Outdoor NebraskaOctober 1929
Plant a TreePlant a willow by the brook, Poplars by the garden wall, Apples in some orchard nook, Maples for a gorgeous fall. Set an oak for pasture shade, Slender pines to climb a hill, Elms, upon a velvet lawn, Set a tree with thought and skill. Breathe a little loving thought For all trees this glad spring day. Birds and squirrels plant their trees. Don't you care as much as they? -Frances Crosby Hamlet.
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAOfficial Bulletin Nebraska Bureau Game and Fish Vol IV APRIL, 1929 No. 2 CONTENTS Tree Planting In Nebraska ----------------------------------------------------------------- 3 New Game Preserve Praised _________________________________________ 4 Care of Fish Aquariums ------------------------------------------------------------------ 5 Editorial ___________________________________________________________ 6 Department Activities ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
The following code of outdoor ethics was compiled by Seth E. Gordon, conservation director of the Izaak Walton League of America, and an outstanding authority on sportsmanship and conservation:
1. Your outdoor manners tell the world what you are when at home.
2. What belongs to the public isn't your own—play fair!
3. Respect the property of rural residents—ask before using it.
4. Save fences, close gates and bars, go around planted fields.
5. People, livestock, trees and birds were never meant to be target practice backstops.
6. Respect the law—catch enough legal fish to eat, then quit.
7. Protect public health----keep springs and streams clean.
8. Clean up your camp and don't litter the highways with trash.
9. Finish what you start—carelessness with fires is cussedness.
10. Leave flowers and shrubs for others to enjoy. Do your share.
I have camped many times at beauty spots on river bluffs and observed a sunset, a sunrise or the birth of day. One place in particular remains in my mind. We were in a small open space on the forested bluffs of southeastern Cass county and had a view across the Weeping Water and the Missouri with its bottom lands, bars and wooded islands and to the uplands on the Iowa side.
With twilight came the musical sound of the whippoorwill and later the more somber notes of the owl. We lay on the ground under the light of a half moon and contemplated upon the starry universe. Then came sound sleep followed by awakening at early break of day when darkness began to give way to light. The sky was partly overcast along the eastern horizon. Its upper part had some glow; above the eastern horizon were patches of dark gray, yellow, and crimson, while below the Iowa bluffs and wooded areas, were dark banks. The objects on the higher places formed silhouettes. Crows, leaving their roosting places with considerable noise, made their way down the valley. A field sparrow was heard in a grassy spot to the right. Sounds from chickens, cows and dogs echoed from farm yards. Birds of several kinds moved to their feeding and watering places. Events came too fast for record. Light on forest and river, reflected from cloud and sky, was deepening and changing. The rumbling of a train on the Iowa side was distinctly heard, also noises from the towns. Native life and industry were awakening. Light increased, and the color scheme changed, especially for the clouds and river. The sun began to rise, large and red, though somewhat dimmed by the feathery clouds. High lights showed on the river. Then there was the full brightness of a new day. Birds returned from feeding, cattle were grazing, farmers were at work, and everything seemed alive in response to the sun.
This was an experience to be remembered, but I did not have the knowledge and ability to describe the picture. I knew that the earth, rotating eastward, carried places through shadow, twilight and direct rays of the sun, and that it requires about twenty-five minutes for the sun to rise on the whole of Nebraska. I could see that one thousand miles eastward the sun was an hour high, and that in Western Nebraska it was yet night but on the way toward day. I was long on cause and human relations but short on art. So let those who know nature's art paint the picture and express in verse and music the birth of day in Nebraska.
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAOfficial Bulletin Nebrask a Bureau Game and Fish Vol IV APRIL, 1929 No. 2
Tree Planting In NebraskaBY G. E. CONDRA
This article is intended to further the planting of flowers, vines, shrubbery, and trees in Nebraska. It is the result of the knowledge, experience, and planning of many persons interested in the development of the state, and is primarily an outline of the salient features of a plan that has been evolved to further planting in which the peole, young to aged, participate because they purpose the things useful and beautiful and want to serve Nebraska.
In 1926, Governor Adam McMullen inaugurated what is now known as the Nebraska Plan of Forestation. This year, Governor Weaver recommends that planting be continued throughout the season favorable for it, and with special effort during the week of April 15 to 2 2, ending Arbor Day. He designates this most favorable time for planting in Nebraska as Tree Planting and Landscape Beautification Week. Also, he enlarges the State Committee on Forestation and gives it the title, State Committee on Tree Planting and Landscape Beautification, which means, that for the 1929 campaign, flowers, vines, and shrubs, as well as trees, are officially recognized in a comprehensive plan to develop landscape beauty and certain other benefits in Nebraska. Consequently, in the future the Nebraska plan will relate to more than trees. It wil be known as the Nebraska Plan for Tree Planting and Landscape Beautification.
Governor Weaver on appointing this year's committee on Tree Planting and Landscape Beautification, said as follows:
"This committee of public spirited citizens is selected to formulate a plan for Tree Planting and Landscape Beauti,cation for Nebraska. It is to organize and select sub-committees to represent the groups, industries, and institutions of the state in which improvement can, and should be, made by planting trees, flowers, vines, and shrubbery.
"The committee is to serve without expense to the state, its only reward being that of accomplishment. It is to consult with the State, University, and Federal departments that further forestry forestation, and other lines of development along technical lines, and formulate for the citizens of the state generally, for their use, the results of research, survey, and experimentation relating to the selection, planting, cultivation, and care of flowers, shrubs, and trees.
"The committee, assisted by the State Forester, and co-operating with the Extension Forester, representatives of the Nebraska National Forest and U. S. Forest Service, is to outline the activities of a campaign to be carried out this spring during the week of April 15 to 22, here resignated for that purpose and to be known as Nebraska Tree Planting and Landscape Beautification Week.
"The plan and program as outlined by the committee is to be presented before an open meeting of citizens of the state for discussion, amendment, and adoption, after which, as adopted, it is to be followed throughout the year, but is to be emphasized during Tree Planting and Landscape Beautification Week. The committees and sub-committees selected are to serve in the active campaign with State Superintendent Charles W. Taylor as chairman for the campaign week, April 15 to 22, ending in Arbor Day.
"According to our plan the Conservation and Survey Division of the University, through its departments of Conservation and State Forestry, is to prepare and publish for free distribution, a bulletin showing the purposes of the campaign, the methods to be followed, and the committees that are to function; the Extension Forester of the Agricultural College is to make available information regarding tree-distribution, and the best methods for planting and caring for trees and shrubs; and the State Superintendent is to furnish programs and other data for use by the schools during the campaign."Nebraska's Contribution
Our state gave to the world Arbor Day, is recognized as the Tree Planters' State, and known on account of the Nebraska Plan of Forestation. Also, it is quite possible that Governor Weaver's proclamation for a week of tree planting and landscape beautification, ending in Arbor Day, may prove to be another worth-while move to be passed on to other states.
Nebraska has done well in planting in the past, but should do even better in the future because of the progress attained, and because there is apparent need for planting for purposes that were not fully recognized in the past.Protection and Beautification
It is now known that threes, shrubs, flowers, and vines can have use for many purposes not heretofore generally recognized, as for protection and for aesthetic purposes, as follows:
1. Trees and shrubs form the habitat for birds and other animals; they afford shade and shelter for wild life, farm animals, and for man; they protect the land against erosion.
2. "Vines add beauty to buildings, especially those of the colleges and church, and cover ugly fences and walls.
3. Flowers, probably more than other plants, appeal to the aesthetic in man; they fill the small spaces with beauty.(Continued on Page 14)
New Game Preserve Act Praised
Secretary Jardine said in a statement issued February 19 that he considered the Norbeck-Andresen Migratory-Bird Refuge Act, which had just been passed by Congress by unanimous vote of both Houses and approved by the President, to be one of the most important wild-life conservation measures ever put on the statute books of any nation. The outstanding exception is the related migratory-bird treaty act of 1918, which the present law is designed to supplement, he said. Both laws were passed to carry out the obligations of the United States under the treaty with Great Britain to protect the wild birds that fly back and forth each year from Canada, and both will be administered by the Bureau of Biological Survey.
"The new law," said the Secretary, "gives additional force and effect to the earlier measure b y providing Federal funds for the survey, purchase, and establishment of large areas throughout the entire country to be maintained as inviolate sanctuaries—feeding, nesting, and resting grounds— where forever the migrating species of birds may enjoy complete protection.
"The measure as passed is a national acknowledgment of the tremendous importance of the birds of America as aids in the development of agriculture. It acknowledges also the will of the American people to give adequate protection to the beautiful and harmless creatures that are heard in season from every formately ineffectual to perpetuate our birds if the destruction of their habitat is allowed to continue unchecked.
"Far-sighted sportsmen, conservationists, and nature lovers throughout the country have long recognized the major elements of the problem and have endeavored to arouse the public to a realization of the impending disaster that must surely have befallen the migratory birds but for the timely passage of this act. The idea in some form or other has been before Congress for six years, but the various bills introduced from time to time and intended to provide relief have failed of passage in one or both Houses because certain provisions have lacked the approval of the combined groups that were demanding adequate and comprehensive legislation well supported with necessary funds.
est, copse, and hedgerow in the land. And it further recognizes the importance of the migratory game birds as a food supply and primarly as an incentive to the healthful sport, outdoor study, and recreation activity so essential in the development of a sturdy American manhood.
"The act definitely strengthens the arm of the Federal Government in its sound, constructive, and progressive policy of bird protection. Civilization and the advance of industry, which have often been ruthless in their disregard of the needs of the wild creatures, are influences which from year to year have decreased the water and marsh areas of the country by many thousands of square miles in the aggregate. It is evident that close seasons, bag limits, and restrictions imposed upon the gunners of America by the game laws will all prove ulti-
"The public-shooting-grounds feature in earlier bills caused much dissension, as did the provision that would require a Federal license fee from every person who hunted migratory game birds. These and other doubtful provisions were finally eliminated, and the resulting measure at once had the endorsement and approval of the entire country.
"The National Committee on Wild Life Legislation, an influential group of men representing p r a c t ically every national conservat i o n organization in America, the National Federation of Women's Clubs, and other bodies, as well as an uncounted number of individuals, gave full and effective support to the measure. Thus, with champions of the cause in all parts of the country and in both Houses of Congress, to press the matter, the perfected bill received unanimous approval.
"The Biological Survey, which administers the Federal activities relative to migratory birds, estimates that 100 to 12 5 refuges will eventually be needed. These will be located in suitable areas in all parts of the country. The exact locations of the great system of refuges will closely follow the main migratory flight lines and concentration areas. These matters will be finally determined after a thorough survey has been made by the experts of the department as provided for in the act.* * * (Continued on Page 15)
Care of Fish Aquariums
THE keeping of small aquaria is now practiced so extensively and there are so many books available on their management that little more need be considered here than the principles involved. Acquaria suitable for the biological laboratory or the home are available in cities everywhere. Dealers can supply them in so many forms and sizes that it is unnecessary to describe their construction. In most public aquariums table space is provided somewhere for the keeping of aquatic animals of small size that do not require flowing water. The aquaria used for such exhibits are provided with aquatic plants, which serve to aerate the water. Success with them is dependent upon a proper balance between the animal and plant life they contain.
An aquarium holding 8 or 10 gallons of water will be easier to maintain in good condition than one of small size and will care for a larger number of fishes with a greater degree of safety. An aquarium of rectangular shape is best for permant use. It should be of strong, clear glass—preferably plate glass—set in a metal framework, and have a slate bottom.
Acquaria of rectangular form made wholly of glass can be purchased and are cheaper, but the glass is never quite clear, and they crack more readily from changes in temperature. Cylindrical glass aquaria are still cheaper, but they distort the forms of the objects they contain to some extent and are also liable to crack. However, aquaria made wholly of glass have the advantage of being absolutely water-tight while they remain in sound condition, whereas metal-framed aquaria may develop leaks.
Globes are unsatisfactory. Good results can not be expected with them. The small opening of a globe permits too small an amount of water surface to be exposed to the air. The more surface exposed for the absorption of air the better.
The aquarium should be placed where the amount of light reaching it can be controlled. Sunlight should not be allowed to fall directly on it except for an hour or two a day in the winter, as it stimulates the growth of algae and may overheat the water, the temperature of which should be kept steady, not rising above 75° or falling below 45°. A temperature of 50 to 60° is best, and it should not be allowed to vary. Warm water holds less air than cold water, so that a high temperature is more to be guarded against than a low one.
Water plants are necessary in the aquarium for the aeration of the water, as under proper conditions of light and temperature they give off oxygen, which animals require, while the latter exhale carbonic gas. Too much plant growth can be checked by reducing the amount of light. At times a greenish film of algae or confervae will develop rapidly on the glass and obscrue the contents of the aquarium. It will have to be rubbed off occasionally, but it is just as well to let it grow on the side next the window, where it will serve to restrict the light and also to aerate the water. The growth of algae may be lessened by placing the aquarium in a more shaded position. Pond snails eat algae rapidly and should be introduced for the purpose and also because their eggs serve as food for small fishes.
The acquarium should be allowed to absorb air from its plant life and from the surface of the water for a day or two before the fishes are put in, and these should be few in number at first. Snails may be added later. Dealers in aquarium supplies usually keep plants, snails, tadpoles, newts, and other small creatures, as well as fishes.
The following-named water plants are those most frequently used by aquarists: Milfoil (Myriophyllum), hornwort (Ceratophyllum), fanwort (Cabomba), water weed (Anacharis), tape grass (Vallisneria), arrowhead (Sagitaria), and pondweed( Potamogeton). Many other species will serve the purpose. Plants may be anchored by pressing them down into the sand or gravel. Thin strips of lead wound loosely about their roots will hold them securely.
In a well-balanced aquarium the water should not be changed at all. In fact, it is better without any addition other than that required to replace what is lost by evaporation. Water should not be added until it has been kept in the same room with the aquarium long enough to acquire the same temperature.
In siphoning water from the bottom of the aquarium to clear off sediment or refuse the water should be saved and strained back. The supply of water may be aerated at times by lifting it with a clean dipper and letting it fall back slowly. A sprinkling can will also serve for this purpose. All vessels and appratus used in connection with the aquarium should be perfectly clean, and it is well not to put the hands into the water at all. Assistance in the way of keeping the aquarium clean may be had by introducing a few small tadpoles to act as scavengers, say one to every 15 gallons of water.
The bottom of the aquarium should be covered to the depth of about 2 inches with fine gravel or clean white sand, in which fishes may rub themselves; it is also essential for the rooting of plants.
There should not be too much animal life in the aquarium. The fewer and smaller the fishes the less likely is the air in the water to become exhausted. Two or three small goldfishes to each gallon of water is a safe rule to go by if the aquarium is large. If small, the proportion must be reduced. The question the aquarium presents, when it has been supplied with water and plants, is simply how many fishes or other air-consuming creatures can be accommodated in the quantity of water available. Overstocking may disturb the balance within an hour.
It is probably safe to say that a little neglect in the matter of feeding is better for the permanence of the aquarium than over-attention. It must not be presumed that because fishes will live for months without feeding it is right to treat them in that way. Pishes left without food are simply fishes kept hungray and in a condition of slow starvation, which can only be described as cruelty. When there is a large supply of plants in the aquarium the fishes survive longer, the very small ones, especially, getting some nourishment from the young shoots of Anacharis and other plants.(Continued on Page 16)
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAPublished by Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fish and Game Editorial Office, State Capitol, Lincoln, Nebraska FRANK B. O'CONNELL.................................._____Editor DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE A. J. Weaver........................................................Governor H. J. McLaughlin...................___..........................Secretary Frank B. O'Connell................................................Warden Vol. IV Lincoln, April, 1929 No. 2
One of the amusing incidents in the life of a game and fish official is to read some of the reports coming to his desk from the various states and federal government bureaus.
In studying some of these reports, one finds some very startling facts. He learns that other states are accomplishing wonders in raising fish. Small ponds of few acres produce literally millions of fish and little game farms of a few acres ditribute thousands of game birds.
It is safe to say that if the American sportsmen had all the fish and game that have been planted "on paper" during the past forty years, there would be plenty for all to-day.
The fish and game business like some others, had tricks in the trade. If some ambitious gentleman wants to make a good record (on paper) he buys ten or twenty million pike eggs, for example, hatches them and plants them in natural waters. It is a simple matter to buy the eggs and hatch the pike. But to raise the pike fry planted is something else.
The old system of planting fry in natural waters is a waste of money. It is still being done because many sportsmen still demand that they be given large numbers of fish for their various communities. And the poor game official, in order to avoid their criticism and being afraid he cannot equal the "paper fish record" of his predecessor, gets the eggs, hatches them and throws the fry into the streams to be devoured by larger fish.
The nursery system of raising fish is the only sane and efficient method of handling those fish that must be hatched artificially. In Nebraska the trout nurseries are working out with splendid results. Experiments are being made with pike in nurseries but as yet no definite results can be shown.
The only value a fish can possibly be to the angler is to raise him until he is big enough to catch. There is no sense in raising fish for other fish to devour.
Game and fish officials and sportsmen should all work together to build up an efficient system of raising fish of legal size.W. J. O'BRIEN LEAVES STATE SERVICE
After serving the State of Nebraska almost continuously since 1887, W. J. O'Brien resigned as Superintendent of Fisheries, effective March 1.
O'Brien was one of the veteran fish culturists of the middle west and was well known through the country for his work of raising fish, to which he devoted the major part of his life. Through his efforts the state fisheries grew until today it is one of the largest in the middle west.
"Bill" arrived in Nebraska in June 1887 and became an employee of what was then known as the "Santee Fisheries". After working seven years he became foreman in 1894 and two years later was appointed Superintendent by the Fish Commission.
In 1899 O'Brien resigned and went to Wisconsin as Superintendent of a private fisheries and game reserve. When Governor Savage came into office two years later he appointed Bill as Superintendent and O'Brien returned to Nebraska.
From 1901 to 1919 he was in charge of the State Fisheries. It was during this time the greatest strides were made in building up the fisheries and stocking the lakes and streams of the state. It was during this time that the universal license law came into effect, the new fish car built and the Valentine and Benkelman Hatcheries established.
In 1919 the Fisheries and Game Department were combined and placed under the Secretary of Agriculture. O'Brien continued at his post until 1923 at which time he resigned. Two years later O'Brien was again reappointed and served during the two McMullen administrations. At the first of the present year he announced that he felt he could no longer devote his time and energy to the state and asked to be relieved from duty.
There are very few persons who have devoted as many years of service to the state of Nebraska as W. J. O'Brien. He is well known in every part of Nebraska and perhaps no man knows the state better than Bill. His leaving the service is a loss to the state.FINANCES
The State Auditor is now auditing the books of the Bureau of Game & Fish covering receipts for 1928. The following is a summary of licenses sold and collections made. The Auditor's report will be published in the next issue of Outdoor Nebraska.
At this writing $194,106.38 has been collected with $1,314.07 still outstanding. Part of the unpaid accounts are tied up in state banks that have been taken over by the Guaranty Fund Commission. However, the losses of collection will be less than one-half of one percent.
More permits were sold in 19 28 than any year in the history of the state of Nebraska and the collection loss was the least of any years except one, that of 1926.Resident Hunt & Fish....................................$162,880.00 Non-Resident Hunt and Fish........................ 3,325.00 Non-Resident Fish ........................................ 4,144.00 Resident to Trap ............................................ 18,192.00 Non-Resident to Trap.................................... 50.00 Alien to Fish .................................................. 90.00 Game Farmer's License-Game Bird.............. 380.00 Game Farmer's License— Fur-Bearing Animals.......................... 552.00 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA Resident Permit Buy Hides Fur-Bearing Animals ........................ 731.00 Non-Resident Buy Hides Fur-Bearing Animals.......................... 210.00 Permit to Sell Fish........................................ 194.00 Confiscated goods sold, etc........................... 2,044.31 Outstanding 192S $192,792.31 accounts March 30, 1929 1,314.07 Total....................................._____$194,10 6.38 BANDING REVEALS PACTS
A wealth of exact information is being accumulated by the bird banding operations being carried on under the control of the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey. Chief Redington of the survey in his address at the recent National Game Conference of the American Game Protective association spoke particularly of the value of the returns on banded ducks and geese. Of 31,500 birds banded, 5,700 returns have been received. These indicate distribution and migration, important feeding grounds, and areas of concentration. They also definitely indicate a great difference in breeding areas and migratory habits of various species of wild fowl.
It has been very clearly demonstrated that the great mass of the waterfowl of the East are separate and distinct from the birds of the western coast, although there are many instances of migration across the continent. There have been brought to light also numerous instances of erratic migrations; for instance, a report comes from the state game warden of Oregon that a mallard duck banded by George Bills on Sauvies Island on September 2 5 was killed in early November by Charles Downing, Mission City, B. C. This is probably the first instance of a proven reversal of the usual southern flight of ducks in the fall.
Some extraordinarily long flights are brought to light by banded returns. One of two mallards banded at Browning, Ilinois, in November 1922, was killed near Sacramento, California, in December 1923 and the other in Glascock county, Georgia, in December 1924. A green-winged teal banded at Avery Island, Louisiana, in December 1922, was killed in December 1923, at Lethbridge, Alberta, while others of the same species banded at the same place were recovered in the Sacramento valley, California, so that ducks do occasionally pass back and forth over the Rocky mountain elevations.PLANT FOOD NOW
Spring is the time of year when sportsmen's thoughts should turn to waterfowl and their care. We see nearly all the wild ducks, geese and shorebirds wending their way into the far mysterious north. Time was when our prairies were vocal with the call of mating wild fowl in the spring. That condition can be restored in a measure by restoring conditions which will entice the migrating birds to stop and take up their abode where they were wont to do generations ago.
Such swamp and marsh land as has not been destroyed by man's insatiable greed for more plow-land should all harbor nesting colonies of many species of waterfowl. Since we abandoned the destructive habit of shooting these birds in the spring, there is nothing to prevent their tarrying all along the route of flight, except the lack of congenial surroundings. To meet this need there has grown up within a few years a useful and thriving business of supplying seeds and roots of suitable plants for stocking these water areas with food for birds.
One of the best authorities on duck foods in the country, George D. Hamilton of Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, is quoted as follows in an American Game Protective association bulletin:
"Ducks cannot subsist upon laws. What they must have is more pure water with more natural growing plants in it; better feeding places; more quiet retreats where they may fill up on wild rice and other seeds and tender grasses and tubers; places where as night comes on they may perch on the floating bogs and lily roots and the sandy shores and gravel points confident that there will not suddenly burst on them from hidden cover frightful explosions and streaks of fire and leaden hail."
He says further, "The waters have been diverted from their natural courses; timber removed; miles upon miles of ditches have been dug; vast areas burned over, all combining to destroy the naturad reservoirs which served to maintain the water levels of lakes, streams and marshes, the habitat of countless waterfowl. Thousands of acres of wild rice, wild celery, sago, pond weeds and various other aquatic plants which provided food in seemingly unlimited and indestructible quantity have been rendered useless for the purpose for which they were intended by nature."
Remaining waters, including marsh and swamp, must be maintained and others which have been destroyed by drainage without beneficial results must be restored. Planting of such areas is entirely practical and much of such planting can be accomplished in the spring. Dealers in wild waterfowl food, seeds and plants have found how to preserve their stocks through the winter so that planting can be done in the spring. No better use can be made of sportsmen's funds either through state department activities or sportsmen's clubs than in devoting a substantial amount each season to the restoration of attractive food conditions for waterfowl.
? ? ? THE HONEST FISHERMAN ? ? ?By Fred Robertson How is it that a man will start, With pole and bait, and honest heart, And hie to some secluded nook, Put wiggling worms upon his hook, And fish, and fish, and fish away From early morn 'till close of day; Then to his wife at home will bring Three little bull-heads on a string, And say to her:—BEHOLD MY DEAR, THE FISHING CHAMPION IS HERE! And next day,—telling of his skill, The little fish have grown, until The three have multiplied to TEN,— AND WE JUST KNOW HE'S LIED AGAIN.
DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIESSPRING HUNTING LESS
Game Wardens report that there has been fewer violations of spring hunting this season than heretotofore. At the same time there has been an exceedingly heavy flight of birds, although the movement has been somewhat different than it has during the past few years.
However some forty persons violated the law in shooting the migratory birds and paid fine from $15 to $100 each.CHANGES IN PERSONNEL
Several changes in the personnel of the Bureau of Game and Fish have been made this spring.
W. B. O'Brien resigned as Superintendent of Fisheries. The work formerly taken care of by Mr. O'Brien has been divided as for some time there has been entirely too much for one man to supervise. Hereafter distribution work will be handled separately from conservation work which embraces rescue work, coarse fish removal and other field work.
Mr. Harry Runion, senior Hatchery Superintendent will be in charge of the spring distribution and in charge of the fish car.
Mr. Lee Hudleson will be in charge of conservation work and operate seining crews, etc.
Mr. J. M. Merritt, Superintendent of the Valentine Hatchery, resigned to take charge of his farming activities. Mr. Garland Gray was transferred from the Gretna Hatchery to Valentine.
Mr. C. C. Herling, Falls City, has been appointed a deputy game warden to work in that part of the state.JACK RABBIT QUITE A TRAVELER
How fast can a jack rabbit travel? The question has been discussed and disputed wherever western sportsmen have congregated. Ira N. Gabrielson, biologist in rodent control, Bureau of Biological Survey, has evidence that 35 miles an hour is a safe answer.
He tells of an evening in a western hotel when talk turned to jack-rabbit speed and the stage driver reported that while driving at 3 0 miles an hour a rabbit ran down the road ahead of the stage and distanced it.
"The next morning," Gabrielson says, "my companion and I started north in about a foot of well-packed snow through which a single set of tracks had been broken by the rather scanty auto travel. About 10 miles out a jack rabbit darted from his shelter beneath the sagebrush, hopped down into the track, and started on ahead. Expecting him to run a few feet and then jump to one side, we paid little attention for some distance. But this was an unusual rabbit—he kept straight ahead. A glance at the speedometer showed we were going about 30 miles an hour, and the rabbit without any apparent undue effort was running away from us.
"Suddenly we remembered the stage driver's remark of the night before and increased our speed gradually to 35 miles an hour before we were holding our own. On went the rabbit for perhaps half a mile with us slowly closing up on him by running a little over 35. Several times we brought the car to 35 and each time our speeding friend held his own. It was quite apparent that either it was the same rabbit the stage driver passed, or one geared to exactly the same speed."PLANT MANY TREES
The Bureau of Game & Fish, following the policy began last year, will continue the planting of trees this spring. Five plantings will be made at the Fremant Recreation Grounds, at Rat & Beaver lakes in Cherry County, at the Valentine Fish Hatchery and at the Rock Creek Fish Hatchery. Over 30,000 trees will be planted.TWO NEW PISH TRUCKS
Two new fish trucks will go into operation in Nebraska April 15. The Department now has a fleet of five trucks handling fish, three of which contain tanks equipped with air.
As new roads are built the fish truck comes more and more into practical use. It makes it possible to deliver fish in several parts of the state at the same time and to give better supervision to the planting than is possible with the railroad car.CONSTRUCTION WORK AT VALENTINE
On April 1 construction work, delayed by cold weather, was resumed at the Valentine Hatchery. It is to be rushed in order to get some ten more ponds planted before the bass breeding season. When the work now under way at Valentine is completed, some twenty ponds will be ready for stocking. Most of these ponds will be for bass.
The new water supply is working out nicely and is a great improvement over the old system as the temperature is now uniform and ideal for trout hatching.MULE DEER OFFERED
A considerable number of surplus mule deer, or black-tailed deer, are being offered for sale alive by the Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture from the National Bison Range in western Montana. The animals are offered at the price of $15 each as they run on the range, the purchaser paying all expenses in connection with capturing, crating, and removing the deer, which it is estimated will not exceed, on the average, $20 an animal.
The Biological Survey does not recommend these animals for stocking ranges in the South or East, particularly in areas already frequented by deer, but says they should do quite well in most of the western portion of the United States. Where these deer are intended only for exhibition purposes they would, of course, stand a fair chance of surviving in the East.
As the Survey desires to remove the animals from the reservation at the earliest possible date, persons interested in obtaining them should communicate with Frank H. Rose, protector in charge of the National Bison Range. His post office address is Moiese, Mont., and his telegraphic address is Dixon, Mont. Any orders accepted for delivery of the animals are contingent upon the possibility of their capture at the time desired by the purchaser.IKES TO MEET
Announcement has been made by Frank Brady, State President of the Nebraska Izaak Walton League that the state convention will be held at South Sioux City on July 4, 5 and 6, next.
All Nebraska sportsmen and conservationists are invited to attend.OUTDOOR NEBRASKA WYOMING BIG GAME
The state game and fish commissioner of Wyoming, Bruce Nowlin, says in his last biennial report that his state has the greatest variety of wild game of any state in the union, says an American Game Protective association bulletin. Undoubtedly it does have an extraordinary variety of interesting wild animals, particularly big game, including elk, moose, antelope, bear and mountain sheep.
Wyoming is one of the few states that requires a license for shooting bear. That state regards the bear as a game animal and a distinct asset, and in 1927 sold 392 resident bear permits and 53 non-resident permits; the following season 465 resident bear permits were sold and 51 non-resident.
A game census is taken annually in Wyoming, the result of the last census disclosing the following number of the principal game animals in the state:Moose.................................................................... 5,061 Elk ........_____....................................................... 3 3,249 Mountain sheep ...................................................... 22 Antelope.............................................................. 21,690 Deer................................................................___ 21,650 Bear.......................................................___......... 1,595
The quantity of game killed during the season of 1927 is reported as follows:Elk........................................................................ 1,191 Deer...............................................___................. 1,2 54 Bear...................................................................... 77 Mountain sheep ...................................................... 77 Antelope................................................................ 307 Grouse...........................................___................. 7,18 0 Sage hens................................................................ 88,783
SHADEThe kindliest things God ever made, His hand of every healing laid Upon a fevered world, is shade. His glorious company of trees Throw out their mantles, and under these The dust-stained wanderer finds ease. Green temples, closed against the beat Of noontime's blinding glare and heat, Open to any pilgrim's feet. The white road blisters in the sun; Now, half the weary journey done, Enter and rest, O weary one. And feel the dew of dawn still wet Beneath thy feet, and so forget The burning highway's ache and fret. This is God's hospitality, And whoso rests beneath a tree Hath cause to thank Him gratefully. —Theodosia Garrison.
USEFULNESS OF HAWKS AND OWLS
According to Dr. T. Gilbert Pearson, president of the National Association of Audubon societies, no more striking example is on record of the mistaken policy of undertaking wholesale campaigns of extermiration of hawks and owls without careful investigations than that which has recently been reported from Yakima county, Washington. He quotes the following from the regular monthly publication of the Bureau of Biological Survey in a bulletin of the American Game Protective association:
"In the spring of 1927, the game commission of Yakima county, Washington, established a bounty on various creatures supposed to be destructive to useful birds, especially upland game birds. Arrangements were made for the preservation of the stomachs of the hawks and owls killed and presented for bounty, and 121 of these, five kinds of hawks and two of owls, were forwarded to Washington, D. C, for study. Of 45 stomachs of Swainson hawks, 40 containing food held about 90 per cent ground-squirrels, the remainder consisting of snakes and grasshoppers and other insects. Of 31 of Red-tailed Hawks 27 held food, of which 83 per cent was ground-squirrels, six per cent rabbits, four per cent meadow mice and the remainder snakes. So the account goes all the way through; these hawks and owls, for the killing of which a bounty was paid, had all been preying chiefly upon ground-squirrels, rabbits, and mice, species so destructive in the western states that the federal government and the states have been co-operating for years in campaigns to control them. No game birds whatever had been eaten by any of the 121 hawks and owls killed, and only three birds of any kind. It is gratifying to be able to record that as a result of the findings of the Biological Survey, bounties on hawks and owls are no longer paid in Yakima county.
GO A FISHIN'By Fred Robertson If your liver's out of line,— Go a fishin; If your heart 'aint keepin time, Go a fishin; Go and sit out in the sun Git your troubles on the run, Be a boy and have some fun; Go a fishin; Want to keep from growin old? Go a fishin; Keep your brain from gatherin mould? Go a fishin; Go and wander 'mong the trees, Makin friends with birds, and bees, Take a day off; take your ease; Go a fishin. If your appetite's no good, Go a fishin; If you don't enjoy your food, Go a fishin; Grab a can of bait, and pole, Find some nice old bull-head hole, LET THE SUNSHINE IN YOUR SOUL; GO A FISHIN'.
Wild Duck Disease(By Henry Van Roekel)
An investigation on the duck disease this year has been started by the Fish and Game Laboratory at George Wiliams Hooper Foundation for Medical Research, University of California, San Francisco, California.
It is reported that the duck disease has been observed for the last twenty years. Apparently from the information at hand the malady confines itself to shallow water areas, and the fall of the year. According to recent information, losses among waterfowl, largely ducks, have occurred this year in Arizona, California and Idaho. Since clinical studies and autopsy findings are missing, it is impossible to state whether all these losses are due to the same cause. The telluric and aquatic conditions and the general descriptions given by those who have seen sick birds are quite similar in the places in which the disease has been extensively studied.
In California, during the past year, the disease has been observed at Tule Lake (Modoc County) the first week in September. The water in this lake is very shallow, and at places the mud bottom rises above the water. During the dry summer months very little water flows into the lake. A greater part of its basin has been reclaimed and cultivated. Part of the lake was surveyed as to the number of apparently normal and sick birds. Sick birds were collected on the water, some were autopsied immediately and others were taken to the laboratory for further observation and examination.
During the second week of September the duck disease appeared at the duck clubs near Delano, California. Here the conditions were not identical with those at Tule Lake. The duck ponds were adjoining the old Tulare Lake bed. The country is very level, with clay-like soil and little vegetation. The water supply comes from nearby wells. The water change in the ponds was slow and the depth about eighteen to twenty-four inches. Although the telluric conditions differed in many ways, the findings made thus far revealed no difference between the sick birds from the two affected areas.
Many opinions have been advanced as to the cause of the duck disease; unfortunately they are based on casual observations and incomplete investigations. Some observers have propounded the theory that the disease may be prevented by avoiding shallow and stagnant bodies of water for wildfowl. This may or may not be the solution in the end. With no proof for this, and meager experimental evidence, the important problem suggests a thorough and systematic investigation as to the nature and source of the cause. With this in mind a scientific program of field and laboratory experiments has been outlined and the work to execute it is now in progress.
Field studies were conducted at the Hollywood Duck Club near Delano. The nature of the experiments were such as to determine where the cause of the trouble might exist. Two screened enclosed pens, each containing thirty birds, were placed on the ponds. The birds were fed barley and milo-maize. Thirty birds were also placed in an enclosure on land. These were fed pond water and no fresh water. Since no normal wild ducks were available at the time, it was necessary to employ ducks which had recently recovered from the sickness. Body temperatures and recovery records on sick birds were taken. The field work covered a period of six weeks. No definite conclusions can be deducted from the results at this time, since the microscopic study of the collected pathological specimens has not been completed.
Reports have been received that the disease had ended at Tule Lake about the latter part of October. At the duck clubs few sick ducks were found after the first rain on November 11 and 12. Weather changes, such as rains and decrease in temperature, apparently had a marked influence in arresting the malady.
The investigation will be continued through laboratory experiments on trapped normal ducks. It is hoped that the results will either prove or disprove certain phases of the duck disease. The progress of this work is greatly retarded because it is very difficult to duplicate natural conditions at the laboratory. Hence, any results that may be obtained by laboratoryy experiments will have to be repeated under natural field conditions as soon as the disease reappears in California.
It is needless to emphasize that the conservation of the waterfowl is markedly affected by the duck disease. At the present time relatively few suitable nesting and loafing areas absolutely free from the malady can be found in California. More water areas are being taken away from the birds each year by agricultural and industrial enterprises. A committee on game refuges has been appointed to correct, if possible, such conditions as exist in order to assure a safe and suitable refuge for waterfowl. However, little progress can be made until the origin and nature of the duck disease has been established.DUCK RETURNS
Readers of Outdoor Nebraska will be interested in the following letter received from Mr. Keller of Antioch who has had such a great success in feeding and getting acquainted with our migratory waterfowl. Mr. Keller says:
"We were pleasantly surprised March 10 to see Wild Mallard No. 535414 come back. She came in with the others dropping in a pool near the windmill. After taking a drink, splashing around and preening her feathers, she walked in the barn, flew to the roof and without hesitation walked into the box where she nested last year. After inspecing the nest for a time, she joined those in the pool again and later went down to the lake.
"On March 11 I saw her go to the nest again. I believe she will go to housekeeping in the same place again this summer.
"On March 11, early in the morning, 12 Canada geese landed in our lake near the house and remained there the better part of the day.
"We happened to have a birthday party at our place and they had us all lined up to have our pictures taken, when 535414 arrived. Every one was as pleased over her arrival as I was."
The Food for Trout(By George A. Coleman)
The more I study the data available from the dissection of the stomachs of trout caught in our lakes and streams, the more I am convinced that our trout in the wild state exercise great powers of selection of their food from the available natural supply, whether that be insect or crustacean.
Just what the factors are that govern this selection is a problem which has not yet even been worked upon.
The contents of the stomach of a trout caught in any lake or stream on any given day does not by any means determine the food of that trout through the year. It is simply an index of the available supply of food for that particular section of the lake or stream where the trout was caught and of what the trout in question selected during the day.
There is frequently a great variety in this daily menu. I am often very much surprised to find not a single specimen of the insect or crustacean which is in the greatest abundance and by all man-made rules should fill that trout's stomach to bursting. I have often watched young trout fry, only an inch or so long, jumping at gnats, or midges, on the surface of the water. I have observed them catch and swallow insects almost as large as their heads when they could, without any trouble, be quietly taking great quantities of minute crustaceans available in the water. This must be explained as some biological urge of which we know nothing, otherwise we would put it down as just "pure cussedness."
In order to make sure that my eyes did not deceive me in this matter, I caught and examined the stomachs of some fry, but ten days old. The collection was made between 10 and 11 a. m. after a good morning's meal. One such lot gave the following results:One fry averaging 2 5 mm. in length— Average number gnats (2 species) .............. 2 0 each Chironomous larvae ...................................... 1 each Young water boatmen ..........................,....... 1 each Crustacea (very abundant) .......................... 2 each Water fleas.................................................... 2 each Water fleas Daphnia ...................................... 1 each
It would seem, in this case, that inspite of the prevalence in the water of thoroughly good natural food, the instinct to jump and catch food on the surface was stronger than the mere hunger urge—even at this early age.
On the other hand, when circumstances require it, young trout will go to any trouble and exercise great ingenuity in obtaining food. An instance illustrating this fact occurred during the course of an exploration on the headwaters of the Kern and the Kings rivers late in September of 1924. This was an exceptionally dry year. We found many instances of small tributary streams which were dried down to a series of mere pools only a few yards in extent. In many cases, these would be a mass of decaying vegetation and mire. In these, I often found hundreds of young trout, 2 % to 4 inches in length, their stomachs filled with the larvae of Chironomous (a midge) and other insect larvae which were available in the mud of these pools. This adaptation enables the young trout to survive until the middle of October, when the early snows would supply these streams with water, and these trout would again be able to assume a somewhat normal existence.
Thus, mother nature has provided the fish organization with wonderful powers of adapting itself to its environment. If this were not so, the fish culturist would never be able to take fish from their natural environment and place them in entirely artificial surroundings with artificial food, and still make good fish of them.
Age has a great influence upon the selection of the daily menu of trout. Apparently they become cannibalistic in their tendencies after they are a few months old and become more so as they reach adult size. It further seems that they find it easier to devour a few of their felows, who have already fed on insects, than to hunt up their own insect or crustacean food. It, therefore, taken something unusual in appearance in the way of an insect or crustacean, alive or in artificial bait, to attract a big fish whose predaceous instincts are fully developed.
The question whether a given stream or lake is suitable for trout and, if so, how many it will support, is one which can not be determined definitely by a hasty survey of that lake or stream on any given date. The plant life plankton, insect and crustacean food must be studied at different seasons in order to obtain reliable data on the available supply throughout the year. Physical data, such as temperature, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide and chemical composition, must also be noted. Then, if there are trout living in the lake or stream, collections of these and examination of their stomach contents at different seasons will give further reliable data.
Another study, which should engage our attention before any extensive planting of our barren lakes at high altitudes with either plant or insect food is undertaken, is an intensive study of the life histories of a few of our more abundant aquatic insects which we know to be frequently taken by trout for food. This study should further embrace an investigation of a few of the most abundant crustaceans, their requirements for food, temperatures for growth and other physical requisites.
As we compile more and more data on the food requirements of each species of trout, and gain more knowledge about the plant, insect and crustacean life of each lake and stream, we will arrive at a sounder and more scientific basis upon which to rely for the distribution of the trout from our hatcheries.HATCH PIKE
Some five million pike eggs are now being hatched by Nebraska Fish Hatcheries and will be planted in the Blue River and the North Platte River. At one time many pike were taken from both these streams. Efforts are being made to see if these fish can again be brought back in large numbers.12 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA BASS PRODUCTION
A good many Nebraska sportsmen do not realize what their own state is doing in producing fish. They think of other states doing much and consider that Nebraska does not amount to much in producing fish.
However, here are the figures on bass produced by Nebraska and by the state of Minnesota during the past two years. These figures are taken from the reports of the respective states: show bass planted:Nebraska ........................................5 5 8,703 Minnesota...................................... 78,752
In justice to the Minnesota department it should be stated that they produce millions of pike and whiteflsh which are not raised in such great numbers in Nebraska. However, Nebraska produces about the same number of trout, sunfish and crappies as Minnesota. Nebraska hatches about Ave million pike a year but does not hatch whiteflsh.
Nebraska is now ranking with largest states in fish production and already has the ponds and equipment installed to greatly increase present production.WILD TURKEYS COMING BACK
"From various parts of the country for the last few years there have come reports that the wild turkey, almost extinct except in thickly wooded mountainous and inaccessible regions, is becoming more numerous, and is even venturing nearer the settlements than has been its habit.
At one time it inhabited almost all parts of the United States and southern Canada, as well as the greater part of Mexico. In fact, in Jefferson's time, little more than a century ago, a wild turkey could be bought on the streets of the national capital for five cents. Today a wild turkey for sale at any price in Washington would cause a stampede of would-be purchasers.
The wild turkey is even larger than our domesticated variety, the latter being derived from the Mexican variety. In habits the wild birds are much the same as our barnyard fowls, however, except that they are stronger of wing, being able to attain a speed in flight of more than a mile a minute, according to close observers. The sight and hearing of wild turkeys are so keen that they cannot be stalked by man successfully, but must be sought by the hunter while lying in wait for his quarry's appearance.
The apparent comeback of the wild turkey, after being almost extinct, is the cause of much interest on the part of nature lovers. "Nor is the mere killing of him," says Archibald Rutledge, "the only sport that his return affords. His presence once more in our forests will invest them with the spirit of the primeval wildness that no man wishes this country ever wholly to lose."— The Los Angeles Herald.BUFFALO TO ALASKA
The introduction of buffalo into Alaska is an experiment that is being watched with much interest by wild-life conservationists. Twenty-three of these animals were shipped from the National Bison Range, Montana, to the Territory by the Alaska Game Commission in June, 1928, through an appropriation made for the purpose by the Territorial Legislature. Nineteen of them were liberated near McCarty, Alaska, and four were held at the Reindeer Experiment Station of the Biological Survey of the U. S. Department of Agriculture at Fairbanks for experimental purposes.
In a recent report to the Biological Survey, L. J. Palmer, in charge of the reindeer station stated that up to January 9 the buffalo were located on Jarvis Creek, not far from where they were liberated, and were feeding to a large extend on wild vetch. They seem to have adapted themselves to the country, he said, and to be doing well. On February 18 the herd was reported on Clear Water Creek, 9 miles from McCarty, a stream that has open water throughout the winter and a good growth of brush and grass. The Alaska Game Commission has hay stored at McCarty for feeding the buffalo if necessary, but up to mid-February the animals were finding sufficient food and were in good condition, although there had been some unusually heavy snowfalls.
The buffalo retained at the reindeer station are each fed at the rate of 15 pounds of hay a day, and are in excellent condition—round and fat. The winter has been unusually mild at the station, but during one brief period when the temperature ranged from 30 to 40 degrees below zero with high humidity—it was noted that the animals were covered with hoarfrost, and as soon as they finished feeding at the corrals each morning, they would immediately seek an upper sheltered hollow in the middle of one of the pastures or the top of a warmer adjoining ridge. During warm weather the buffalo remain near the feed troughs at the corrals. On the range, when not grazing, they seek shelter in the forest.
THE BLIGHT(Sentiments of a Good Scout) Calls himself a camper, Comes into the woods, Does a lot of braggin'— But he hasn't got the goods! Squirrels 'fore the season, Fish caught in a net, Quails in the nestin' time— All that he can get. When he goes to make his fire, He picks the finest tree, Piles his wood against it, Strikes a match, then—whee! That fine tree's a goner, Maybe many more— Fire started in the woods, Goes with a roar. Comes into the forest, Kills everything in sight. Would you call that a camper? I call that a blight! —Caroline Dormon.
One of the first ducks to venture north in our chilly springtime is the graceful Pintail. It arrives very early in March, depending, of course, on the weather prevailing. Coming early, it also departs early, the larger flocks usually coming through in September.
This is not always the case however. Last fall a flock of about sixty pintails discovered, on their way south, a small sloughy lake within the Minneapolis city limits called Diamond Lake. Evidently they were well pleased with the feed available and also the lack of hunters—they remained on this little slough until it froze solid late in the fall. Each evening they took exercise trips around the rim of the lake, wheeling in graceful flight; during the day they dabbled in the mud or sat preening themselves in the bright autumn sunshine. This flock even outstayed a few bluebills that also stopped there on the way south.
The Pintail, or Sprig, derives its common name from the long projecting center tail feathers. The long tail and long slim neck and head are very distinctive marks in flight; as might be expected from its form, the Pintail's flight is swift and graceful.
As with all our ducks, the acme of its plumage beauty is revealed by the drake in his springtime attire; the female very closely resembles the female mallard except that the speculum (that bar of color usually found on a duck's wing) is a dull bronze narrowly bordered in front with reddish brown and in back with white. The drake's coloring is not particularly vivid but its beauty lies in the contrast and the graceful lines of the bird. The head and throat is a warm olive brown, the back of the neck darkening to black bordered on each side with a white stripe which joins the white of the breast and belly. The sides are strongly marked with wavy lines of black and white, the abdomen only slightly so. The back is somewhat darker than the sides, scapulars are black edged or streaked with yellowish white; wing coverts are brownish gray and the speculum a glossy green.
The Pintail is essentially a duck of the prairie sloughs where it dabbles around with the mallard although seldom feeding in fields as the mallard does. It is not always dependent on the proximity of water in its choice of a nesting site, frequently nesting on the ground at a considerable distance from water, where it raises a large brood early in the season.
It rates highly in the hunter's scale, being of fair size, nearly as large as the mallard, and of good eating quality. It is a sporting duck to hunt being a swift flyer and very wary under bombardment.—Fins, Feathers and Fur.BIRD HOMES
Are your bird-houses up and waiting for the tenants that are now coming up from the sunny south? If not, don't lose any time as the birds prefer a home that has been well aired out and weathered. If you have some that were in use last year, take them down, clean them thoroughly, and refasten any joints that may have worked loose since they were made. Then fasten them very securely—many a happy brood has been lost because a storm tore the nest-box from its moorings and dashed it to the ground. We would like to hear from our readers who are fortunate enough to obtain some of these feathered tenants.NAMES OF LAKES
Of Minnesota's 5,500 meandered lakes, which includes all the larger bodies of water which have been mapped, 1,009 of them have not been christened, while those with names run into numerous duplications. Duplications of names is the worst sin, for if a visitor to Minnesota asks for any of 100 lakes he is likely to be directed to five or more different water bodies. There are ninety-nine Long Lakes in Minnesota, this being apparently the most popular name. Less pleasing is the name second in popularity, Mud Lake, which has been attached to ninety-nine lakes. There are 76 Rice Lakes, forty-three Bass; forty Twin; thirty-nine Round; thirtysix Clear; thirty-two Sand, Sandy or Sands lakes; twenty-five Pine and twenty-five Cedar Lakes. Horseshoe Springs, Turtle, Fish, Duck Grass, Silver, Swede, Island, Goose occur many times in the nomenclature grown from naming Minnesota lakes. There is a rival pace between Ole Peterson, Sweden, Nelson, Mattson, Olson and such names as O'Brien, Irish, Dunnigan, Murphy, Kelly and Ryan. There is a full menu consisting of Coffee, Sugar, Willard said. Then there is Rum, Sandwich, Ham, Egg, Potato, Cranberry, Plum, Lobster, and Pie, Mr. Whiskey and Bootleg. Names like Stinking Devil, Dead Fish and Horse, Dead Man, Pig's Eye and Dirty Nose are doubtless picturesque, but hardly attractive. Every known bug, insect, bird, beast and fish may be found in the column of names. Minnesota has probably more than 11,000 lakes in all.PRESERVING YOUR FISH
Most anglers are proud of their catches, be it "sunsnie," trout or what have you. When they arrive home and display their fish to their doting relatives, said angler's most fervent wish is to make a hero of himself. It is one of the great moments of his day.
More frequently than we like to admit, however, the enthusiasm aroused is not of the spontaneous and animated variety. What is the matter? Nice fish, plenty of them. Sure. The only trouble is they look and smell like something the cat dragged in. I guess all of us at some time in our lives have come home with these fragrant petrified mummies.
Of course, there is no excuse for this. It all depends on how the fish are handled after you have caught them.
A fish, for one thing should never be pounded on the head in order to kill it. The bruise produced in doing this, will be the first to go bad. A better way is to bleed it immediately after landing by putting a knife through the gills and into the backbone. Some fishermen break the vertebra by bending the head back. This method, however, has about the same effect as a bruise.
After the fish has been bled, it should be washed and then wiped dry.
If you are trout fishing or fishing anywhere from the shore, gather a few leaves or some grass or preferably some evergreens. Moisten these and put them in the creel with your fish. In the event that you are fishing from a boat, a clean, moist piece of cloth will serve to keep your catch wholesome and sweet.—Field and Stream.
TREE PLANTING IN NEBRASKA(Continued from Page Three)
4. Shrubs, grown as hedges, serve well to border lawns and playgrounds; they improve back grounds and modify vistas.
5. Trees, shrubs, vines, and flowers make our broad spaces more habitable; they environ the state with comfort and beauty and have value in education.Nebraska Plan
This plan is gaining general recognition not only because it enlists the popular support of so many citizens and produces the desired results, but because it is workable with little expense to the state. It is based upon the experience of successful planters and the technical guidance of persons employed to serve in State, Federal, and University departments. The plan is scientific, practical, democratic, and effective in meeting the needs of Nebraska. Its features as they now stand are as follows:
1. There is a definite agreement between the State Committee, Conservation and Survey Division, Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service, nurserymen, and the Bessy Nursery of the Nebraska National Forest regarding the part each is to assume in furthering tree planting and landscape beautification.
2. The Bessey Federal Nursery is to produce trees to plant the national forests and for distribution by the Extension Service for shelter belt and woodlot purposes on farms and ranches.
3. The Agricultural Experiment Stations are to grow stock for planting on state lands and on state institution grounds or stocks for these purposes and for shelter belts and woodlots are to be purchased from the State Nurserymen's Association for distribution by the Extension Forester of the Extension Service.
4. The commercial field proper is to be occupied by the nurserymen.
5. The State and Federal departments are not to grow flowers, vines, and shrubs for distribution.
6. The plans and objects to be accamplished for each year's campaign of planting are to be formulated by the State Committee in cooperation with the Conservation and Survey Division, Extension Forester, State Department of Agriculture, Supercisor of the Federal Nursery, and a representative of the TJ. S. Forest Service, and submitted for discussion and approval before one or more public meetings to be held at the Capitol, the Governor presiding.
7. The plans and objects as adopted at the public meetings are to be furthered by the State Committee during the year and actively supported by the committee and asociated agencies during Tree Planting and Landscape Beautification Week. The program is to be educational and carried out as a public welfare measure.Purpose of Campaign
Although there are important industrial factors and purposes in this year's state-wide campaign, relating to those who sell planting stocks and to those who plant for economic gain, it is held that the main object lies more in the environing and educational benfits obtained for the state than in industrial production and economic benefit. It is recognized, however, that there is apparent need for forestation for commercial production in our state, but it is believed that this phase of development should not be made the major issue this year.
The points to be emphasized in this year's campaign of planting in Nebraska relate to the aesthetic more than to industry as such. They were formulated by the State Committee according to the terms of the Nebraska Plan, then considered in two public meetings presided over by the Governor and changed somewhat, resulting in a program intended to stress improvement by and for the following:
1. Homes, both country and town.
2. Public schools: Rural, consolidated, high schools, state teachers colleges, and the University of Nebraska.
3. Churches, with reference to their church buildings, grounds, parsonages, welfare homes, hospitals, cemeteries, schools, academies, and colleges.
4. Institutions under the State Board of Control.
5. Industrial grounds.
6. Railroad grounds.
7. Highways, tourist parks, gas stations, and hotels.
8. Fair grounds, county and state.
9. State Parks and State Recreational Grounds.
10. Cities and towns, with reference to their streets, parks, hospitals, cemeteries, golf grounds, ball parks, and other civic development.
11. Farms and ranches, with reference to shelter belts, woodlots, game protection, prevention of soil erosion, and planting for nut, post, pole, and lumber production.
12. Clubs and Societies—Secret and fraternal, patriotic, civic service, and educational.Technical Information
We now know better than in the past, what and how to plant in the different areas of the state, and how to care for the plantings. This knowledge is based upon the studies and surveys that have been made of the soil, of the native and introduced stocks, of the climatic factors, and of the success and failure of the plantings.
The State Forester of the Conservation and Survey Division of the University studies the native forest and the introduced trees of the state in their relation to the soil and climatic conditions and advises regarding policies to be followed in forestation. The Extension Forester of the College of Agriculture serves technically in the selection, distribution, planting, cultivation, and care of trees and shrubs. The Chairman of the Department of Horticulture of the College of Agriculture and the Landscape Gardener of the State University advise along the lines of their profession. Service of this kind is also available from many nurserymen in the state.
All nursery stocks in the state are inspected. They are said to be unusually free from insect pests and plant diseases. Inspection and the favorable condition apply also to the Federal stocks. Also, the out-of-state nurserymen are required to file inspection certificates with the State Department of Agriculture before their nurseries ship to Nebraska.
There are a number of Nebraska seed houses from which dependable service is assured, also a number of floriculturists and landscape gardeners with successful experience. The committee on technical information is as follows:
H. J. McLaughlin, Secretary State Department of Agriculture, Chairman, Lincoln.OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 15
C. C. Wiggans, Chairman Department of Horticulture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Frank A. Hayes, State Soil Survey and U. S. Bureau of Soils, Lincoln.
C. W. Watkins, Extension Forester, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
E. A. Nieschmidt, State Forester, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
George A. Marshall, State Nurserymen's Association, Arlington.
W. H. Dunman, Landscape Gardener, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Ernst Herminghaus, Landscape Gardener and Garden Clubs, Lincoln.
M. I. Evinger, Town Planning, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Clarence Kittinger, Park Commissioner, Lincoln.
F. D. Keim, Grass Expert, College of Agriculture, Lincoln.Nebraska National Forests
There are two National Forestation projects in Nebraska, located in the Sandhill region. One of them is west of Halsey and the other is west of Snake River southwest of Valentine. These projects have demonstrated what can be done in forestation. They show a change from prairie to forest.
Planting started at Halsey 2 7 years ago and now an area of 14,000 acres is planted to trees, some of them being 30 to 40 feet in height. About 1,000 acres of the Niobrara Division of the Nebraska National Forest has been planted, making, with the Halsey forest, about 15,000 acres of Federal planting in Nebraska.
The forest reserve at Halsey is not only successful as a forestation experiment, but a place that should be visited by many more citizens from all parts of the state that they may see and appreciate what has been done. It is the state's big demonstration in forestation, and has become a natural refuge for wild animals, including several deer.
The Bessey Nursery at the Halsey Forest Reserve has for several years supplied trees for ranch and farm planting, with the result that there are now many places in the state with attractive groves planted from this source.Sources of Planting Stocks
One of the first points for consideration by the planter is that of stocks, i. e., what he is to plant and where to secure same. This relates to such as seeds, bulbs, ornamentals and shade trees, depending upon the needs.
There is a small source of supply of trees and shrubbery in the woodlands along our streams and on some rough lands, being quite accessible to some places to be planted. It is recognized, however, that more thought than usual should be given to selection from this source in order to determine that there is the proper kind and type of thing to be planted.
There are many commercial nurseries, widely distributed in Nebraska. These with stocks of variety constitute the most dependable source of planting stock. Also, as noted before, these stocks are inspected and certified by the State Department of Agriculture, and most of the nurserymen are in a position to serve technically in the selection of the things to be planted and to fill orders at once. A list of the Nebraska nurseries has been published by the State Department of Agriculture, by Secretary H. J. McLaughlin.
The Extension Service of the College of Agriculture distributes planting stock to farmers under the terms of the Clark-McNary law, at $1.00 per hundred trees, which is a handling and packing charge. This service was started in 19§6. Since that time 902,000 trees have been distributed to 4,000 farmers in Nebraska. This phase of forestation work has grown very rapidly. In 1926 34,000 trees were distributed; in 1927, 186,000; in 1928, 682,000; and approximately 700,000 trees are to be distributed during April of this year.
The planting stock used for Extension Service distribution is secured from the U. S. Forest Service (Nebraska National Forest) and from the Nebraska Nurserymen's Association. One year old broadleaf seedlings of American Elm, Honey Locust, Catalpa, Green Ash, Cottonwood, Boxelder, Russian Olive, Caragaua (Siberian Pee Tree), Russian Mulberry, and Soft Maple are purchased from the nurserymen. Three year old transplants of Scotch pine, Austrian pine, Western Yellow pine, and Jack pine are secured from the U. S. Forest Service, i. e., from the Bessey Nursery at Halsey.
The purpose of the distribution work by the Extension Service is to encourage the planting of windbreaks and woodlots on farms. Specific instructions on planting and on caring for trees is furnished by the Extension Forester. Application blanks for ordering for this distribution can be secured from the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Lincoln, Nebraska. These blanks are available January 1 each year and the stock is shipped to The planters about the middle of April.
NEW GAME PRESERVE ACT PRAISED(Continued from Page 4)
"Without the refuge act to support the provisions of earlier Federal legislation it is difficult to conceive how our birds—the ducks, the geese, and the myriad species of song birds and insect destroyers—could for long withstand or survive in satisfactory numbers the encroachments of industry and the losses sustained by indiscriminate shooting on practically every feeding ground in the country. The act virtually guarantees to all generations of Americans yet to come an undiminished share of that marvelous heritage of bird life which nature has bestowed upon our country. Americans may well call down blessings upon the heads of those whose love of nature, whose far-sightedness, and whose practical common sense generously exercised in the adjustment of a difficult problem have made a splendid law possible."
THE MYSTERY PRAIRIE CHICKEN
The State Game and Fish Department of Minnesota has maintained for several years an exhibit of mounted birds, fish and animals which has been shown at different county fairs; last year the writer had the pleasure of being in charge of this exhibit. It was always well patronized by all groups of people seeing these fairs, but seemed to have a special attraction for sportsmen, not only for the exhibit itself, but for the opportunity to meet other sportsmen and compare opinions and experiences.
Among the birds exhibited were two cases, one containing a pair of Sharp-tailed Grouse and the other a pair of the Pinnated Grouse, or Prairie Chicken; and these two furnished material for many an interesting discussion. Almost invariably during this discussion some "old-timer" would bring up the subject of a prairie chicken that he used to shoot years ago that seemed to be extinct in these times. On questioning, the one fact that remained in their memories was that this prairie chicken had absolutely no feathers on the legs.
On investigation I found that ornithology had no record of such a bird and determined to find the solution. All of the proponents of this bird had stated that they had not seen such a bird for twenty or thirty years so I thought that possibly my father's collection of game birds, extending over a period of thirty-five years, might furnish a clue.
There I found it; he had one old mounted specimen of the Pinnated Grouse, or Prairie Chicken, which on casual notice seemed to have no feathers on the legs. Closer inspection revealed the fact that it was a young bird and that the legs were covered with very small pin feathers, which in time would have grown into the regular leg feathers. There was the solution—in olden days there was no particular season and the birds were shot at a much earlier period than in these days, before these feathers had a chance to become noticeable. Contrasted with fully feathered older birds, these undoubtedly looked to be a different bird to the casual observer and remained so in their recollections.—Sidel B. Swenson.
CARE OF FISH AQUARIUMS(Continued from Page Five)
Many aquarists feed every day, carefully removing all uneaten food, which soon decays and fouls the water. Prepared foods sold by aquaria dealers are generally safe and may be supplied every other day. Finely crushed vermicelli is also used. Some of the ordinary household cereals are available as goldfish food, but the beginner should experiment with them cautiously. Other foods are desirable at times, too. Once a week pieces of very small earth worms or bits of fresh beef should be furnished. If they can be given to each fish on the tip of a broom straw the chances of contaminating the water by waste food will be lessened. All uneaten food must be picked, dipped, or siphoned out, or foul water and a disturbance of the delicate balance of the aquarium will result. A milky appearance of the water usually is a warning of careless feeding. Nearly all diseases that occur among goldfishes indicate that the aquarium needs looking after. The unsightly growth of fungus on fishes, caused by the plant parasites, Saprolegnia and Devoea, indicate careless handling of the fishes or bad conditions prevailing in the aquarium. When the conditions are right diseases are not likely to appear. Too high a temperature favors the growth of fish fungus.
This disease is hard to deal with, and infected fishes should be removed at once and kept by themselves, where, under proper conditions, they may possibly recover. A pinch of salt put in the water with them may arrest the disease, but when in bad condition a teaspoonful of salt to each gallon of water will be necessary. If other fishes are obtainable, it is just as well to destroy diseased specimens, as the fungus roots penetrate into the fish and can not be destroyed if the growth is far advanced. External parasites on fishes should be picked off after the fish has been lifted carefully in the dip net.
One of the first indications of trouble in the aquarium is the presence of the fishes at the surface with their mouths out of the water, showing that they are suffering for lack of air. The water may be dipped up and allowed to fall back slowly, but the relief afforded will be merely temporary. The temperature of the aquarium should be observed and some of the fishes removed. It may be necessary to increase the quantity of plant life or stimulate its growth by admitting more light. If the weather is not cold and the window can be opened, air blowing across the surface of the water will be helpful, as it may only be necessary to aerate the water and lower the temperature somewhat. There may be refuse at the bottom, which should be removed, of course.
In taking care of the aquarium a few simple implements, such as a half-inch rubber tube for siphoning out the water, a glass "dip tube" for removing small particles of dirt from the bottom, a shallow dip net of cheesecloth for lifting fishes, and a cloth-covered pad or rubber scraper with a long handle for cleaning the glass, will be necessary. The dip tube is operated by closing the top opening with the finger to admit or exclude the water as desired. A pair of long wooden forceps and a slim stick are also useful for moving plants and other objects without putting the hands into the water.—From a government bulletin.
Nebraska Game and Fish Laws 1928-1929OPEN SEASON
Black Bass: (Not less than nine inches in length) : Season open from January 1 to May 1 and from June 10 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Bass, Rock, White, Striped: Not less than six inches in length): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Catfish: (Not less than 11 inches in length): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Croppies: (Not less than six inches in length): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 2 5.
Perch: (Not less than six inches in length): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 25, possession 25.
Sunfish: (Bluegills, Pumpkinseed, etc.) (All lengths) : Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Trout: (Not less than eight inches in length) : Open season April 1 to October 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Pickerel: (Not less than twelve inches in length) : Open season May 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Bullheads: (Not less than five inches): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 25, possession 25.
Pike: (Not less than 12 inches in length) ; Open season April 1 to October 31. Bag 15, possession 2 5.
Frogs: Bull frogs protected, all sizes, during all season. Grass frogs may be used for bait.
Minnows: Minnows may be used for bait. Take same only with minnow seines not more than 2 0 feet in length nor more than 4 feet in depth. Minnow seines and traps MUST have one-fourth (1-4) inch mesh.
CARP, Buffalo, Suckers, Gar (all lengths): Open season January 1 to December 31. May be taken with spears during months of March to November, inclusive. These fish under Nebraska law classified as coarse fish and not game fish.
Prairie Chicken, Grouse: Open season October 1 to November 1, inclusive. Bag 5, possession 5.
Waterfowl (Ducks, Geese, Coots, Brants) : Open season September 16 to December 31. Bag, 2 0 Ducks, 5 Geese, 2 0 Coots. 5 Brants. Possession: 40 Ducks, 5 Geese, 40 Coots, 5 Brants. Waterfowl are also protected by federal laws.
Pheasants: No general open season. Prom time to time short season may be opened by order Department of Agriculture.
Squirrels: Open season from September 16 to December 31. Bag 10, possession 20.
Raccoons, Muskrats, Opossums, Foxes and O+ters: Open season on raccoons and opossums November 1 to February 15. Open season on muskrats, foxes and otters, November 16 to March 1.NO OPEN SEASON
Elk, Deer, Antelope, Mountain Sheep, Beaver, Minnows (except for bait), Bull Frogs, Wood Ducks, Doves, Quail, Swans, Imported Game Birds, Song and Insectivorous Birds, except Sparrows, Crows, Bluejays and Hawks.BAG LIMITS
IN ONE DAY—5 prairie chickens, 20 ducks, 5 geese, 15 rails, 25 snipe, 20 coots, 15 game fish, except bullheads and perch which are 25.
AT ANY ONE TIME—5 prairie chickens, 40 ducks, 5 geese, 25 rails, 25 snipe, 40 coots, 2 5 game fish.PERMIT FEES
Permit required for all persons over 16 years of age for hunting or fishing. Permit required for ALL persons trapping regardless of age.
Permits necessary for women same as men.
Permits must be carried on person. Resident—To Hunt and Fish $1.10. To Trap $2.10.
Citizens of the United States but not a resident of Nebraska — To Hunt and Fish $25.10. To Trap $25.10. To Fish $2.10.
Aliens—To Fish $5.10. To trap $25.10 (No alien hunting permits issued because illegal for alien to carry firearms in Nebraska.)SPECIAL PERMITS
To breed and raise game birds, $1.00.
To breed and raise game or fur-bearing animals, $2.00.
To buy furs, resident $1.00, non-resident $10.00.
Private fish hatchery, $25.00.
To sell coarse fish taken in Nebraska with hook and line, $2.00.GENERAL LAWS
Unlawful to use artificial light, or spot light in hunting protected game birds and animals.
Unlawful to hunt on private land without owner's consent.
Unlawful to shoot game from automobiles.
Unlawful to put game in storage without tags issued by Bureau of Game and Fish.
Unlawful to keep game in storage more than 10 days following close of season.
Unlawful to ship game by auto, train, private car or express without tagged with tags issued by Bureau of Game and Fish.
Unlawful to use nets, seines or traps to take fish.
Unlawful to have seines, nets and traps in possession.
BUY YOUR LICENSES NOWHunting and Fishing Permits Expired December 31st
It is unlawful to hunt, fish or trap without having a license in your possession.
Money derived from the sale of permits is used for purchase and upkeep of State Recreation Grounds, Fish Hatcheries and Game Refuges—for purchase and distribution of game and for the protection of our wild life and enforcement of the game and fish laws.
Help protect our game and fish by observing the law and asking others to do the same.State Hunting and Fishing........$ 1.10 Non-resident Hunting and Fishing. . . 25.10 Non-resident Fishing............. 2.10 Trapping..................... 2.10
You can buy these licenses from County Clerks or banks, hardware stores, sporting goods stores, etc.BUREAU GAME AND FISH LINCOLN