Outdoor NebraskaJuly 1928
BirdsDo you ne'er think what wondrous beings these? Do you ne'er think who made them, and who taught The dialects they speak, where melodies Alone are the interpreters of thought? Whose household words are songs in many keys, Sweeter than instrument of man e'er caught! —Longfellow.
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAOfficial Bulletin Nebraska Bureau Game and Fish Vol. Ill JULY, 1928 No. 3 CONTENTS "Horrible Example" Held Carp's Greatest Value____________3 Let's Save Our Hawks and Owls, By L. H. Watson__________________4 Transporting Fish Big Job______________________________________5 Editorial ______________________________________________________6 Department Activities___________________________________________8 Many Coarse Fish Removed______________________________________10 Uncle Sam Goes Elsewhere for Fur________________________________11 Conservation and the Boy Scouts__________________________________12
Much sport can be derived from hunting and fishing. It is a glorious thing to get out with nature and try your skill with her denizens of the wild.
But such sport demands that the fish and game have a square deal. If a man were to go into an athletic contest such as baseball, football, boxing etc., and take an unfair advantage of his opponent, he would be booed out of the game.
Yet many men go out to hunt and fish and take unfair advantage of their opponents. Some of them hunt young birds, some fish during the spawning season, some use nets, traps and other devices that are illegal. Such unfair tactics can in no way be called "sport".
Be fair with the game and fish. Be honorable with them. If you do. they will give you some real thrills and your own self-respect will not suffer.
1928 State Fair
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAOfficial Bulletin Nebraska Bureau Game and Fish Vol. III JULY, 1928 No. 3
"Horrible Example" Held Carp's Greatest Value
PROBABLY the greatest value of the carp in America has been that of a horrible example and a warning to go slowly in attempting to fill our streams with exotic forms of life, in the opinion of Henry O'Malley, United States Commissioner of Fisheries.
"George Washington admonished against entangling alliances, and restricted immigration is a new note in our policy," Mr. O'Malley points out, "but with one or two exceptions, it has been a long-standing practice as regards our game fish population. We wavered in this policy and sought carp; we got it, we have it, and we will continue to have it.
"The only other serious effort we have made to graft any new shoots on the family tree of American freshwater game fish was when we brought in the European brown trout and its first cousin the Loch Leven. No disastrous results have accompanied the spread of this alien, and it has filled a need in some sections. But this gives us only a 50 per cent batting average on our importations and the wisest course is to proclaim our satisfaction with what we have and let the rest of the world roll by.
"The fisherman and hunter is the only man who will tax himself by means of licenses and will expend his time, energy, and funds in other ways to restock fields, forests and streams with game and fish bv which others will benefit. He receives no duly certified guarantee that he will catch any of the fish so provided. He takes his chances gladly of being able to ultimately prove to the fish that he is smarter than competing fishermen.
"In paying tribute to the fisherman. I would be guilty of bias if I did not speak a good word for the fish themselves. The fish can be transmuted into human health, vigor, and welfare by the simple process of eating it. A fish living in some meandering canal is a manifestation of nature but a fish tucked away in the alimentary canal is a token of health and satisfaction. In very recent times we have called on the fish for further reinforcements and the Bureau of Fisheries has actively agitated the greater consumption of codliver oil to combat rickets and that accompanying scourge of humanity—bow legs. My observations,. happily facilitated by present fashions, have convinced me that many millions of unfortunate cod must sacrifice their lives and livers before the supporting elements of humanity are evolved from the parabolic to the parallel.Many Species Exported
"The United States has recently developed a new product for export in the shape of so-called Unofficial Ambassadors of Good Will of which Colonel Lindbergh and Will Rogers are shining examples. I want to assure you that there have been, going out of the country for a number of years offerings which should be potent in establishing that much-sought good will. We have been generous with some of our treasured resources, especially our native game fishes. Many countries have called for them and where there has been any chance of successful transplanting, without depriving our own people of what they need, such requests have been met. The Michigander who likes his Mackinaw trout need not go without it if he happens to be in Switzerland. Several Alpine lakes have been stocked with them. Years ago bass, brook and rainbow trout were emigrating to Great Britain and continental Europe. The Scandinavian countries and Germany received bass and there has apparently been a slow extension to other regions. Word was received recently from Buda-Pest making iquiry about small-mouth bass. The eel is considered the champion globe-trotting fish at the present but South Africa has requested a shipment of bass and miscellaneous fishes which would set a new nonstop record. Incidentally, rainbow trout are already thriving in some waters of that country.
"In the Argentine, trouts and salmon have moved in and some angry Argentine has written pointing out a Yankee characteristic to overdo a good thing and stating that there are now too many fish.
"Hawaiians, living under our flag, deserve all the advantages that the mainland affords and they have rainbow and brook trout fishing at least The Philippines chose bass and the goods were received in fine condition. From New Zealand come tales of good rainbow trout fishing and the establishment of our Pacific salmon in their streams to a limited extent."
Commissioner O'Malley said he was supremely optimistic that true conservation of our fish and game life will become a guiding principle and an accomplished fact in our national consciousness.
" "My optimism," he said, "is based on that interesting quirk in the American character which leads us to give our real interest and honest endeavor to those prosaic affairs which constitute our livlihood and natural existence but impels us to reserve our real enthusiasms and our fervent aggressiveness for those things that comprise ur recreation."Fish Families Reduced?
"Deforestation with its attendant evils has made it more difficult for papa and mamma fish to raise as large families as formerly, and they haven't practiced birth control or favored companionate marriages." according to Lewis Radcliffe, United States Assistant Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries.
"Reclamation of swamp, bayou and marshland has destroyed the homes of the little fishes, compelling us to establish nurseries and ornhanasres to nrotect them from their big brothers and sisters." he said. The clan of the salmon and shad have encountered man-made dams and (Continued on Page 14.)
Let's Save Our Hawks and OwlsBy L. H. Watson
I HAVE been unable to fathom the reason for the needless and wanton destruction of a valuable order of birds—the raptories.,
How often these days do .we read dispatches f ro.m jpoints in the state to the effect someone has trapped a golden eagle, clubbed the captured bird-half , to-de.ath then-'exhibited it in a garage to the public.-- ;_Ot some-sportsman shoots an eagle, hawk or owl having a large wing measment and arranges to have it mounted:—and "I will admit this is far preferable to seeing them-speared on a barbed wire fence or hanging from a fence post.
I regret this has not received the disapproval of some State Game Departments, however I believe our present Game Warden is willing to lend a sympathetic ear to reasonable protests and I ask every true sportsman to do his share in educating the public against the practice of destroying promiscuously these splendid birds and friends of agriculture. A better fate should await the noble bird that is a part of the emblem of freedom and represents the highest honor attainable by the Boy Scout. These birds should be objects of admiration and not destruction.
Many times when sitting in a blind with a friend have I seen a marsh hawk or a short-eared owl fly over decoys and past the blind only to have my companion raise his gun and take aim with the intention of destroying the b.'r 1. I have generally been able to prevent the act and have always asked the reason for attempting to wantonly and needlessly destroy the life of the bird and have usually been told that they always had killed hawks and owls as the birds were no good and were destructive.
There are very rare cases when the hunter would be justified in killing the bird for such a reason and in my opinion the average sportsman is unable to distinguish between the different owls and hawks. Half the sport I get out of hunting is that of identifying the different birds that frequent the ponds and lakes where I happen to be hunting—shore birds they are known as, and are very interesting to watch. . ...
To show how senseless, economically, is the destruction of hawks and owls, let me call your attention to this incident: In 1885 the State of Pennsylvania passed a bounty act under which in a year and a half $90,000 were paid mainly for the destruction of hawks and owls, the bounty being 50 cents each. Dr. C. Hart Merriam, then Chief Ornithologist and Mammalogist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, estimated the value of the chickens killed annually in Pennsylvania by hawks and owls in a year and a half to be $1,875 and showed that the State of Pennsylvania had paid out $90,000 to save its farmers a loss of less than $2,000. His figures also showed that each hawk and owl was worth on the average $20 per year to the farmers of. the state as a destroyer of mice and insects. He therefore estimated that the pests left alive by the destruction of 128,571 hawks and owls had cost the people of the state in that year and a half $3,850,000 in addition to the $90,000 paid out in bounties. This in my opinion is a senseless economic policy.
,A few valuable hawks are the red-shouldered, redtailed, Swainson's, ferruginous rough-leg,". broad-winged and sparrow hawk. .
The three destructive hawks in Nebraska are the sharpshinned, Cooper's and goshawk.
The half dozen owls common to Nebraska are the longeared, short-eared, screech, burrowing, barn and greathorned—and only the great-horned owl is injurious to the farmer.
The point I desire to make is that altho the hawks and owls may kill an occasional chicken or game bird, yet the good the birds do in destroying pocket gophers, rats, mice, grasshoppers, etc., greatly overbalance the damage done —so economically they are beneficial to agriculture and should receive the protection of the law.
During the past spring eight and one-half million young buffalo fish were produced artificially in the Lower White River section of Arkansas through a co-operative hatchery established by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries and the Arkansas Game and Fkh Commission. Cleon Walker of the Federal Bureau was in charge of the hatchery. - The eggs from which these young fish were.produced came from adult stuff caught by commercial fishermen along the White River and its estuaries. Heretofore no attempt has been made to utilize buffalo fish eggs in this way toward maintaining a future supply and it is hoped by the departments sponsoring this movement that the work will become a fixture in the Arkansas program. Notwithstanding the fact that an unusually unfavorable season cut the production down about seventyfive per cent below original expectations, the showing will undoubtedly be of considerable value to the State's future supply of commercial fish.
The hatchery built by Walker and his associates was somewhat an innovation in the artificial production of buffalo fish in that the complete plant was constructed on a house boat. Water from White River was lifted, by an Evenrude motor, into two galvanized tanks stationed on top of the boat. From these two tanks the water flowed into the battery jars containing the eggs and from the jars back into the river. The reported percentage of hatch does not indicate any serious reaction from the rocking of the boat. This may be due to the fact that buffalo fish eggs are not subject to seasickness.
Transporting Fish Big Job
TRANSPORTATION has always, and probably always will be, one of the great problems of human endeavor. The transporting of fish is no exception to the rule.
Nebraska heretofore has used one fish car in the transporting of fish. In the old days when the Bureau was existing on small appropriations, this car was adequate. In fact, Nebraska was fortunate in the early days in having as good a car as was then available. Mr. W. J. O'Brien and others worked a good many years to get that much.
But today, with thousands of fish to be moved where few had to be moved before, the fish car cannot handle the job alone. It has become necessary to add more equipment.
After considerable study and investigation, the Bureau has come to the conclusion that trucks are the best means to transport fish in this day of good roads. The State of Missouri has come to this conclusion and is offering its fish car for sale.
However, the Nebraska Bureau has no intention of taking the railroad car out of service. It can be used primarily for long hauls much better than trucks. But by using a fleet of trucks to make deliveries from the car, thus releasing it for longer hauls, much more can be accomplished.
The Nebraska fish car is hauled practically free by the railroads. The state simply pays the fare of the men working on the car. For this reason it would be asking considerable of the railroads if another car were to be placed in service.
A large truck has already been put into use and has been found a splendid means of taking care of smaller shipments. With several more smaller trucks with special bodies, Nebraska will be well equipped to handle fish.
The transporting of fish is usually done in the spring and fall. It is difficult to handle fish during extreme cold weather and extreme warm weather. In the cold weather the pipes on the trucks and car freeze, thus causing damage.. In extreme hot weather the mortality rate on gam;; is great. The fish can be kept cool on the cars and trucks by means of icing, but the damage is done when they are transferred to water of a much higher temperature. It is bad for fish to suddenly change the temperature of the water, just as it is bad for persons where the air about them is suddenly changed.
Nebraska is now using her second fish car. In the old days, a wooden car known as "Angler" was used. This was disposed of about ten years ago and the present car especially built for the state. Mr. W. J. O'Brien, who has been in fish culture work in Nebraska for forty years, designed the present car. It was probably the best car in service at the time of .building and is still considered among the best in use in the several states.MASSACHUSETTS DEALS SUMMARILY WITH RABBITS HAVING TULAREMIA
The danger of introducing wild rabbits from other States in an effort to build up the depleted supply of game, rather than allowing the native stock to recruit its ranks by the help of proper conservation methods, is forcibly illustrated by recent developments in Massachusetts, where prompt action by the State department on conservation resulted in the detection of tularemia in a shipment of cottontails from the West and the total destruction of the animals. By this salutary action the introduction of this disease into New England was averted and a lesson emphasized that ■ -is of vital importance to all individuals and organizations in any way interested in our native fauna.
(Right) State Fish Car, "Waltonian."
(Center) New Fish Truck recently put in operation.
(Left) Interior View of Fish Car.
Investigations carried on by the United States Public Health Service and the Bureau of Biological Survey have demonstrated the fact that the bacterial disease "tularemia" is especially prevalent in wild rabbits. These animals, in common with some other species, serve as reservoirs from which the disease is transmitted to other animals and to man by the bite of certain flies and ticks, the latter also carrying the organism through the winter and transmitting it through their eggs to the following generation.
Tularemia was first detected in ground squirrels in Tulare County, Calif., in 1910, and in 1919, in Utah, was definitely established as the source of a disease of human beings that had been long known under various names, including deer-fly fever, arid which was frequently fatal. In the last few years more than 500 cases of tularemia in man, with about 20 fatalities, have come to the notice of physicians. The disease is often contracted by cutting up the bodies of sick rabbits. This metho'd of infection seems especially common in 'the.(Continued an Page 14.)
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAPublished by Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fish and Game. Miscellaneous Receipts Increase A considerable gain in miscellaneous receipts was made during the past year. The sum of $1- 114.17 was earned as follows: Editorial Office, State Capitol, Lincoln, Nebraska PRANK B. O'CONNELL_______ ._- .-.Editor DEPAETMENT OF AGRICULTURE Adam McMullen____________________________Governor H. J. McLaughlin__________________________Secretary- Frank B. O'Connell__________________________Warden Vol. Ill Lincoln, July 1928 No. 3
EDITORIALGAME AND FISH FINANCIAL REPORT OF 1927
THERE was a slight decrease in the number of permits sold during 1927, as compared with the previous' year. The total receipts for permits in 1927 was $174,009.47 while in 1926 they were $175,116.05.
The following table shows the receipts for the various permits during the past two years:Resident Hunt and Fish Kind of Permit 1926 1927 Resident Permit ______$150,220.00 $146,549.00 Non-Resident Hunt and Fish _______________ 5,391.00 4*558.00 Non-Resident Fish_____ 5,268.00 .4,380.00 Resident Trapping______ 11,266.00 14,644.00 Non-Resident Trapping _ 125.00 125.00 Game Bird Breeders____ 274.00 334.00 Animal Breeders_______ 106.00 254.00 Fish Dealers___________ 302.00 320.00 Fur Buyers___________ 501.00 791.00 Alien Fish_____________ 120.00 105.00 Missouri River Fishing. _ 1,079.80 835.30 Miscellaneous Receipts-- 678.15 1,114.17
It will be noted that while the fishing and hunting permits dropped off slightly, that big gains were made in trapping permits and fur buying permits sold. A great deal of interest was taken during the past yeaf in the fur business, due, no doubt, to the high prices paid for fur.
It should also be remembered that on July 1, 1927 the fee for non-resident hunting and fishing permits was increased from $10 each to $25 each. Possibly this had something to do with the decrease in number of these permits sold.Miscellaneous Receipts Increase
A considerable gain in miscellaneous receipts was made during the past year. The sum of $1114.17 was earned as follows:Permits for sale of wild animal meat _ _$ 5.00 Permits for Private Fish Hatcheries - _ - - 75.00 Sale of confiscated fur 822.20 Sale of confiscated equipment— 9.10 Sale of material _ _ 1.25 Sale of list of trappers _ _ 149.50 Sale of list of fur buyers 39.36 Hatchery invoices 6.00 Refund on overcharges 6.76 $1,114.17
During 192:7 the sum of $2,907.69 was collected from delinquent accounts of former years. On the other hand, $2,200.97 oi 1927 accounts was uncollected on May 3, 1928, at the time the State Auditor checked over the books. Most of this sum was tied up in failed state banks'.HUNTERS INCREASING
During the season 1926-27 more than 5,750,000 hunting licenses for the taking of wild game were issued to sportsmen throughout the United States, including Alaska, and the revenue to the States amounted to more than $7,800,000. Although data from four states are lacking, detailed figures for the season compiled by the Bureau of Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture show increases in numbers of licenses issued and fees received over the preceding three years. In the 1923-24 season, the licenses numbered 4,395,038 and the fees paid were $5,594,982. One year later, 4,904,740 hunters paid for their licenses' a total of $6,190,863, while in 1925-26 hunting licenses to the number of 5,168,353 were issued,. bringing a revenue of $6,872,812 to the States. During the season just past, New York State with 620,414 licenses and fees of $822,415 headed the list both in licens'es and money returns.
An Ohio man recently arrested in Nebraska for fishing wit-hout a permit wrote the Editor to remark "that Jesse James was a gentleman compared to his treatment in Nebraska." In replying he was reminded that the fine for the same offense in his own state was considerably higher.7 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA
It won't be long now until the old firing pieces will be taken down and polished up.
Recently a nice lot of big pike was seen at one of the dams on the Blue River.OUTDOOR ETHICS
This code of ethics was compiled by Seth E. Gordon, conservation director of the* Izaak Walton League of America and an outstanding authority on outdoor ethics and practice:
1. Your outdoor manners tell the world what you are when at home.
2. What belongs to the public isn't your own—play fair.
3. Respect the property of rural residents—ask before using it.
4. Save fences, close gates and bars, go around planted fields.
5. People, livestock, trees and birds were never meant to be target practice back-stops.
6. Respect the law— catch enough legal fish to eat, then quit.
7. Protect public health —keep springs and streams clean.
8. Clean up your camp and don't litter the highways with trash.
9. Finish what you start —carelessness with fires is cussedness.
10. Leave flowers and shrubs for others to enjoy. Do your share to keep out-door America beautiful.BURNING OF HAYLAND
To the Editor—I joined the League of American Sportsmen early in 1901, and since then I have done all I could to help save the Game.
About ten years ago I wrote to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington, D. C, and suggested that land-owners be prohibited from burning their haylands late in the season so as to prevent destruction of game and song birds' nests and eggs. The Chief of the Biological Survey replied, saying, "Farmers always burn their haylands early in the season, so as to have a longer growing season for the grass". Sometimes, owing to a long rainy season it is impossible to burn our haylands early.
I refrained from burning the hayland on our farm the past two years and burned it over early this year. Pheasants built their nests there and also a few prairie chickens. Last year I let about one-half acre wild sunflowers grow on a corner of my cornfield and last win;er several pheasants and a large flock of prairie chickens scratched the seeds up out of the snow and had plenty to eat.
Please call the attention of the Walton League to .the importance of saving bird nests from unnecessary destruction by fire.Herman Nelson, York, Nebr. SEASON FOR WOODCOCK CHANGED
Changes in the regulations under the migratory-bird treaty act, effective July 13, 1928, are announced by the Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture. The changes affect waterfowl locally in Massachusetts, doves in Georgia and Louisiana, and woodcock throughout the country.
The hew amendments establish the period October 1 to January 15 for hunting migratory waterfowl in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, south and east of the Cape Cod Canal, thus conforming with the open season in Dukes and Nantucket Counties. The open season on mourning doves in Georgia is made from October 16 to } January 31, conforming with the State season; and a split season on mourning doves is established i n Louisiana from September 1 to September 30 and from November 20 to January 31.
A general readjustment of the open seasons on woodcock has been made, with a reduction in the hunting period to one month. The periods during which woodcock may be hunted during the approaching open season are as follows:
In Maine, Vermont, and North Dakota from October 1 to October 31;
In New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut from October 20 to November 19;
In New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, "Wisconsin, and Iowa from October 15 to November 14;
In Maryland, the District of Columbia, and Missouri from November 10 to December 10;
In Delaware, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Arkansas, and-Oklahoma from November 15 to December 15; and
In North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana from December 1 to December 31.
Information obtained by the Biological Survey from inquiries and investigations indicate that taking its range as a whole the woodcock as a species is decreasing in numbers. The readjustments in the Federal seasons on this species have been so worked out that there is a minimum of conflict with State law on the woodcock and in most instances the seasons will open simultaneously with or later than the State seasons on quail and other upland species.
Everybody enjoys a good fish or hunting story.
OUTDOOR NEBRASKA would like to find out who can tell the best hunting story and the biggest fish story.
All Nebraska sportsmen are eligible to enter this contest. There are no strings attached to this contest. You need hare no regard for other, hunters or fishermen. You need have no regard for even the truth. We want good hunting and fishing stories, and, of course, good stories have little to do with the truth.
Who will be first? Come on, now, ye weavers of yarns. Let's see what you have!
Address all communications to the Editor.
DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIESOUR COVER THIS MONTH
Our Cover Picture this month shows a thirty-pound mud catfish taken at Tuxedo Park on the Blue River, near Crete. It was thirty-nine inches in length. It was caught by Ira Vorhies (State Boxing Commissioner). Joy Dobbs and Ralph Zabel, all of College View.BULLHEADS
This spring saw the beginning of the moving of bullheads from Sand-Hill lakes to eastern Nebraska. Mr. O'Brien has made an excellent beginning and in spite of the lack of transportation, has moved thousands of large bullheads to many points in eastern Nebraska. It is estimated, that twenty-five carloads have already been moved, and the work is still being carried on.
Owing to a large amount of fry that must be moved out of the hatcheries each spring and fall, it is impossible to use the fish car in handling.bullheads during the entire distribution season. Hundreds of orders from the hatcheries must be taken care of. Trucks are now being utilized and it is hoped that in the future more and more conservation work, such as moving bullheads,. perch and catfish, can be carried on.WORK ON FREMONT PARK
Construction work on the State Recreation Grounds at Fremont was resumed in June and another section of the park will be graded, leveled and planted.
Last year approximately one third of this park was graded down and planted to trees. This year it is expected to grade down another third and next year the project can probably be completed. Then ail that will need be done is to add some finishing touches and stock all the lakes. These grounds are becoming very popular with the public and when completed will undoubtedly be used by thousands of people each year.
Croppies taken by Cecil Bird and Fred Hauelt at Whitney Dam, near Crawford
A nine-pound pickerel take;-* from Swan lake this spring
Work on the new Rock Creek Hatchery is progressing nicely and nearing completion. Several of the larger ponds will contain twenty acres of water each and will be stocked with bass.
Mr. George Carter, Nebraska's first Game Warden and now an official of the Peters' Ammunition Co . was a visitor at Rock Creek recently. George expressed himself as believing this a splendid site and having great possibilities for fish culture.RED DEER SPILLWAY
A new spillway was installed at Red Deer Lake in Cherry County in May. This spillway is made of cement with adequate wings to protect the enbankment from flood and rats. This will enable the water to rise to its old level and make the lake safe for fish during the cold weather.DISTRIBUTE MANY FISH
The spring fish distribution has come to a close and will not be resumed until early fall when bass, croppies, and other pond fish will be distributed. The spring distribution consisted of catfish, bullheads, perch, sunfish, trout and bass fry.
Hundreds of ponds, lakes and streams were stocked this year. Both the fish car and trucks were moving OUTDOOR NEBRASKA; constantly in an effort to supply the many citizens and chapters of the Izaak Walton League and other sportsmens' organizations which are looking after particular ponds and lakes.NURSERIES INCREASE
The building of trout and bass nurseries continues and the time will soon be at hand when Nebraska will have a state-wide system of these nurseries.
Nearly twenty-five nurseries, exclusive of those in the state hatcheries, are now stocked and growing fish. Most of these are under the auspices of the local chapters of the Izaak Walton League.
New projects recently completed or in the course of construction are as follows:
A sunfish and croppies nursery at Deweese.
A large'bass nursery at Victoria Springs State l'ark in Custer County.
A trout nursery at Cowles, under the auspices of the Cowles Chapter of the League.
A large trout nursery consisting of three ponds at Lake Minitare i n Scottsbluff County.
A trout nursery a! Bayard under the auspices of the League.
Other projects being considered are located at Spencer, Creighton, O'Neill, and South Sioux City.State Fair Talks
The Bureau of Game and Fish will have its usual exhibit at the Nebraska State Fair, but a new feature this year will be several daily talks on the work of the Bureau and the fish and game of the state.
These talks will be given over the loud-speaker system which Secretary Jackson of the State Fair Board has installed as an educational feature of the 1928 fair.NEW GAME RESERVES
Through the cooperation of Mr. Frank Brady, State President of the Nebraska Izaak Walton League, a number of new game refuges have been established. Several more are in the process of closing and will soon be set aside. The latter are located at Valley and Spencer.
Those set.aside recently include the following:Reserve No Reserve No. Reserve No. 000 acres. Reserve No. - Reserve No. Reserve No. Reserve No. acres. Reserve No. 11, Knox County, 6000 acres. 12, Omaha Country Club, 480 acres. 13, Lee Ranch Reserve (Holt Co.), 10,- 14, Conners Park, Thayer Co., 320 acres. 15, Smith Lake, Rock Co., 980 acres. 16, near Emmet, Holt Co., 1,928 acres. 17, Harlan County, near Oxford, 4,640 18, Holt County, near Inman, 6,240 acres. DON'T TRY FISHING IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY
Do not expect to catch a satisfactory creel full of fish during the heated part of the day in the latter part of June or all of July, August or September.
Would you enjoy sitting down in the torrid sun to a big hot stuffy dinner in the middle of a July day? No Then why expect a fish to do it.
Get up early in the morning and fish in the shallows where the vegetable growths are the thickest, and fish again from early dusk to dark. Do your lying around and lying in the heat of the day and fish,early and then again late in the day.LOSS AT VALENTINE
On July 14 the Bureau of Game and Fish lost most of the ponds at the Valentine Hatchery. One of the worst floods in the history of northern Nebraska swept down through the canyon, sweeping everything before it.
It is estimated that around 800,000 bass fry were lost. A fine hatch of fish were doing well until the flood swept them into the river. Because o f their size and the severity of the flood, it is doubtful if any of the fry survived. Eighteen ponds and ten dams were destroyed.
Preparations a 1ready are in motion to rebuild this plant. Expert engineering advice is being sought and ponds will be consulted only where it is reasonably safe to place them. The spillway must b e greatly enlarged and deepened, as the volume of water pouring down the canyon was approximately four times as great as the capacity of the present spillway.
It is likely that different arrangements will be made for • water,, supply for the hatching house. The method of obtaining water from one of the canyon ponds as used before was highly unsatisfactory for the hatching of trout. It is planned to tap springs on the creek nearby and run them to the hatchery in a large pipe laid directly from the spring.
Every precaution was taken to make this hatchery safe from flood water, but there was no escape from a flood of the proportions of this one.BOY SCOUTS TO PLANT FORESTS
Indiana Boy Scouts are to start three 50-acre forests this year, at Jasonvilie, Clay City, and Linton, on strip coal mining fields of the Maumee Collieries Co., the Forest Service is informed. The company will provide trees and tools and give quarters to the scouts while they are doing the work. The first plantings will include 1,200 spruce, which it is planned to market as Christmas trees. Half the proceeds of Christmas-tree sales will go to the scouts.
Nursery pond of the Chadron Chapter of the Izaak Walton League
Many Coarse Fish Removed Each Year
THE NEBRASKA Bureau of Game and Fish removes thousands of pounds of carp, buffalo, suckers and quillbacks from Nebraska streams, lakes and ponds each year.
Two crews have been engaged in this work this summer. A great deal of time is devoted to small ponds where the fish obtained have small market value, if any. The larger lakes contain larger . fish.....in such number and to make the work self-sustaining.
Removal of coarse fish is carried on both in the winter and summer. In fact, the winter operations are the best, as the damage to game fish is very little and the coarse fish semred are much firmer and more salable.
Fishing under the ice is a job that requires experienced operators. The net is threaded under the ice for a half mile or so by means of a guide rope. This rope is left in the water, so, after the first haul, it is not difficult to make further hauls. One of the problems in seining under the ice is the removal of brush. A stick, with one end in the mud and the other frozen into the ice makes a barrier that causes many a fisherman to grow grey haired. Such obstacles must be located and cut out. Another feature of fishing under the ice is the nice job of handling the net as it is hauled out. This requires working in water. If the weather is around zero, this particular job is not as attractive as it might be. A piture of such work is a handy thing to have around the office to show to persons looking for soft jobs.
The carp is the leader in coarse fish removed from Nebraska waters. In some lakes and ponds more buffalo is found than carp, but such places are the exception. The buffalo is a native fish and is fast disappearing. A large number of quillback are removed annually. Also many gar are taken from our waters. Neither of the latter have any value except for hogfeed.
The Nebraska waters were cleaned of gar in good shape until last year. Owing to a heavy migration up the Missouri River, many overflows along that stream again became infested with these pests. Four wagon loads of them were taken from a small slough near Auburn. It is believed the Mississippi flood had something to do with the movement of gar.
Carp removed are graded and sold on local markets where the demand is sufficient, otherwise they are shipped to eastern cities. Icing and freight charges enter into the latter and frequently a carload .of carp sells on the New York or Chicago market at a figure less than freight and icing charges.
Suckers and quill-backs have no value except for hog feed because of their soft flesh and extremely bony bodies. In a instances they are pickled and used but this is rare.
(Upper) State Seining Crew rescuing bullheads from Center-Foley Lake near Whitman. Several hundred thousand bullheads were taken from this lake which is being drained.
(Center) Sorting coarse fish taken from a Cherry County lake. The fgw larger carp are usually saleable, depending* upon season and condition of fish.
(Lower) Seining through the ice at Maywood Lake. The net is are P^f1 and used, threaded beneath the ice and hauled in through the hole shown in the picture.
Uncle Sam Must Go Elsewhere for Fur
ALTHOUGH by far the largest producer of raw furs in the world, the United States has to draw on about 70 foreign countries for the skins necessary for the requirements of its fur manufacturing industry.
The enormous expansion of fur manufacturing during recent years has caused furs to beome one of our principal imports, ranking sixth among the import commodities as indicated in Table 1. Practically all of these imports are of raw furs, or semi-manufactured goods such as dressed furs or plates and mats of dog and goat skins. Out of a total of $135,573,530 for furs and manufactures imported during 1927, $123,630,130 represented the valuation of raw skins; $3,351,565 was paid for dressed furs; $5,878,271 for plates and mats of dog and goat skins; $441,939 for fur cut for hatters' use, and the remaining $2,271,625 for all other manufactures.
(Upper) The imports of the United goods ranks sixth and hides and skins ninth.
(Lower) The exports of the United States last year. It will be noted here that fur goods comes last, which no exportation of raw skins and hides.
The rapidly changing fashions in furs has made it exceedingly difficult to show the most important skins being imported, and there has been considerable speculation in the trade as to what furs are included, in important volume, in the classification "All Other Furs, undressed." In the 1927 statistics this class amounted to $52,000,000, and at the instigation of the National Association of the Fur Industry, a study was made by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, with a view to elaborating the statistics and eliminating this uncertainty. The figures for the present year show 92 per cent of the furs listed separately in number and value.
Although the World War gave the American industry its great impetus, there had been a steady development in fur manufacturing as evidenced by the importation of furs from abroad. During the decade from 1871 to 1880 imports averaged $4,192,000 per year, and in the follow of the nineteenth century the figure was $9,466,000, in of the nineteenth century the figure was $9,466,000, increasing to $18,236,000 from 1901 to 1910.Export of Furs
The chief undressed furs exported from thr-. United States, in the order of their importance in 1927 are opossum, skunu and civet cat, muskrat, and fox, the valuations being $6,564,243, for the opossums, $5,764, 521 for skunks, $2,892,273 for muskrats, and $1,988,619 for foxes. Practically all undressed skins are shipped to four countries, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany and France. The total exports of furs and manufactures in 1927 amounted to $30,893,985.WHAT THE OUTDOORS IS WORTH TO A STATE
We quote this extract from an article by Henry L. Betten in the "National Motorist" —Game, Fish Conservation urged.
"Other common-wealths recognized that value long before we did and some have advanced far along the road of reconstruction. For instance, carefully conducted surveys show that tourists drawn by the fish and game resources and scenic attractions of Minnesota expend $65,000,000 in pursuit of recreation annually. Colorado has receipts of over $60,000,000 through the same source,(Continued on Page 14.)
Conservation and the Boy ScoutsBy George W. Roskie Scout Executive, Sioux Area Council, Boy Scouts Of America, Brookings, S. D.
In talking to a group of Waltonians in South Dakota's chief city the other day, relative to the intimate connection existing between that organization and the Boy Scouts in the matter of conservation, attention was called to the fact that there is an undoubted interdependence existing between the two in the matter of their growth and permanency.
The Boy Scout movement is essentially an outdoor movement, requiring for the operation of its program, woods, waters, and wild life, the defense and continuance of which is the great concern and endeavor of the Izaak Walton league.
These things the league earnestly strives for and sincerely hopes to hand down to the boys of the coming generation as their rightful heritage, of which they are in grave danger of being robbed.
The principles governing the league are among the highest enunciated by any group of men today; they embody a high sense of service and lofty ideals to be translated into being in a practical and effective way. These things the Boy Scouts, in common with other boys, will receive from the league in measure as that body conceives and puts into practice broadly and' effectively high and courageous governing principles.'
High ideals and principles meet response in the hearts of all of us, but not one in a thousand of us has the ability, the vision and the courage that enables us to make the contribution to the cause of conservation made by George H. Selover, whose passing we mourn, but whatever we can do within our limitations we do gladly.
We want the boys of the next generation to have what we as boys had, and have all but lost,—a high, unselfish sense of service,—things these boys must have if they are to know the causes of our being as a nation, and are to build for themselves the clean, strong bodies, and minds, and the unyielding moral fibre to stand for the right they will sadly need to carry them - through what promises to be, in many ways, one of the most difficult periods of our entire national life.
These things "we want to give to them, and from them we in' return must draw help and support essential to the maintenance of the principles of the league and of its physical existence.
We need their ideals, their enthusiasm, their wide-eyed vision and faith, as well as their physical support. Where else are we to look for recruits for the league and for the other conservation programs, but to the Boy Scouts?-
There are very few, I almost said ho, out-door organizations for boys outside of the Scouts; certainly none earnestly and effectively teaching conservation and a love of the outdoors in the great laboratory-of Nature, except the Scouts. And there are mighty few boys outside of scouting who learn a love for the woods and waters and wild life ardent enough to influence their lives, or to impel them to earnestly strive for the conservation of the things of Nature.
The league, and all conservation organizations, as now constituted, are made up of men and women who knew and loved the outdoors when they were young, others are not and cannot be interested. Your outdoor organization is made up of outdoor men, who have grown up from outdoor boys. Boy Scouts are outdoor boys growing into outdoor men, they will be in the forefront of the battle for conservation in the next generation, we may not expect any others to, we must reproduce our kind if we expect the matter to go forward.
This most intimate connection, this undoubted interdependence of the two movements must be perfectly obvious to even a casual thinker.
Conservation movements should recognize that at hand is an organization already set up and in effective operation, ably and willingly putting into practice the very principles for which they strive. Known in every hamlet and city in the country, they are not only making effective the principles of conservation, but they are teaching them by precept and example to countless other keen and receptive-minded boys with all the enthusiasm and vigor of youth.
Conservation organization will therefore find m the Boy Scouts of America the greatest single agency for assistance in the realization of their great aims, and should by no means overlook the development of this field, the moct fertile and sure of returns of any in the country.
Realizing this the Izaak Walton league is already in many places sponsoring troops of Boy Scouts, and in many other places and ways giving them the support to which they are entitled as "the greatest movement for character building in boys ever ...launched, and as sincere, ardent, and effective conservationists.
WARDEN MAY USE NEEDED FORCE
The Indiana state Supreme Court has recently rendered a decision upholding a game warden in the use of necessary force in htalcih'g *Naii "arrest. Warden James Durham was fined $700 in the circuit court for wounding a fish netter who beat him over the head with an oar and tried to escape when the warden attempted to place him under arrest. The judge of the lower court charged the jury that the warden has no right to use such force in making an arrest as would imperil the life of the offender.
The Supreme Court reverses the lower court and says:
"Many acts which are not inherently wrong and involve no moral turpitude, have been made unlawful by statutes enacted' in the interest of the welfare of the public or state, or for the conservation of its natural resources. The law against seining fish is such a law and respect for our government and its authority reQuires that a citizen obey the law. It is a narrow attitude and one that is dangerous to our country for those who may feel that their personal rights and liber-(Continued on Page 14.)
Nebraska VacationBy Mary H. Axtell
A WEEK or two ago I was much interested in a Sunday supplement of The World-Herald headed "The Call of the Open." The call was both timely and impressive. It was more—it was almost exciting—for vacation days are upon us. But there was no mention made of Nebraska. It was almost as if the idea of vacation could not be associated with Nebraska. A year ago the absence of Nebraska's name in a general call to the open would have registered zero with me, for at that time a "vacation" in Nebraska would have seemed rather a simple sort of a joke, but last summer I never set my foot off of Nebraska soil, and I had the most genuine vacation I ever had.
It did not turn out to be an endurance test in quest of pleasure, that so many vacations do when one falls with the modern inclination to follow the crowd.
One thing that made the vacation start well, even though it was born of necessity to some extent, was that we were not worn out studying folders and avertisements of resorts and routes and rates to begin with. With the help of Dr. Condra of the state university, who "knows" Nebraska but does not "sell" it, and another friend, we got a scent, one might say, and followed it up into northwestern Nebraska. And we spent two months at Crawford or on Pine Ridge between Crawford and Chadron. Here is a community that so far as I know has never made a bid for tourists. It doesn't advertise health, pleasure or scenery. Nothing much has been said of its historic spots or of its fossil fields. But here we found health in climate, air and foods that could not be surpassed. We reveled in scenery among historic buttes where Indian tribes roamed and wrought their colorful history. We visited with scientists who pitched their tents and sought and found rare specimens of animals long extinct. There was peace and rest in the breath of whispering pines upon the one side of us, and the broad fields of alfalfa on the table on the other side. The lofty pines—and baby pines by the thousand—filled deep pungent canyons and mounted slopes of near mountains, and the tinkle of the cowbells as the herds came in from these canyons in the evening all made one's nerves fairly purr with content.
I have spent vacations at springs, in the mountains of the west, in the Ozarks and the ocean, but I have never seen sunsets to excell the sunsets of Pine Ridge in Nebraska.
And then, not once were we importuned to buy anything from a hot dog to a "cheap lot" in the "coming city" of the world. Not once did I witness a rival contest; not once did a newsboy yelp into my ear the high spots of the latest crime. Not once did an agent try to sell me something I did not want; not once was I yanked from the table or my bed by a rasping noise, only to find it was "the wrong number." Not once, though I was in quest of health, did I see a doctor's office or sit there indefinitely waiting to hear the impersonal greeting, "You're next." Not once did I hear a fire whistle, or the siren scream that heralds the coming of overwrought boosters.
Moreover, no faucet began and then persisted in a drip, drip, drip that threatened to continue until reason was dethroned. Can there be any doubt now as to the "vacation" ?
But there is still more to be said. I drank spring or deep well water, ate fresh eggs, no "seconds," and butter that reminded me of my youth. I drank clean, sweet milk, unpasteurized, and barefoot Nebraska children, as sweet and pretty as God makes, brought me wild berries from the canyons and flowers in many varieties. And, withal, I had time to think a few thoughts as clean as the air I breathed. (Cleanliness was catching.)
Then the people—vacations must in many ways be related to people—and these people (almost all) sprang from a sturdy stock of pioneers, such as one reads about, whose kindness and honesty comes natural and unafraid. Theirs was the friendliness "out where the west begins" that bears no taint of salesmanship. Here "I was a stranger and ye took me in" is brought to the sojourner's mind in the fullness of its original meaning, not with the modern interpretation that so many tourists feel justified in making. Here farming is a profession, not simply a job. Here civic dignitaries come to admire, not to give advice.
I found children who minded their parents as a matter of course. They minded quietly and cheerfully as a rule, but in any case they minded and very much as if they expected this to be the natural thing to do. Dozens of healthy, delightful children!
I found it a community where permanent waves were not greatly in evidence, but permanent marriages were obviously the fashion. A wholesome, happy, prosperous, quiet and beautiful country! A veritable "God's country!" And take notice: It is in Nebraska.
NEW LEAFLET TELLS HOW TO RAISE MINKS IN CAPTIVITY
Comparatively few persons are raising minks in captivity, even though the fur has sold for high prices during the past ten years, according to Frank G. Ashbrook, biologist of the Biological Survey, in a leaflet on "Mink Raising," just issued by the United States Department of Agriculture. A keen interest has been manifested in mink farming,' he says, since the beginning of the present century, but it has been spasmodic rather than sustained. Mink farming is not altogether in the experimental stage, however, for minks have been raised successfully in captivity, and the quality of fur produced on farms is in no way inferior to that trapped in the wild.
Minks are very prolific, and when fed and handled nroperly they breed and produce young regularly, theif litters numbering usually six, seven or eight. Young minks born in captivity are much superior for breeding stock, and consequently the prices asked for ranchraised minks are often higher than prospective mink farmers care to pay. Those who have made money in mink raising thus far have sold the animals chiefly for breeding purposes. Further experiments will be required before it can be determined whether raising these animals in captivity as fur producers can be made profitable.
The new leaflet No. 8-L describes minks and their habits and gives information on selecting a ranch site, making pens and dens, breeding, mating, feeding, and killing and pelting. Copies may be had free upon request addressed to the United States Department of Agriculture,' Washington,' D." C.
"HORRIBLE EXAMPLE" HELD CARP'S GREATEST VALUE(Continued from Page 3.)
other barriers on their way to the places of their birth to deposit their eggs and thus perpetuate their race. Worse still we are pouring an ever increasing flood of domestic sewage and trade wastes into our streams, making open sewers of many of them. And then we indulge in lengthy arguments as to why the fish are disappearing.
"Any program of fish husbandry must take into account differences in the habits of the fishes, their habitat and adaptability to domestication. We may therefore divide our fishes roughly into three groups. In the first group we will place those species which may be reared as a farmer rears stock or poultry. Here belong such groups as the trouts, basses, sunfishes and the lowly carp. Through aquicultural practices, we may thus augment the wild stock, placing the harvest on the market in competition with the natural crop or through planting make a direct contribution to the wild stock in our waterways. . Thus we provide better angling or better commercial fishing or both.
"In the second group we may place those species, over which man can exercise a measure of control of the supply chiefly by indirect means such as regulating the intensity of fishing effort. As the supply will, be regulated by restraining measures we may term this the "Thou Shall Not" group. This group will include the commercial species taken in the Great Lakes such as whitefish, ciscoes, and pike perches; the anadfomous fishes such as salmons, shad, alewives, striped bass and sturgeon; a restricted group of salt water species such as the squeteagues, flounders, halibut and possibly the important groundfish—cod and haddock.
"In the third group, we may include those species over which man can exercise little or no control—the supply of which is little or not at all affected (unless indirect by man's operations. Here belong the mackerels, tunas, bluefish, some of the sea herrings and possibly a few other pelagic species. This airplane view of the whole field a la Lindbergh, may aid us in seeking a rational solution to these complex problems of fish husbanding.
WARDEN MAY USE NEEDED FORCE(Continued from Page 12.)
ties have been wrongfully curtailed by legislation to seek to nullify, the law by violation thereof and by defying constituted legal authority when placed under arrest.
The Supreme Court makes it clear that a duly authorized game warden is backed by law in making an arrest for alleged violations of the fish and game laws and may employ such force as is necessary to perfect the arrest.
IMPORTED WILD BIRDS NOT EARLY ESTABLISHED HERE
Importations of foreign birds for the stocking of game coverts, or in the hope of adding to the variety of bird music in the woods, or for warfare on insect pests, have led to strange and unexpected results. Probably few persons anticipated that the English sparrow would thrive and multiply and spread itself over the whole continent as it has since the first scattering importations were made on the Atlantic coast in the early 1850's. On the other hand, bird lovers, sportsmen, and State game authorities have spent thousands of dollars in1 efforts to acclimatize and establish desirable varieties of game birds. Reckoned by number, a large proportion of the attempts have failed. Sometimes the birds have simply disappeared and were never seen again, leaving the importers wondering whether they may have migrated or fallen prey to disease or animals in the new environment. At times sportsmen have grown crops on game preserves with the expectation of allowing the birds to harvest the crops and enjoy a favorable chance for colonization. In other instances, birds have seemed to settle down and nest and reproduce satisfactorily for a year or more, only to vanish a few years later, apparently gaining stamina and reproductive power for a few years only to lose it later. The English sparrow increased in numbers and in range for perhaps 30 to 40 years when it reached a peak of abundance and was considered a serious pest. In recent years, these birds have declined greatly in numbers both in cities and in rural districts, and nature seems to be setting a balance in regard to them.
PATHFINDER BIRD REFUGE RE-ESTABLISHED IN WYOMING
By recent Executive order, President Coolidge has re-established for the protection of native birds the Pathfinder Bird Refuge, embracing 22,700 acres on the North Platte River in central Wyoming. The area is set aside for the use of the Department of Agriculture as one of the numerous refuges administered by the Bureau of Biological Survey.
MASSACHUSETTS DEALS SUMMARILY WITH RABBITS HAVING TULAREMIA(Continued from Page 5.) Eastern States.
It is obvious that the introduction of wild rabbits and other species of game from one part of the country to another may be at any time productive of consequences of the utmost gravity. Not only is there danger to the species directly concerned, but other valuable game and fur-bearing animals and game birds, and even man himself, may suffer serious illness or death, on a wholesale scale, as a result of a single introduction which in itself may be unimportant from any standpoint.
WHAT THE OUTDOORS IS WORTH TO A STATE(Continued from Page 11.)
Michigan $'40,000,000, Wisconsin $27,500,000, South Dakota $22,000,000 Florida, $70,000,000.
California's unexampled potentialities could be developed to an extent where business to the value of $150,000,000 might accrue from recreational sources. That, fellow citizens, is BIG BUSINESS, the kind that can be made to yield larger dividends than any industrials developed in the land,"
AS CHIGGERS GROW OLDER THEY MEND THEIR WAYS
When-chiggers grow older they reform, mend their ways, and cease to be the seasonal source of annoyance and inconvenience to many victims which was characteristic of their flaming youth.
A chigger, says F. C. Bishopp, entomologist of the Bureau of Entomology, in charge of work on insects affecting man and animals, is the first, or larval, stage of a large red, velvety mite which is entirely harmless when mature. Contrary to popular impression, chiggers do not burrow into the skin and require extraction for relief. The chigger, minute in size though it is, is capable of injecting a considerable quantity of poisonous material into its host, and it is this poison that causes all the discomfort, the persistent itching that follows chigger bites.
Destroying the chiggers does not seem possible on areas covered with woods and undergrowth, says the bureau, but preliminary studies by the bureau indicate they can be checked in the vicinity of homes and camps by clearing awav the underbrush, vines, and weeds from such areas, keeping the grass cut close, and by following these measures with applications of flowers of sulphur or very fine dusting sulphur. It appears, the bureau says, that from 5 to 10 pounds of sulphur scattered over an ordinary city lot will give a high degree of control, sometimes from a single treatment, but it is usually best to repeat the application two or three times at intervals of one to two weeks. This is especially necessary when the applications are followed by rain.
Humans are by no means the only victims of the chigger. Chiggers normally feed upon small wild animals, including snakes and lizards, and they may attack birds. They are a pest of considerable importance to poultry, and are especially troublesome on late-hatched chicks and turkeys. Heavily infested chicks soon become droopy and drowsy, later may show symptoms of paralysis, and quite frequently die from the attack within a few days. Early hatching usually prevents losses of poultry. .Late hatches should be kept out of high grass and brush when chiggers are prevalent. The use of sulphur as described gives some protection, but usually if the chicks are brooded by a hen and allowed free range they will become infested. On chickens the chiggers are inclined to attach in dense masses on the parts of the body less covered by down or feathers, and a light dusting with sulphur will give some relief.
No method has been found for giving an entirely satisfactory protection to people. When going into places where chiggers abound, says the bureau, it is well to wear high-top shoes over the trousers or leather leggings. Dusting the body and underwear with flowers of sulphur will give a high degree of protection from attack.
NO GROUSE SHOOTING IN NEW YORK STATE UNTIL OCTOBER, 1929
"There was filed today at the county clerk's office an order from the State Conservation Department granting additional protection to grouse or partridge, by closing the season on that species through the entire state until October 1929.
The order, it was explained, followed a petition filed by the Izaak Walton League and hearings held thereon. The law specifies that ,the order shall take effect immediately after being on file with the county clerk for 30 days.
Special attention of sportsmen was asked for the order It will mean that the birds mentioned must not be shot in the Empire State this year.
Applications from several sections of the state were made to the Commission for a closed season in certain localities and the Commission thru its game protectors and other competent observers, has been studying the situation for over a year.
The order, it was explained, followed a petition filed by the Isaak Walton League and heaing hled thereon. The law specifies that the order shall take effect immedialtely after being on the file with the county clerk for 30 days.
Specila attention of sportsmen was asked for the oder. It will mean that the birds mentioned must not be shot in the Empire State this year.
Applications from several sections of th estate were made to the Comiision for a closed season in certain localities and the Commmision thru its game protectors and other competent observers, has been studying the situation for over a year.
THE ANCIENT ORDER OF HUMAN HOGSQualifications for membership in this order.
FISH—Don't put back the little one, and don't observe the law that says your daily catch of Trout shall not exceed ten pounds in weight, or thirty fish in number.
GAME—Violate the Laws, kill Ducks in the spring on a hunter's license. Shoot Partridges during the closed season. Don't buy a hunter's license. Shoot without seeing the head.
BIRDS—Destroy song birds, their nests and eggs. Be a hooligan hunter.
FARMS—Trample down crops. Steal fruit and vegetables. Destroy all fences. Help yourself to fire wood. Break off the branches of flowering trees, don't use a knife.
WOODS—Be careless of your smokes and camp fires. Pull up wild flowers by the roots. Misuse camps and boats.
SCIENTIFIC HELP ACCEPTED
At a recent meeting of the Montana State Fish and Game commission $4,000 was appropriated toward a biological station to be erected on the shores of Flathead lake in connection with the state university plant. Research work will be started this summer under the supervision of Dr. Norton J. Elrod, professor of biology and director of the biological stations of the university.
The always .troublesome question of the destruction of trout in irrigation ditches arose on complaint of the Deer Lodge Anglers' club that many fish are being destroyed in ditches running out of lakes and requesting the installation of screens. Unfortunately no effective screen has ever been devised for this purpose, but it was announced that an appropriation had recently been made by congress of $50,000 for experiments in fish screens on irrigation ditches, the work to be conducted by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries and the results to be made available for state departments.
The establishment of additional game refuges and spawning stations was considered, as well as numerous matters relating to additional protection for willow grouse, land-locked salmon and other species. Thomas N. Marlowe was unanimously re-elected chairman of the commission.—Bulletin of the American Game Protective association..
SOUTHWESTERN CONSERVATIONISTS ORGANIZE
Conservationists of Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Louisiana, New Mexico and Kansas formed the Southwestern Game, Fish and Conservation Association at a meeting held at Spavinaw Lake in northeastern Oklahoma on June 4. Arkansas will be included in the organization to represent seven of the southwestern states whose problems are very similar. The purposes of the organization are: Uniformity in fish, game and conservation laws; establishment of an experimental institute, bulk buying of game, exchange of brood stock, annual meeting for discussion of problems and achievement relating to conservation.
The next meeting of the association will be held at San Antonio, Texas, the latter part of October, at which time a constitution and by-laws will be adopted. The committee on uniform fish and game laws will report and ' a committee on "pollution will make recommendations.
It is agreed that each state will conduct one or more experiments in fish and game matters and furnish to each of the states a complete report of such experiments.
In this way each state represented in the organization will be benefited by what the other states are doing. For instance, experiments being conducted by one of the states on the culture of fish food such as daphne, black fly larvae and mill worms will be reported to the association so that other states may profit by it.
Attending the meeting were: M. H. Shepherd, Oklahoma Fish and Game Commission; Ray 0. Weems, state fish and game warden of Oklahoma; O. B. Slack, fish and game commissioner of Oklahoma. Wm. J. Tucker, fish, game and oyster commissioner of Texas; J. R. Smith, attorney and pollution director for Texas; Col. Carl Hunt chief of hatcheries, Missouri; F. H. DeCou, chief of field forces of the Missouri game warden service; E. F. Perry, fish and game commissioner, New Mexico; G. R. Atherton, forestry, fish and game commissioner of Kansas; V. K. Irion, conservation director, Louisiana; J. N. McConnell, Louisiana conservation department; R. P. Russell, secretary, Louisiana commission; J. B. Doze, fish and game warden of Kansas; and a number of the game and fish rangers of Oklahoma.
The association went on record as being organized for educational and advancement work and will refrain from entering into any controversial matters which will destroy harmony in the association.
"Our aim will be for advancement and the exchange of knowledge gained from experiments and experience, rather than the exploitation of theories . and personal ambition," said the new president, "and we invite the co-operation of all agencies working in conservation. Our meetings will be open to anyone interested in conservation, but the voting power which will determine our policy will be confined to one vote for each member. Other states with similar problems to ours may join us upon receiving a favorable vote."
CHINCHILLA RABBITS MUST BE BRED FOR BOTH FOOD AND FUR TO BE MOST PROFITABLE
While the Chinchilla rabbit is a valuable addition to the domestic breeds of rabbits and offers unusual possibilities to persons who will develop its good qualities, it is important that breeders pay special attention to commercial rather than fancy qualities, according to the Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture. The future of the breed and its ultimate popularity depend solely on its economic value as a food and fur producer.
Chinchillas are a comparatively new breed, especially in the United States, and many inquiries are received by the department for an accurate description of the breed and for information concerning the food and fur value. Leaflet 22-L, "Chinchilla Rabbits for Food and Fur," prepared by D. Monroe Green, of the Biological Survey, has just been published by the department to furnish the information so often requested.
The color of the pelt of the Chinchilla rabbit is especially attractive and this is responsible in large measure for the widespread popularity of the breed. The markings are unique and difficult to imitate successfully. so that they made the fur attractive for garments and trimmings and for other uses of the fur trade.
"The Chinchilla, perhaps more than any other breed of rabbit," according to Mr. Green, "has been widely heralded as a 'fur rabbit' and many exaggerated and misleading statements have been made regarding the value of its fur and the large profits to be derived from the sale of the pelts. This has had a tendency to create a false impression and has led many to invest large sums in breeding stock, with the expectation of a rich reward, only to learn from hard experience that the claims made were exaggerated.
"As with all domestic rabbits, Chinchillas must be bred for both food and fur to combine the returns from the two commodities and thus derive the maximum profit on the labor and capital invested."
The principal need of the Chinchilla breed, says Mr. Green, is the development of larger individuals. Greater size of frame must be developed if the required weight of flesh is to be added, and the size and color of the pelt must be improved if its value as fur is to be increased. Progressive breeders realize this, he says, and are making earnest efforts to develop larger animals. Already some bucks and does of fine color have been produced weighing 9 or 10 pounds, illustrating what can be done by careful breeding and feeding.
A copy of the leaflet may be obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Nebraska Game and Fish Laws 1927-1928OPEN SEASON
Black Bass: (Not less than nine inches in length) : Season open from January 1 to May 1 and from June 10 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Bass, Rock, White, Striped: Not less than six inches in length): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Catfish: (Not less than 11 inches length) : Open season January 1 ber 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Croppies: (Not less than six length) : Open season January 1 Bag 15, possession 25. (Not less than six Open season January 1 Bag 25, possession 25.
Sunfish: (Bluegills, Pumpkinseed, etc.) (All lengths) : Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Trout: (Not less than eight inches in length) : Open season April 1 to October 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Pickerel: (Not less than twelve inches in length) : Open season May 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Bullheads: (Not less than five inches): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 25, possession 25.
Pike: (Not less than 12 inches in length): Open season April 1 to F 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Frogs: Bull frogs protected, all sizes, during all season. Grass frogs may be used for bait.
Minnows: Minnows may be used for bait. Take same only with minnow seines not more than 20 feet in length nor more than 4 feet in depth. Minnow seines and traps MUST have one-fourth (1-4) inch mesh.
Carp, Buffalo, Suckers, Gar (all lengths): Open season January 1 to December 31. May be taken with spears during months of March to November, inclusive. These fish under Nebraska law classified as coarse fish and not game fish.
Prairie Chicken, Grouse: Open season October 1 to November 1, inclusive. Bag 5, possession 5.
Waterfowl (Ducks, Geese, Coots, Brants): Open season September 16 to December 31. Bag, 20 Ducks, 5 Geese, 20 Coots, 5 Brants. Possession: 40 Duaks, 5 Geese, 40 Coots, 5 Brants. Waterfowl are also protected by federal laws.
Pheasants: No general open season. From time to time short season may be opened by order Department of Agriculture.
Squirrels: Open season from September 16 to December 31. Bag 10, possession 20.
Raccoons, Muskrats, Opossums, Foxes and Otters: Open season on raccoons and opossums November 1 to February 15. Open season on muskrats, foxes and otters, November 16 to March 1.NO OPEN SEASON
Elk, Deer, Antelope, Mountain Sheep, Beaver, Minnows (except for bait), Bull Frogs, Wood Duck, Doves, Quail, Swans, Imported Game Birds, Song and Insectivorous Birds, except Sparrows, Crows, Bluejays and HawksBAG LIMITS
IN ONE DAY—5 prairie chickens, 20 ducks, 5 geese, 15 rails, 25 snipe, 20 coots, 15 game fish, except bullheads and perch which are 25.
AT ANY ONE TIME—5 prairie chickens, 40 ducks, 5 geese, 25 rails, 25 snipe, 40 coots, 25 game fish.PERMIT FEES
Permit required for all persons over 16 years of age for hunting or fishing. Permit required for ALL persons trapping regardless of age.
Permits necessary for women same as men.
Permits must be carried on person.
Resident—To Hunt and Fish $1.10. To Trap $2.10.
Citizens of the United States but not a resident of Nebraska---To Hunt and Fish $25.10. To Trap $25.10. To Fish $2.10.
Aliens—To Fish $5.10. To Trap $25.10. (No alien hunting permits issued because illegal for alien to carry firearms in Nebraska.)SPECIAL PERMITS
To breed and raise game birds, $1.00.
To breed and raise game or fur-bearing animals, $2.00.
To buy furs, resident $1.00, non-resident $10.00.
Private fish hatchery, $25.00.
To sell coarse fish taken in Nebraska with hook and line, $2.00.GENERAL LAWS
Unlawful to use artificial light, or spot light in hunting protected game birds and animals.
Unlawful to hunt on private land without owner's consent.
Unlawful to shoot game from automobiles.
Unlawful to put game in storage without tags issued by Bureau of Game and Fish.
Unlawful to ke?p game in storage more than 10 days following close of season.
Unlawful to ship game by auto, train, private car or express without tagged with tags issued by Bureau of Game and Fish.
Unlawful to use nets, seines or traps to take fish.
Unlawful to have seines, nets and traps in possession.
SUPPOSE NOBODY CARED!
What would happen to Nebraska's game and fish if the interest of hunters and fishermen centered solely in taking for themselves all they could get away with? What would have happened long ago if the forward looking people of Nebraska had not concerned themselves in conserving the resources of the state that afforded them their privilege?
What would have happened if everybody had used illegal devices, exceeded bag limits and disregarded the state laws giving protection to our birds and fish ?The Answer is Obvious
It is because somebody cared that Nebraska still has a generous supply of game and fish. It is because somebody was willing to devote their time and energy to building up our resources and bringing in new stock that we have a worth while Out-Of-Doors today. And if the present supply is to be maintained and expanded in the future and our sports with rod and gun perpetuated, it will be only because somebody continues to care.
Whose business is it? The sportsman and forward looking citizen, of course. But the responsibility is not his alone. Our wild life resources belong to all our people in common and their preservation is a problem that merits the consideration of every good citizen.Your Help is Needed
The effectiveness of that help will be measured largely by how well you are informed as to the activities of the Game & Fish Bureau and the conservation movement generally. It will be governed also by your willingness to cooperate with the state by studying the game laws and helping to enforce them by living up to them yourself and reporting violations of others.Help Save Nebraska's Wild Life