt, and a dash of pepper.Broiled Rabbit
After wiping the rabbit with a clean damp cloth, sprinkle with salt, pepper, and flour; place whole, back down, on a rack in a flat baking pan. Place pieces of butter in the hollow places. Cook in the oven at a moderate temperature (375° to 400° F.) for 40 to 50 minutes, or until tender. Turn the rabbit over, baste with pan drippings, and place under the flame of the broiling oven to brown. Serve the broiled rabbit on a hot platter, and pour over it the drippings mixed with finely chopped parsley.(Continued on Page 14)
State Parks Mecca for Thousands
During each summer thousands of Nebraska citizens and their guests visit the four Nebraska state parks. Nebraska now has four state parks in operation. The 192 9 session of the State Legislature accepted a site for another park, known as "Fort Kearney," near Kearney, Nebraska, but no money \,as appropriated for the development of the same.
Four parks now made use of by the public are as follows:
Chadron State Park, located eight miles south of Chadron in Dawes County.
Arbor Lodge State Park, located near Nebraska City in Otoe County.
Victoria State Park, located near Anselmo in Custer County.
Stolley State Park, located near Grand Island in Hall County.
The Nebraska Legislature created Chadron State Park in 19 21. It contains 64 0 acres. This park is easily accessible to the people of the northwestern part of Nebraska, as it lies along the state and federal highway between Alliance and Chadron. This park is a pleasant contrast to the more-or-less level and treeless plateau about it, as it has many splendid pine trees, springs, canyons, etc. It is a bit of the Black Hills country placed in the plains country for the people living there to enjoy. The park has now become a favorite picnic and camping grounds for many hundreds of visitors. Horseback riding, swimming and other recreational facilities are available at this park. There is ample playgrounds for the children.
Arbor Lodge State Park, near Nebraska City, contains a portion of the J. Sterling Morton homestead. Mr. Morton was the founder of Arbor Day and in 1923 the 65-acre tract of natural grove and arboretum surrounding the stately colonial mansion of 52 rooms was presented to the state by a son, Mr. Joy Morton. The park's chief interest lies in its historic significance and is used largely for museum and arboretum purposes. One of the main north and south state highways passes this park.
Victoria Springs State Park, in Custer County, contains a group of mineral springs said to have no counterpart in the state. In 192 3 Custer County citizens offered, and the Legislature accepted, a 60-acre tract containing these springs, for use as a state park. The springs, a splendid grove and two log cabins built in 1873, are distinguished features. Picnic conveniences and other accommodations have been placed in this park and the spring water is available to the public. This park is 19 miles northwest of Broken Bow, 6 selmo, and 9 miles north of Merna.
Stolley State Park is located near Grand Island and is the latest addition to the state parks. This tract contains 42.83 acres and is a portion of the homestead of William Stolley, one of the early pioneers of central Nebraska. Mr. Stolley was a great lover of trees and as a consequence a great number of many species were set out. Some magnificent specimens can be seen there today. This park is located near the old Oregon Trail and one of the present buildings contains timbers used in the construction of a blockhouse known as Fort Independence and used for protection from Indians. The Legislature accepted this park from the citizens of Hall County in 1927.
A scene at Arbor Lodge State Park
One of the great problems facing game officials in America is the raising of the common variety of fish which the average fisherman can catch. Owing to the many thousands who now go to the great outdoors to angle, the demand for the common pan fish is tremendous.
Ways and means to meet this demand warrants the serious attention of the every game official. In fact, the raising of these fish will have considerable bearing on the future of wild life, since a great share of the funds which keep the wheels of conservation going are derived from the dollar permit sold to the average fisherman.
In past years most states have kept their hatcheries busy raising bass, trout and pike. Nebraska is no exception to this. Thousands of dollars have been spent in raising the so-called fighting fish. But only a comparatively small number of anglers catch these fish. The great mass of fishermen do not capture enough bass or trout to stock one good lake or stream. It is usually only the dyed-in-the-wool sportsman who takes the bass and trout. The great bulk of permit-buyers who fish in Nebraska take the catfish, perch, crappie, sunfish and bullhead.
Some constructive program of production of these common varieties of pan fish must be put into operation. More of the money now being used for bass and trout must be used to provide such fish. It is only a square deal to the man who pays the price that he get something in return for his money.
It is with these many fishermen in mind that the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission is constructing a transfer and holding plant in eastern Nebraska. This plant will be used mostly for the planting of the pan fish. Catfish will be taken from the larger rivers in considerable numbers and worked out to the smaller streams through (his plant. Perch and bullheads will be shipped in carload lots from lakes in the sand-hill country where many lakes are now overstocked with these fish and planted in the smaller ponds and streams of the eastern part of the state.
But this plant is only a beginning. A much greater program is necessary to meet the growing demands. Ponds and lakes and nurseries must be secured in some manner, stocked, and then later on opened to fishing. Some nurseries must be operated to stock ponds and lakes where the fish can be caught but where they do not spawn.
It is a big problem but it must be studied carefully and a comprehensive and permanent policy worked out and put into practice.COURTESY
Nebraska Game Wardens are being instructed to meet the public in a courteous way. Those officers who insist on using the old-time method of contact will probably be looking for other positions. Game wardens deal mostly with good citizens. It is only on rare occasions when they have to deal with the criminal.
But every sportsman should remember that courtesy, like, conversation, must be carried on by both parties. It is rather difficult to be courteous when you are abused. Therefore, it is to the interests of the Nebraska sportsmen to do their part and meet the warden as a gentleman. Many wardens are abused while carrying on their work. It is this continual meeting of offensive persons that ruin law-enforcement officers. They get "hard" in spite of themselves.
It is possible to be courteous and yet firm. And it is likewise possible for the courteous officer to handle the "wise" chap who is so ignorant and unsophisticated as to think lawlessness or rowdyism makes him a bigger or better man. The penitentiaries are full of that type.
Treat the officer courteously and usually you will be treated accordingly. If you aren't, then you are entitled to register a complaint.SUPPOSE WE NEVER PLANTED ANYTHING?
If you started life with a bank account and did nothing with it but draw checks, never making a deposit to the credit of that account, you would soon be bankrupt.
The same rule is applicable to the wild life of Nebraska.
You can't go on and on taking from the fields and streams, never making any deposit without "bankrupting" them. The birds, the fish, the wild animals, are just like your dollars. If you simply go on continually checking on them they are bound to give out.
It is one of the functions of the Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, and a mighty important one, to watch Nature's bank account. For example, the thousands of birds brought into the state and the millions of fish raised at our hatcheries and nurseries are a deposit to the credit of the hunting and fishing accounts which Nature has banked in Nebraska for her citizens and their guests—a deposit in your behalf to keep the account you have been checking on from embarassing you some day with a reminder of "insufficient funds".
You too can help to keep the balance in the bank and the account out of the red. You can do this by reasonable use of "funds"—which in this case is our wild life. Do not be unreasonable in the expenditure of birds and fish life. Never take more fish or game than you need. Like some persons who are never satisfied until they have squandered their week's salary, OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 7 likewise some persons are never satisfied until they can take the limit of game and fish even though the most of it is of no use to them and will be wasted.
You can also help by leaving some of the "funds" in the bank to draw interest. Each small fish that is thrown back into the water unharmed will "earn interest" during the following year and grow into a worthwhile catch.FOX FARMING BULLETI.. AVAILABLE
Silver foxes are being raised successfully on numerous fox farms throughout the United States and Canada, and the pelts of ranch-raised foxes are being sold in increasing quantities on the fur markets every year. At the close of 1928, silver foxes were being raised on about 3,000 ranches within the United States, according to the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture, and the fox ranchers had approximately $30,000,000 invested in their business.
The need for information on fox-farming led the department to issue a bulletin on the subject a few years ago and the demand for it has required several reprints. This bulletin, "Silver Fox Farming," by Frank G. Ashbrook, in charge of Division of Fur Resources of the Biological Survey, presents the information usually called for on the management, feeding and breeding of silver foxes in captivity.
The real facts concerning the business are stated, showing the results that are possible under good management as compared with many erroneous statements that were made by unscrupulous promoters in the earlier history of the industry. How to choose a site and lay out a fox ranch; how to select stock and feed it properly; and how to breed for the best strains are the major matters discussed in the bulletin. Emphasis is placed on quality production and on the qualifications of a good fox farmer, as well as on sanitation, both as regards housing the foxes and preventing the introduction of diseases and parasites. Many diagrams, pictures, feeding tabulations, and formulas for special foods are also included.
The supply of the bulletin for free distribution is now exhausted, but copies can be had for 15 cents by writing to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, and ordering Department Bulletin 1151-D, "Silver Fox Farming." This information is supplied by the Biological Survey in view of the continuing demand for the bulletin and the fact that the printing fund of Department of Agriculture is at present insufficient to meet all demands for free publications.WARDENS IN UNIFORM
Each year cities and countries spend thousands and millions of dollars for uniforming officers and soldiers. Why this expenditure?
The money is spent because the officer in uniform commands the respect of the public and is better able to do his work. The officer in uniform is not only a protection to the state but a protection to the honest citizen. And the honest citizen is quick to see this. He dislikes being approached by strangers who in many cases even refuse to properly identify themselves.
This is more or less true with the game wardens. Many sportsmen resent having a stranger approach them and ask to see their permit or to examine their fish or game. For that reason, progressive states are putting their game wardens in uniform. Nebraska likewise is doing so.
It will of course be impossible to keep all wardens in uniform or expect each warden to wear a uniform on all occasions. But the larger part of the force will be in uniform and they will do a great deal of their work in uniform. They will wear the uniform in dealing with the good citizens who go hunting or fishing as much as possible. 'When a miss is NOT as good as a mile"
Effective Game ConservationBy NASH BUCKINGHAM
WILD life conservation is greatly needed in this country," remarked the florid-cheeked individual, after looking pensively out of the window of the Pullman car. His companion in the smoking compartment, a hardware dealer, thought so too. In fact, he expressed the conviction that "something should be done about it," and stifled a yawn that was correctly interpreted. The conversation soon turned to other channels.
This incident and its implication brought to my mind the recent National Game Conference in New York City which is attended each year by state game commissioners, government officials, professional conservationists, amateur nature lovers, representatives of national protective organizations, game breeders and editorial ambassadors from our leading outdoor sporting publications. One observes, too, dignitaries of the outdoor industrial field — gun, ammunition and fishing tackle manufacturers aroused to their industrial danger in waning game resources.
The program of this conference is varied in theme and texture. Scientists read papers dealing with disease among game birds, the gist of which reveals that if certain experiments induce certain conditions, the chances are that the result may warrant an open season on these species for a couple of hours in 1940. Pheasants and grouse livers and gizzards are bared to the world and duck parasites flee the wrath of science. Few problems of game breeding or its "spare parts" escape the scrutiny of constructive probes along such lines. All of which is exactly as it should be. It works on us humans, so why not, eventually, on game.Not Much Readies the Public
Columns are devoted to solving the alleged sportsman-farmer controversy. A certain amount—a very small proportion of it all, I regret to surmise—filters through to the general public; that is, as much of it as the efforts of conservation's earnest workers can shove through publicity channels open to them.
Sitting there listening to all of it, I have often wondered how much good it would do and how much attention and appreciation would be bestowed upon it if a detailed record of these papers could reach the desks of .every sporting goods proprietor and sporting goods manufacturer in the United States. How many sporting goods dealers would interpret these game problems understandingly and diagnose them as being of constructive value to the very existence of their establishments? Do they realize, if it were not for the conservationists— men who have literally dedicated their lives to such work —that it wouldn't take long for literal chaos to sweep the remaining game and their sporting goods business practically out of existence? I have often conjectured how many sporting goods dealers know, want to know, or take the trouble to make a check or survey on their own environment as affected by the serious problems known to conservation. How many sporting goods dealers even consider conservation as a checking accountant in the scaling of red and black on their ledgers?
In round figures there are about 70,000,000 folks in the United States between 15 and 6 4 years of age. A 5 0-5 0 count won't miss it far as to male and female division, so that one might say there are probably; 35,000,000 males between 15 and 6 4. These ages will come pretty nearly meaning sunrise and sunset for hunting activity. The country's density of population is pretty close to forty people to the square mile. In 1800, 129 years ago, the density of population was six. New then! Records show that 6,000,000 of this 35,000,000 men between 15 and 6 4, by way of illustration, took out hunting licenses last season. Add to this 2,000,000 more who for various reasons, satisfactory or unsatisfactory, failed to provide themselves with licenses. Thus we can reasonably deduce that at least 8,000,000 gunners are abroad in the 3,000 counties of our forty-eight states.
At the service of this army, in consideration of transportation and other modern facilities of the chase, are fast trains, airplanes, luxurious motors, cheap automobiles, good roads, outboard motors, magazine guns and a system of outdoor exploitation that will gladly put you in touch with the most remote sanctuaries of game and fish, and tell you how to reach them.(Continued on Page 15)
A Transfer and Holding Station Now Under Construction at Lincoln
One of the problems in the production of fish is transportation. In the past, state authorities have been greatly hampered in not having adequate facilities or a centrally-located plant where fish could be held temporarily, transferred from one place to another, or where equipment for seining, trucks etc. could be stored.
In order to meet this problem and increase the distribution of fish in eastern Nebraska the Game, Forestation and Parks Commission has authorized the building of a plant to be located at the State Fair Grounds at Lincoln. The plant was placed at Lincoln because the thickly populated section of the state can readily be reached from that point by trucks. It was placed on the Fair Grounds because the State Board of Agriculture was willing to cooperate and furnish a site without cost, thus saving a considerable sum for land.
The plant will be one of the most modern in the country. It will consist primarily of a large building which will house the state fish car and the fleet of fish trucks now being operated. It will have a large storage room for seines, boots, waders, rope, cans, tubs and other equipment used in distribution work. It will have a work shop where work can be done on trucks and cars and also where seines and nets may be made. By making nets the state can save approximately one - half the cost of such equipment and can also get just the style and type of nets needed to do the work to be done in Nebraska lakes and ponds.
In addition to the building there will be a series of holding ponds, connected to a loading platform in such a way that a carload or truck load of fish can be loaded or unloaded within a few minutes. Running water will be available for all ponds, together with sewerage connections and tempering facilities to obtain proper temperatures. Ample water supply will be available so that the tanks of the fish car can be filled within thirty minutes—a procedure now requiring from three to six hours. A shower bath and locker room will be available for employees who come in from long trips and who are frequently required to immediately proceed on another trip.
The main purpose of this plant is to release the fish car from running here and there over the state with small loads of fish. Most of the work of the car hereafter will be devoted to express work, that is, hauling a full carload over long distances. Trucks will take care of the small orders and short-haul work.
It is believed that with this new plant in operation a large number of bullheads and perch can be taken from overstocked lakes in the northern and western sections of the state and distributed in eastern Nebraska, whereas a much larger number of bass and trout can be stocked in the northern and western sections. For example, heretofore when a carload of bullheads was brought east they had to be distributed along the way or run into one of the hatcheries and picked up later. Under the new arrangement the carload lot can be run direct to the holding plant and the car released and returned for another load. During the following day or two trucks can place the load in a dozen different ponds and creeks in eastern Nebraska. Not only will the plant save much of the time for the car but will provide much more uniform distribution.
In the past the upkeep and loss of equipment has been high because of inadequate facilities for storing and caring for such equipment. Under the new plan all equipment will be proper invoiced and checked in and out of the plant so that every article can readily be accounted for.
This holding, transfer and storage plant is a step forward in modern fish distribution and transportation. Already a number of other states have made inquiry and asked for plans and specifications, which would indicate that this problem is a universal one.
WORTH TEN MILLION A YEAR
"That Kansas gets at least $10,000,000 worth of good out of its game, fish and birds every year, is asserted by J. B. Doze, former warden. This is the way he computes it, and the figures look reasonable.
"Ducks, geese and other migratory birds shot every year would sell on the market for $1,000,000, and quail for $5 0,0 0 0. The 6 0,0 0 0 rabbits sent away every year bring around $50,000, counting jack rabbits. The prairie chicken bag will sell for $25,000. All other(Continued on Page 14)
Fish, Game and Park ActivitiesTO PRODUCE MORE WARM WATER FISH
In an effort to speed up the production of bass, crappies, blue-gills and other warm water fish, the Game Commission has adopted as part of its program the purchase of such fish from sportsmen's organizations and individuals.
Mr. G. H. Nichols, of Norfolk, well-known to sportsmen of northern Nebraska, has been employed to act as a field man to promote the building of bass nurseries and private hatcheries. He is now at work and already has interested a number of organizations and individuals.
The Commission hopes to get results and increased production from this method by the fall of 1930. At that time they have tenatively agreed to purchase these fish at the fololwing prices:Bass (five-inch) ...................$50 per thousand Crappie ..................................$15 per thousand Blue-gills ..............................$15 per thousand
Inasmuch as this price is considerably lower than the state hatcheries have ever been able to raise fish, it is hoped that this program may not only increase production of fish but that it may enable the cost of raising fish to be lowered. There are many small ponds and springs in Nebraska that could be used for raising fish, showing a profit to the owner thereof and at the same time enabling the state authorities to purchase such fish at a reasonable figure. Last year the state purchased 42,000 extra fine bass from a private hatchery in north-western Nebraska. These fish were among the finest ever distributed in Nebraska, and the price of same was very reasonable.
Only artificial ponds under the exclusive control of the organization or individual interested can be used for raising fish for sale to the state. No present fishing water or lakes can be used for such purpose.
Rescue work where thousands of small fish are saved each summer
The residence on the Fremont Recr e a t i o n Grounds has been repaired and hereafter Game Warden Frank De Vry will reside there, looking after the local fishing waters there in addition to his other duties in his district.
At the openi n g of the summer bass fishing season several lakes were opened and two that had been opened were closed. On the opening day hundreds of bass and thousands of crappies were taken from the six lakes on these grounds.
Pumps for camping purposes, toilets, fencing and general improvement work has been done on this property this spring.
These beauties were taken near Clearwater by E. Smith, ardent angler. Both were better than 2 pounds each.
Several game wardens spent considerable time this spring studying the pheasant during the corn-planting season. A number of birds were killed and their digestive tracts opened. While some green corn was found, a large number of cut worms and other vermin was found. The consenus of opinion among the wardens seems to be that the pheasant does much good but can become entirely too numerous in certain localities. Efforts are now being made to locate areas where the birds are too numerous and permission secured from farmers for the hunters to take birds there during the coming fall OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 11 open season on these birds.
A very detailed study of the pheasant's habits, food consumed etc. is now being made by the Commission in cooperation with the State University. This study covers a period of one year. A certain number of birds are killed each month and analyzed by the university authorities. Owing to an agreement with the University no report will be made on the matter until it is completed and officially published.TO FIGHT PINE SCALE
The Commission has joined hands with the U. S. Forestry Service and the State Department of Agriculture to fight a pine blight which has attacked pine trees in northern Nebraska. The forestry representatives are doing considerable spraying with oil to kill the blight in the infested areas.
The Game Commission has loaned the forestry service a truck and driver for a period of a month or six weeks to help out in this work. The State Department of Agriculture purchased a pump and other equipment as their contribution in this important and necessary work.ROYAL NURSERY
A new trout and bass nursery has been constructed near Royal, in Antelope County. The state formerly operated a small nursery there but through an exchange of land, a better site was obtained. This has been developed into a good bass nursery of over an acre and a small trout nursery. A flood dam aged the dam a few days after it was built but this has been repaired.
A duck killed and partially devoured by a semi-wild house cat cats do untold damage to all bird life
Two new fish trucks of 2-ton capacity each have been put into service. Experience with various sizes of trucks seem to indicate that the 2-ton size is best adapted to the work and roads found in Nebraska. This makes a fleet of three specially-built trucks, besides three small trucks carrying cans and tubs. All of these trucks will be put into service this fall when the distributing season begins.DISCONTINUES HANDLING GOLDFISH
The Commission has discontinued the handling and sale of goldfish at the several hatcheries. This decision was made when it was reported that owing to disease and high cost of purchase the state was losing money in handling these fish. Since the citizen who pays his dollar does not care about goldfish, it was not deemed advisable to use funds longer for such purpose. A few of the larger goldfish raised in Nebraska will be kept at the hatcheries for exhibition and also to furnish to state and city public parks and pools.LAKE QUINNEBAUGH RELIEF
Owing to the extreme low water in Lake Quinnebaugh thus endangering the fish, the Game Commission has agreed to assist local organizations there in constructing a ditch and water control. It is planned to run the water from the Missouri River during flood periods, allowsame to settle in a basin and then empty into the lake. It is estimated that the improvements will cost approximately $3,000, onehalf of which the state will likely pay if its requirements are met.TURKEY EGGS
Two-hundred and Stray fifty wild turkey eggs were purchased this spring by the Game Commission. This is the first time the state has purchased turkey eggs and the purchase is more or less of an experiment. However, it is believed that success can be had in rearing these birds as Nebraska has a number of farmers who are successfully raising the tame birds.CALIFORNIA TRIES HUNGARIANS
California obtained a shipment of Hungarian partridge from Czechoslovakia this spring and planted them in certain locations in the southern part of that state as an experiment. This is the first instance of planting these birds in territory of that character.—Bulletin of the American Game Protective association.12 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA IKES PRESENT PRIZES
The above picture represents the winners of the Silver cup given by the South Omaha Chapter of the Izaak Walton League. This cup was given to a bird house contest of the Boy Scouts of Millard, Papillion, Holy Ghost, Ralston, and Ashland. The winners are Ralstor Troop No. 56.
A great deal of interest was manifested in this contest and was an educational feature among the boys in teaching them to preserve life. Our chapter is taking an active part in this line of work.
The South Omaha chapter is one hundred percent in favor of the officers of our state department and the new commission just appointed, and will give them our undivided support. If every citizen of our state will do this then we can have those priviliges that we all enjoy so much.
"Whenever we fail to work for the preservation of natural life and our great resources then we fail to he good American Citizens. Had only the selfish man thought of himself, what would have been our condition today?
"Me First" is not the true spirit of a good American citizen.
So let us unify our forces and help build a constructive policy and support the authorities in maintaining a program that will be of worth to all.
The Izaak Walton League offers you that privilege so take advantage of the opportunity at once.Yours truly, F. S. GATENBY, Sec'y. "FINDING THE PACTS"
In the April-May issue of American Game, appears an editorial, "Finding the Facts" which is quoted below:
"A great industrial executive, who has made a phenomenal success of a vast and complicated business organization, declares that the basic principle of his system is expressed in these three words:
'Get the Facts.'
'But,' he adds, 'facts are not of much use unless they are dealt with by an open mind.'
Conservationists can afford to sit at the feet of the mighty and learn wisdom.
Too long has game protection and development been dealt with by the cut-and-dry method or rule of thumb.
We have approached too close to the narrow margin of extinction to depend any longer on the haphazard devices of uniformed amateurs. We should apply the same principles and methods to our problem that have brought success to the great commercial and industrial enterprises of modern times.
The basic principle underlying all great industrial undertakings is research-fact-finding. After that, interpreting of the facts, and their application to the problems of the enterprise.
Research in game problems is a compartively new idea. Scientific investigation often involves much time and expense. Results are not always tangible or apparent to the layman. It is never spectacular or thrilling. It involves patience and skill. But it discloses facts.
The greatest need of game conservation at present is more knowledge of life histories, biology, environmental influences, diseases, and other factors affecting all species. All this can be acquired by no one agency. The federal government can and does contribute much, and should be financed and equipped to do more. The state conservation departments are not engaged in many extensive inquiries, but some important research is under way under state auspices. State universities and other institutions of learning are best equipped for such work and are engaged in a number of important research undertakings, but have not been encouraged or asked to do as much as they might. Private enterprise is supporting some of the most important and productive research projects.
Following are some of the current research undertakings affecting game."
Here the editorial lists the work being done by: The Quail Investigation, The Grouse Investigation, The Waterfowl Survey, The Game Survey, McSweeney Forest Research, Studies by Wild Fowlers, Statistics of Game Kill, Predatory Species, Stream Surveys and Federal Fisheries Research as examples of what is being done.
The "Great Industrial Executive" referred to in the editorial who has "made a phenomenal success" is Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., and the "business organization;" The General Motors Corporation. Certainly the success of this organization is such as to lead one to believe their policy sound.
The complete policy on which this editorial is based, taken from a speeech by Mr. Sloan is:
(a) "Get the facts;
(b) Recognize the equities of all concerned;
(c) Realize the necessity of doing a better job every day;
(d) An open mind; and,
(e) Hard work."
The American Game editorial draws a lesson for conservation from (a) and (d). Lessons just as potent can be drawn from the other three items of General Motors Policy.
(b) If we consider as "equities" the right of any man to have and express his own opinion, it is to be feared the "equities of all concerned" are not "recognized." An expressed opinion has, in the past, too often been taken as a signal to impugn the motives of the one who dares so to express himself—not in agreement with some one else—and a verbal box barrage, even containing the poison gas of personalities, laid down to prevent any retreat.
The avowed intention of both parties to such a controversy may have been "Game Restoration," but it is to be doubted if any "Game on the hoof" has ever been, or will ever be, procured by this method.
(c) This might lead us to consider the item of "doing a better job every day." Take as an example the "Migratory Bird Conservation Act" recently passed by Congress.OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 13
Some years ago, the exact time is of no moment, this matter was first made the subject of legislation. The original bill met opposition, was defeated—enter here the poison gas of personalities, which caused a wrangle lasting for years: during which time, incidentally, wild fowl numbering literally millions, died. To further digress for a moment, it would be interesting to know, for those statistically inclined, how many ducks per word of controversy died during this verbal barrage.
Finally, working silently, without the blare of trumpets, and "realizing the necessity of doing a better job every day;" conservationists met, "Recognized the equities of all concerned," smoothed out their differences by personal conversations and the passage of the Norbeck-Andresen bill resulted.
Still the "necessity of doing a better job every day" is not realized. No sooner had the bill passed than the public print became cluttered with past history in the form of articles, many laying claim to the credit for the passage of the bill; if not outright claims, at least by inference. Actually the credit for the bills' passage rests with the man who conceived and engineered the getting together of the "Wild Life Legislative Committee" and saw to it that it was born with the silver spoon of HARMONY in its mouth. It is doubtful if you could name him, or ever will be able to name him—he is not interested in claiming credit but is interested in wild fowl, although he is known to some.
The day of the passage of the Migratory Bird act was YESTERDAY. General Motors did not succeed on any policy of YESTERDAY and conservationists should realize YESTERDAY is water over the dam. To-day is the day for doing a better job, and it must be done today for to-morrow will soon be here and have the right of way.
(e) This brings consideration to the last item of the policy we should strive to emulate. "Hard work," will take care of itself, if today's tasks are cleaned up so to-morrow's can grown and thrive. What is more— there will be game in the coverts, and on the ponds for your sons, and they will not be able to point the finger of scorn at you and say "You talked our game to death."PROM MR. KELLER
To the Editor: During our hatching season, duck No. 555414 hatched 9 little ones out of her 10 eggs on May 6th, but she had bad luck with them. It was cold, rainy, and drizzly until the night of May 10th when we had a terrific wind and rain storm. The wind broke off a number of trees and branches. The duck must have hovered her little ones in the path of falling branches for I picked up five of the little ones lying on their backs the next morning, dead. Toward noon she came in with only one. Some more ducks must have lost their babies that night. One duck is coming in with three different size ducks in her bunch of seven and also has the one that was left from No. 555414's flock. No. 555414 is sitting again on her 8 eggs in her nest in the barn. It is strange when a duck thinks it is not worth while to raise a small family, she turns her chicks over to a foster mother and goes to laying and sitting again. There are now about 100 babies coming in with their mothers, bunches ranging from 7 to 14. We have located 9 more nests which will hatch in a few days.
Am enclosing picture of all that a stray torn cat left of duck No. 555455. I buries the cat—got him with a 22 rifle. The duck had been sitting on 15 eggs but I did not find them until they had been chilled so I could not save them. Another duck disappeared just as her eggs were hatching. I placed her chicks, 9 in all, under a hen, and this hen is raising them nicely. By the way, you know how hard it is to find the proper feed to raise baby ducks. We discovered, by accident, that they are ravenous for the two pulpy leaves of the wild cucumber as the plant grows to about an inch or two above the ground. We are including these leaves in a mash of hardboiled eggs, Startena, fine cornmeal and oatmeal. We have some baby ducks three weeks old that have been fed on this mash and they are the most thrifty and even bunch I have ever been able to raise by hand.
The other day Mrs. Keller found a partnership nest, —two ducks sitting on one nest with 2 3 eggs in it. They will hatch within a few days.
We also found one nest where the duck had miscalculated how much the water would rise. She had laid 9 eggs and when the water came up the eggs were half under water. She piled about an inch of hay and leaves on top of them and laid 8 more eggs. The water came up again and she abandoned her second nest and is now laying in a nest on higher ground about 100 feet from the first.
There are four snow geese nesting near what is known at Home Lake in Peterson's range about two miles south of our place. Also a good many curlews are nesting here. Hope we can keep the pot hunters away from here.Yours very truly, F. J. KELLER
In America, where the wild game is the property of all the people, the theory that the privilege of taking game should be enjoyed equally by all has become firmly established. Free shooting, however, is by no means general and fully enjoyed because it frequently comes in conflict with the rights of landowners.
The development of shooting clubs in this country has in many places given rise to extreme resentment and prejudice. This is evidenced very strongly in the north-western states, particularly the Dakotas and Minnesota. Laws have been passed in the Dakotas discriminating against shooting clubs and for the purpose of giving the public access to desirable shooting places.
In the recent session of the Minnesota legislature, according to the American Game Protective association news service, this feeling was expressed in a bill intended to do away with all monopoly or special privilege in shooting by a provision prohibiting any owner of land from shooting on his own property unless he permitted the public the same privilege. Such an act would destroy private shooting clubs. It would prevent the farmer from shooting on his own ground unless he permitted others to do the same. Naturally, the bill attracted both strong support and violent opposition and did not become a law.
Such measures indicate a problem which exists and which must be solved. Some advocate abandoning the theory of free shooting in America, and revision to the European theory that the game goes with the land.
BIRD REGULATION AMENDMENTS APPROVED BY PRESIDENT
Amendments to the regulations under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, under which the game and other birds that migrate between the United States and Canada receive protection in this country, adopted by Secretary of Agriculture Hyde on April 20, were approved by President Hoover on April 23, 1929. The nature of the amendments has been briefly summarized as follows by the Bureau of Biological Survey, which administers the law and the regulations:
Hunting migratory game birds from automobiles is prohibited, and the close season is continued on greater and lesser yellowlegs. In addition certain further restrictions are made on scientific collecting, including a provision that restricts the taking of migratory game birds by scientific collectors to the period on any day from half an hour before sunrise to sunset. This change, in the opinion of the Biological Survey, will not be a handicap to legitimate collectors.
Taxidermists engaged in receiving and mounting migratory birds are now required to keep accurate records of all transactions. Applications to take or possess migratory birds for scientific or educational purposes will in future be accepted when endorsed by an ornithologist or certain persons engaged in scientific work or in wildlife conservation. This gives the applicants greater latitude in obtaining endorsements, as formerly endorsements of ornithologists only were acceptable.
The period November 1 to January 31 is established as the open season on mourning doves in Mobile and Baldwin Counties, Alabama, to take care of the peculiar existing local conditions. While the new season is shorter than formerly provided, it is satisfactory to local sportsmen and was approved by the Alabama Department of Game and Fisheries.
In North Carolina the season on mourning doves is changed to the period November 2 0 to January 31, thus conforming with the State season on these birds and on quail, rabbits, and wild turkeys, and will facilitate enforcement of seasons and other provisions affecting upland game.
Georgia is included in the group of Southern States having a split season on mourning doves—the dates being September 1 to 30 and November 2 0 to January 31.
In New York the period October 1 to 31 is established as the open season for hunting woodcock, the same as in Vermont.
A new waterfowl season from September 24 to January 7 is prescribed for Illinois and Missouri.
In Oklahoma the new migratory-waterfowl season is October 16 to January 31, the same as for the northern part of Texas.
In the State of Washington east of the summit of the Cascade Mountains the period September 16 to December 31 is made the open season on waterfowl, the season for the rest of the State remaining unchanged (October ] to January 15).
A pampnlet containing the full text of the Federal regulations on migratory birds, as well as the Treaty and the Treaty Act (Service and Regulatory Announcement—Biological Survey No. 71) may be had free on request to the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
COOKING DOMESTIC RABBIT(Continued from Page 4) Fricasseed Rabbit
Cut the rabbit in pieces of suitable size for serving, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, brown in fat, transfer to a baking dish, add a small quantity of water, cover, and cook until tender in a moderate oven. Remove the cover toward the last so as to brown the top pieces.Smothered Rabbit
Smothered rabbit is prepared in much the same way as broiled. Rub the whole rabbit well with salt, pepper, and flour, and place in a pan with a small quantity of water, Bake in a very moderate oven and baste occasionally with a mixture of % cup water and 2 tablespoons butter. When the meat is tender, set under the flames of a broiling oven for a few minutes to brown. Serve on a hot platter with the gravy that has formed around the rabbit.Rabbit Pie
Cat the rabbit into two or three pieces, place in a saucepan, barely cover with water, cover the pan, and simmer until tender. Add the salt when partially cooked. Drain and measure the liquid and remove the meat from the bones in large pieces. Heat 3 tablespoons butter in a heavy skillet, add 2 tablespoons onion chopped fine, 2 tablespoons chopped parsley, and 2 tablespoons chopped green pepper, and cook for about 3 minutes, stirring frequently. To each cup of liquid use 1 % tablespoons flour, and mix well with the fat and seasoning. Add the liquid and stir until thickened, add more salt if needed and a dash of tabasco. Mix well with the rabbit meat and pour into a baking dish. Cover with a pastry crust and bake in a moderate oven until the crust is golden brown
COMMISSION NOW IN CHARGE GAME, FISH AND PARK AFFAIRS(Continued from Page 3)
in the personnel of the wardens and hatcheries were made by the Commission, as it was their desire to continue in the service such men as had had experience and proved to be efficient in their work.
Among the more important matters acted upon was the authorization of the construction of a distributing and holding plant at Lincoln for handling of catfish, bullheads and perch; the placing of game wardens in uniforms; the contracting for nurseries to speed up the production of the warm water fish and the formulating of plans for more game propagation.
WORTH TEN MILLION A YEAR(Continued from Page Nine)
game, including rabbits shot for eating purposes, doves, etc., will bring $20,000. The actual business done by Kansas fur dealers exceeds $1,250,000 a year. A million dollars' worth of fish is eaten every year. The birds which are not shot but are protected by the hunters are worth five or six million dollars every year in taking care of noxious weeds and harmful insects, as it is estimated by the biological survey at Washington, D. C, ;hat each bird is worth a dime a year to agriculture and that the average bird population is two to the acre. This estimate is probably too low."
EFFECTIVE GAME CONSERVATIONGame Resources "Punch Drunk"
As I say, it has taken about thirty years to knock our game resources "punch drunk," but it is not going to take nearly that long to see whether they are going to "stay the limit" or definitely "take the count." For this reason! The gunner of today is coming into his own in a mechanical age and a greedy one. He springs fully armed, as it were, into a speeding world looking for, demanding and determined to get "what's coming" as fast and with as little personal inconvenience as gasoline and electrical short cuts can devise. A fast car, a hard road, a swift outboard motor, a cheap automobile that tackles inaccessible rural areas like a mountain goat; a magazine gun, loads guaranteed to "kill a mile" and a burning desire to "knock off" more than the other guy or beat him to what is left.
The gist of all this is if something isn't done to get this hunting business out of its jam, the well-to-do, "go-when-and-where-he-pleases" sport will take his fun, not as hunting but as mere recreation incidental to an outing. And the ordinary hunter, that dear old glorified "one-gallus boy," will take the leavings. And he will take them just as he does now when such rich windfall presents itself, namely, all he can bump off. Such a pity, too, when so much could be accomplished if both sides would only take the trouble to devote a bit of their spare time in closed seasons to reading, digesting and helping take an interest in constructive conservation. When the general public realizes how little game there really is left, the chances for hunters to get their business out of a jam is going to improve to some extent.
The Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute is having a game survey made of the United States. This may or may not be news to some sporting goods dealers. I very sincerely doubt if ten per cent of those 8,000,000 gunners even know that such a survey is taking place. The work, or I might say with more accuracy, the task, is being done by Mr. Aldo Leopold, an able forester, scientist and thorough-going sportsman equipped with long experience in problems of game administration. The sponsors of this game survey realize fully that such an undertaking, even at it best, can reveal scarcely more than an outline of existing conditions. Remember this, that at the present moment there is no national policy so declared in game control.Qualified Men at the Helm
There is no need here to reflect that the sporting industry, so to speak, has been a long time coming to the rescue, or for some disgruntled shirkers to growl at what they may term the sporting industry's tendency to ask aid in having their chestnuts pulled out of the fire. Sporting goods dealers, the hunters, and the general public interested in conservation should rejoice that men are now at the helms of these gigantic concerns with brains and sportsmanship enough to recognize and declare openly that their support of and participation in game restoration is sound business insurance. They seek no credit or acclaim; it is merely the exercise of common-sense protection, which, aside from its sources of personal inspiration and gratification to men who like to hunt, means the perpetuation of livelihoods to which they and their thousands upon thousands of employes are honesty entitled.
Mark this—jobbers, wholesalers and dealers in sporting goods. Listen to, build up and broadcast this platform of game restoration. Digest the conservation matter that comes to your dignified executives desks and relay it to your field forces for their personal contactings with the rank and file of consumer hunting. For remember, this problem of game restoration will, of sheer necessity, go back whence it springs, namely, to the rich brown earth. The type of folk best suited to materially assist live closest to that same rich brown earth. The true hope of game restoration lies in our agricultural high schools and state colleges, and in the class-room of schools tucked away about the country.
There is no use attempting to minimize the conditions of bag limit excesses, game bootlegging and seasonal violations occurring in practically every hunting center in the United States. No one hears of such tactics any sooner or more often than the average dealer in sporting goods. There is but one answer and remedy for such a problem — more state game wardens and more Federal game wardens, and in addition, the spotlight of press and public condemnation turned upon such rotters and the spread of public opinion in turning up and turning away from such violators.
A forward step in game restoration was taken in the recent formation of the National Committee on Wild Life Legislation. The basic seat of game restoration in this country for practical purposes is the Bureau of Biological Survey at Washington. The strongest branches supporting these national conservation agencies are our state game departments. But the most urgent need of game restoration today is that the existence of and workings of these bodies shall become household words in every home in the United States. Conservation is either a national reclamation project to be so recognized and acted upon by the United States Government or it is a mere "scrap of paper," clothed in false ideas to be lost sight of as a robust heritage and to become a tainted memory save for the extremely rich.
If you doubt this, go into a club composed of wealthy duck hunters; visit some outlying district in a quail country, or attempt to discuss game restoration work in the average sporting goods store. The ignorance of what is going on and lack of personal interest in trying to "snap out of it" will astound you.
At present, certain things are definitely obvious to anyone who dares to say what he thinks about the game situation, or is fool enough, perhaps, to think out loud. Game and fish are mechanically over-matched. A large proportion of our population is more easily finding methods of luxurious contact with game and fish. From a game protection standpoint we are pitifully undermanned, federal and state, and many states are cursed with political entanglements that impede progress. Last, but not least, there exists in game circles, among rich and poor, a disrespect for all laws.
Sometimes, as an ex-sporting goods dealer, I wonder if as a body the sporting goods dealers of the United States realize the necessity for unification of purpose in perpetuating game and fish within the scope of their service. But conservation is more than doing its part. Each year its voice is a little louder and its purpose and morale unshaken and more stable. The sporting goods dealer had better do his part—or else!
Farm Boys Can Raise Bob-Whites
Most people think growing game means putting it in a pen and taking care of it like chickens.
Game can be grown in this way, but it costs money, it requires lots of care, and the birds may die of disease.
There is another way to grow game which is more interesting, much cheaper, takes less care, and involves less risk of loss, says Aldo Leopold in the Wisconsin Arbor and Bird Day Annual and reported in the American Game Protective association news service. This other way is to fix up the farm so the game will grow itself.
It will work on any farm where there is a little "seed stock" to start with, and where the farm boy or girl has enough judgment to know what to do.
Farm boys and girls can grow quail by fixing up the farm so they will grow themselves.
One may not have much confidence in this method until it is realized that a dozen pairs of quail will increase to over 3000 in three years if given ideal protection, cover, and food. It is impossible and unnecessary to give ideal protection, cover, and food, but these figures show why even a slight improvement in protection, cover, and food will greatly increase the number of quail on the farm.
Do away with all hunting cats, kill the sharp-shinned hawks, reduce the skunks and nesting crows if abundant, and if possible keep down the foxes.
Cover and food is what is most often lacking on northern farms.
Any farm has plenty of cover and food in summer and fall. It is the winter and spring cover which counts. The time to prepare for winter is in the previous summer.
First of all, don't burn the grassy swamps, or the weedy bushy fence rows and thickets, unless the crops or cattle require it. Usually they do not. If they do, save an unburned corner here and there for the birds. Don't mow every fence corner.
Secondly, select a few definite places, preferably on land that is too steep or rocky to plough, on which to grow grapevines and other plants for winter cover. We will call these places refuges covers. There should be at least one refuge cover on every 40 acres. Each cover should be at least as much ground as an ordinary house. The shape doesn't matter. Creek banks, old gravel pits, gully banks, rocky knolls, and potholes offer good locations without using up good land. Refuge covers located on the edge of woods or in the open are better for quail than in the deep woods.
If the places you select are grazed by cattle, see if you can get permission to enclose them with a gateless fence. Cattle thin out the cover and destroy its value.
In each refuge cover plant a few wild grapevines. Let them run over the bushes and form tangles. Each tangle is a house for quail when deep snow comes, and the dried grapes are food.
Also plant in each refuge cover several groups of Norway spruce or white pine of half a dozen trees each. If you can plant these under locust trees they will grow twice as fast as elsewhere because the locust puts nitrogen into the soil just like alfalfa. These groups of evergreens are for winter cover.
If there are no locusts, plant some. The locust beans are a dependable winter food for quail. Next to grapes, they are the best standby in storms.
In severe weather, hang ears of corn under the grape tangles in each refuge cover, tying them by their own shucks out of reach of rabbits. The quail will get them.
If possible, leave weedy, bushy fence rows connecting the refuge cover with the grainfields and with the barnyard. These fence-lines are "streets" for the quail to travel on.
If you can build one refuge cover each year you will soon have lots of quail. They will benefit the farm crops and furnish you enough music and pleasure to amply repay your trouble.PLANTING FOOD FOR BIRDS
The game division of the Michigan conservation department recommends the planting of the following list of plants and trees to improve and increase the food supply of song and game birds:
For some song birds, grouse and pheasants: mulberry, wild cherry, elderberry, wild grape, dogwood, redhaw, nightshade and the sumacs.
For song birds: juneberry, Virginia creeper, and mountain ash; the hemloc, box-elder, ash and birch will furnish food for the wintering song birds in the Michigan latitude.—American Game Protective association news service.URGES PURCHASE OF CHEYENNE BOTTOMS
A bill which was pending in the last congress seeking an appropriation to purchase the so-called Cheyenne Bottoms of Kansas for a permanent wild fowl refuge was not acted upon. State Game Warden Alva Clapp of Kansas now urges the collection of a fund from private sources to purchase the Cheyenne Bottoms, the area to be turned over to the federal government to be administered under the Migratory Bird Conservation Act passed at the last session, says an American Game Protective association bulletin. Mr. Clapp urges this action on account of delay involved in waiting for the federal Government to make the purchase from appropriations under the law, $75,000 only, for surveys, being available during the coming fiscal year beginning July 1st. Mr. Clapp insists that prompt action is necessary to insure the preservation of this area for waterfowl uses and urges sportsmen and philanthropists to support him in this very laudable undertaking.
Kansas has passed an enabling act authorizing the acquisition of lands by the federal government for sanctuary purposes.
Nebraska's New Game and Fish Laws, 1929-1930
The following game laws are now in effect in Nebraska:OPEN SEASON (Birds) Rail, except coots....................Sept. 16th to Nov. 30th. Snipe (Wilson and Jack)........Sept. 16th to Nov. 1st. Water-fowl (Brant, Coots, Ducks, Geese.............. ........................................................Sept. 16th to Dec. 31st. Pheasants (male).......Open date to be fixed by Commission. Plover.................................-......-No open season unless ordered by the Commission. Prairie chickens and grouse..........._.-Sept. 16th to Oct. 15th in the year 1931 and every odd numbered year thereafter. Wood duck .........................................No open season. Eider duck ...............-............-..........-No open season. Curlew .......-............................................No open season. Swan- No open season. Crane (Sand Hill and Whooping)....No open season. Quail .......-........................-.................................No open season Partridge .......-..................................................No open season. Hungarian partridge .............................No open season. Dove ..................................................Sept. 1st to Sept. 15th. Wild Turkey ................................................No open season. Female pheasants ..............._...................-No open season, except when ordered by Commission. OPEN SEASON (Animals) Mink, rabbits and skunks........Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st. Tree squirrels (all species)......Oct. 1st to Dec. 31st. Raccoons ............Nov. 16th to Feb. 15th next ensuing. Opossum...........Nov. 16th to Feb. 15th next ensuing. Muskrats............Not to exceed one hundred and five days to be designated by the Commission between the 16th day of November and the 15th day of April next ensuing of the following year. Poxes........................Nov. 1st to Feb. 15th next ensuing. Otter..................Nov. 16th to Feb. 15th next ensuing. Beaver............................._..........................___No open season. Buffalo.............................................................—No open season. Deer................................._...................................No open season. Antelope-.....................-............................___No open season. Mountain Sheep.......-No open season. Mountain Goat.........-No open season. OPEN SEASON (Fish) Black bass, Big mouth and Small mouth, 10 inches in length or larger............June 10th to April 30th next ensuing. Black bass, Big mouth and Small mouth, less than 10 inches in length—...........No open season. White, striped or rock bass, 6 inches in length or larger......June 10th to Apr. 30th next ensuing. White, striped or rock bass, less than 6 inches in length.................................................No open season. Pickerel and Great Northern Pike, 15 inches long or larger............May 1st to March 16th next ensuing. Pickerel and Great Northern Pike, less than than 15 inches long............................No open season. Wall=eyed pike or pike perch, 12 inches long or larger............May 15th to Apr. 1st next ensuing. Wall-eyed pike less than 12 inches in length No open season. Trout, 8 inches in length or larger............................ ...........................................................Apr. 1st to Oct. 31st. Trout, less than 8 inches in length—No open season Crappies, 6 inches in length or larger...........-....... ..................................._.....................Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st. Crappies, less than 6 inches in length..............._... ........................................._........„.....................No open season Perch, yellow, white and striped and sun fish 6 inches in length or larger...................................... ...........................................................Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st. Perch, yellow, white and striped and sun fish less than 6 inches in length......No open season. Catfish, 12 inches in length or larger........................ ............................................................Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st. Catfish less than 12 inches in length........................ ........................................................................No open season. Bullheads, 6 inches in length or larger.......-........... ....................................._.....................Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st. Bullheads less than 6 inches in length...............—. ..................................................._...................No open season. BAG LIMITS
It shall be unlawful for any person in any one day to kill, catch, take, or, save as herein excepted, to have in his possession at any time a greater number of game birds, game animals, or game fish, of any one kind than,Plover .........................................-.................................... 10 Grouse, including prairie chicken.......------- 5 Rails (except coots) .......................................------IS Snipe (Wilson and Jack) ..............._........-......... 15 Ducks and Coots ....................................................- 20 Doves .............................................................................- 15 Geese, including brants Pheasants ................................. Squirrels .........................- Raccoons ................................... Opossums Trout (any kind) legal size.. 10 . 3 . 3 . 15 . 15 . 15 Black bass (Small mouth) legal size.......— Black bass (Large mouth) legal size------- Pickerel and Great Northern Pike legal size...................................................-.....— 10 Game fish, any other kind legal size, except catfish taken in Missouri river— 25
It shall be unlawful for any person to have in his or her possession at any one time a total of more than 40 of the larger game birds to-wit: Geese, brant, ducks, coots, grouse, prairie chickens, and pheasants, or to have in possession at any one time a total of more than 25 of the major game fish to-wit: Bass, pickerel, pike, trout, and catfish, and it shall be unlawful for any person to have in his or her possession at any one time in excess of forty game birds of all kinds or fifty game fish of all kinds. Of such totals there shall be no more of any one kind than the daily bag or creel limit herein specified, except that it shall be lawful for a person to have in his or her possession during the open season thereon such additional number of ducks but of none other of said larger game birds as to make a total bag of forty of said larger game birds or a total bag of forty ducks alone.FISHING
Game fish may be taken with hook and line only. Illegal to snag or take with hands. Set lines are legal, providing not more than five hooks to line. Traps, nets, seines etc. are illegal and subject to confiscation.PERMIT FEES Hunting and fishing, resident permits, $1.10 required for all persons who have reached sixteenth birthday. Permits necessary for women same as men. Permits must be carried on person. Hunting and fishing, non-resident permits....$10.10 Fishing, non-resident, ..........................._........--------.$ 2.10 Trapping, resident, .............................................---------$ 1-10 (Trapping permit required for all persons regardless of age.) Trapping, non-resident, ...................................--------$25.10 DAMAGES
Under the new Nebraska law, every person illegally taking game or fish must pay the state for such game and fish in addition to the fines and costs. The damage assessed is as follows:Bu ffalo ...............................................................-.........$300.00 each Elk .........................-......................................................$300.00 each Deer ......-.....................................................................$300.00 each Antelope ....................................-...............................$300.00 each Swan ..............................................................................$300.00 each Wild Turkey ......................................................—$ 25.00 each Wild Goose ..............................................................$ 25.00 each Duck............................................................-..............$ 10.00 each Pheasant ......................................................................$ 10.00 each Shore bird................................................................$ 10.00 each Quail .............................................................................$ 10.00 each Partridge .....................__................................-.......$ 10.00 each Prairie.. Chicken ...................................-.................$ 10.00 each Fur-bearing animal .........................-...................$ 10.00 each Fish ...................................-..............................-...........$ 5.00 each Song bird ..................................................................-$ 5.00 each
Help Make Good Fishing
The New Game, Forestation & Parks Commission, now in charge of the wild life resources of Nebraska, desires to provide good fishing for the thousands of Nebraskans who each year buy fishing permits.
In order to provide good fishing, the Commission needs the cooperation of every citizen. Unless the Commission and the fisherman work together on a co-operative basis, it will be impossible to attain worthwhile results. On the other hand, if all work in harmony good fishing can be had in every part of the state.
There are two ways in which the fisherman can help the Commission. First, by discouraging and reporting the game-hogs who still persist in using traps, nets and seines for the taking of fish. These illegal devices rob the honest sportsman and citizen of thousands of fish each year. It is the duty of all to work in harmony in stamping out this illegal and unsportsmanlike practice.
Secondly, every fisherman can help greatly by taking only a reasonable bag of fish and throwing back all small fish. While the law allows a certain number of fish in a bag, it is wasteful for a person to take that many if he cannot use them or if fish are not plentiful in his community. And always remember that the fishing of to-morrow depends on the small fish you throw back to-day.
Here are the size limits on Nebraska fish. Always throw back under this limit. Give the fish the benefit of the doubt if you are not sure as to his length:Black Bass ___________________Throw back under 1 0 inches. Rock Bass_____________________Throw back under 6 inches. Pickerel _____________________Throw back under 1 5 inches. Pike__________________________Throw back under 1 2 inches. Trout _________________________Throw back under 8 inches. Crappies _____________________Throw back under 6 inches. Sunfish ________________________Throw back under 6 inches. Perch _________________________Throw back under 6 inches. Catfish ____,___________________Throw back under 1 2 inches. Bullheads _____________________Throw back under 6 inches.
Always purchase a fishing permit and carry it on your person. Your dollar puts the fish in the lakes and streams.GAME, FORESTATION & PARKS COMMISSION Lincoln