OUTDOOR NEBRASKAOfficial Bulletin Nebraska Bureau Game and Fish Vol. Ill JANUARY, 1928 No. 1
Are you always careful with firearms while hunting?
During 1927 there were a number of fatal hunting accidents in Nebraska. Some of those killed were boys—in several instances boys under sixteen years old-
The immediate cause of most of the accidents resulted directly from negligence and not from faulty ammunition or defective firearms. Guns were leaned carelessly against trees, dragged aimlessly through or over fences and brush, promiscuously placed in boats and cars. Safeties were left off on loaded guns, muzzles of loaded guns were pointed at self or companions.
It is exceedingly dangerous for a group of boys to hunt together. Lacking judgment and experience in the handling of firearms, accidents are likely to occur. It is far better and safer for the parent or some adult to accompany the boy who goes hunting.
One cannot be too careful in the handling of firearms. Do your part to cut down on hunting accidents' in Nebraska.
One of the Snake River falls few Nebraska people have seen. This falls and rapids is located on the upper Snake River and is not the falls known as "Snake River Falls." This scene is difficult to reach as, at present, no roads or trails lead to it
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAOfficial Bulletin Nebraska Bureau Game and Fish Vol. Ill JANUARY, 1928 No. 1
The Outlook for 1928
GAME conditions in Nebraska, looking at them in a general way, are encouraging.
The work carried on during the past several years is beginning to show results. The pheasant situation is good, the waterfowl are apparently holding their own insofar as Nebraska is concerned., and the fish production has been materially increased. Better laws have been passed by the Legislature and the attitude of the general public toward conservation is much better than it was a few years ago.Hatcheries Being Enlarged
During the coming year the production of fish will be given considerable attention. The policy of the Department is to distribute less fry and more fingerling. This necessitates more rearing ponds and nurseries at the several hatcheries. The plant at Rock Creek will be greatly enlarged during the coming year. With 100 acres more of sites for trout and bass ponds, it will be possible not only to greatly increase the annual production at this place, but it will be possible to hold the small fish and distribute more fingerling. This hatchery is well adapted to both bass and trout culture, and the next several years should see a marked increase in fish production.
The plant at Valentine, under new management, is not only increasing its pond facilities, but is getting a new water supply for hatchins: peeds and the necessary eouipment to carry on extensive cultural and experimental work. Spillways and ponds are being guarded against for floods. Several auxiliary ponds are being constructed and the 1928 output at Valentine will probably be greater than ever before.Much Conservation Work
The greatest gains in fish production, however, will probably come from conservation work. In the past thousands of fish in overflows, drying-up ponds and lakes and overstocked lakes have gone to waste. Last year efforts were made to save more of these fish and to transplant them in waters where they would thrive. An excellent beginning was made and seining crews saved the sportsmen of Nebraska thousands of fish that might otherwise have been lost. This work will not only be continued during 1 928, but greatly enlarged. New equipment for the rapid transporting and handling of these fish is being purchased and it is believed that the conservation program of 1928 will show fine results in better fishing.
Since the change in the law prohibiting commercial fishing in the Missouri River, the catfish situation should show improvement, in fact, reports indicate that it is already showing results. Missouri recently passed a law prohibiting the sale of channel catfish, so the two states working together should be able to protect the great spawning grounds of the catfish and thus cause a greater movement of these popular fish up the smaller streams. Several crews will continue to operate in the Missouri taking out catfish and distributing them in the smaller interior streams.Pheasant Hunting Here
Last year saw the first results of the pheasant stocking which has been going on in Nebraska for a number of years. There are now four or five counties in central Nebraska which have sufficient birds for an open season during 1928. It is believed that a ten day open season in these counties would not only provide much sport for the people of Nebraska but will decrease the male pheasants to the extent that they will not be the cause of any complaint on the part of the farmers.
While no pheasants will be trapped and distributed this year, a survey will be made and plans made for future stocking. In those counties where the breeding stock has been killed off by ruthless and unlawful hunting, it is likely no further efforts will be made or money spent for stocking. It is foolhardy to place expensive game birds in communities where the citizenry do not cooperate and help the department protect them. On the other hand, where it is found that the people of the several counties have taken icfare of their stock and desire more, every effort will be made by the department to supply their needs. Generally speaking, the pheasant has taken hold nicely in eastern Nebraska, and where given the protection he should have, is making splendid increases.Partridge and Quail Increase
Both the Hungarian partridge and the domestic quail are increasing. The last two years were quite favorable for the quail and many coveys are reported. Several hun-(Continued on Page 16.)
GOALS FOR THE YEAR
More Game Reserves.
Greater fish production at hatcheries.
More extensive conservation of game fish.
Eradication of course fish.
An open season on pheasants in several counties.
A big education program.
Strict law enforcement.
Recreation ground development.
Report of Activities During the Past Year
SOME of the work carried on by the Nebraska Bureau of Game and Fish during 1927 is listed below. Recreation grounds development, enlargement of fish hatcheries, building of nursery ponds, establishing game reserves and greater conversation work were the major activities of the year:Regulatory Activities
During the past year the following arrests and confiscations were made:Arrests made 398 Prosecutions 389 Convictions 383 Complaints investigated 349 Seizures (illegal devices) 278 Seizures (game and fish) 713
Among the game, fish and articles confiscated were 523 muskrat pelts, 24 wolf scalps, 36 raccoon hides, 27 opposums, 110 steel traps, 39 seines, 59 fish traps, 38 hoop nets, 16 dip nets. A number of ducks, geese, fish, prairie chickens, pheasants, minks, skunks, civit cats were also taken.Permits
During the year the following permits were issued to persons and dealers throughout the state. The following figures show the total number of permits issued to dealers. It should be remembered that not all dealers sell all the permits issued but return some of those that remain unsold at the end of the year. Approximately 10 per cent of the permits sent out are returned:Resident hunt & fish 188,645 Non-res. hunt. & fish 1,930 Non-res. fish 4,420 Resident trap 11,187 Non-res. trap 30 Alien to fish 80 Breed and raise game birds 332 Breed fur-bearing animáis 128 Sale of fish 160 Permit to buy fur 681 Non.-res. permit to buy fur 11 Permit fish Missouri River 130 FUR LAW VIOLATORS PAY BIG FINES
Shipments of furs apparently in violation of State Law are iioted by the Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture, through its warden service, in annual inspections of the records of raw-fur houses in various sections of the country. The inspections are made in connection with investigations for the enforcement of the Lacy Act, which prohibits interstate traffic in the dead bodies or parts thereof of wild animáis killed or shipped in violation of State law. Information obtained concerning apparently illegal shipments which it is not desired to use in Federal courts is turned over to the State authorities. In consequence of this cooperation on the part of Federal officials, the States are enabled to make great numbers of prosecutions of illegal shippers, whose infractions of the State laws escape the attention of local wardens. The fines and costs assessed and collected by the States in the disposition of these cases aggregate approximately $20,000 a year.
Reports on 54 prosecutions in 6 States during July, August, and September have come to the Biological Survey. The heaviest penalties imposed were in Colorado and Wisconsin. In 5 cases in Colorado the fines and costs aggregated $743.55, and in 14 cases in Wisconsin $1,670.74 was collected. Individual fines in Colorado were as high as $300 and $255, and in Utah $250. A shipper in Wisconsin paid $300 in one case and $100 in a second prosecution. Michigan collected $'486.80 in 17 cases, and Minnesota $'210 in 16 cases. A single case in Kentucky resulted in the imposition of a $24 penalty. This cooperation of the Federal authorities is receiving the highest commendation from State game officials, as an aid in the effective prosecution of measures for wild-life conservation.Not All Hawks Harmful
When game protective organizations set out on a campaign to destroy predatory animals and birds, great care should be taken to avoid killing creatures that are more beneficial than harmful. The hawk family, for instance, suffers more persecutions than it deserves. Sportsmen and farmers are inclined to kill, indiscriminately, all hawks encountered.
As a matter of proven fact of the 27 species of hawks found in the Northwest only four upland hawks are harmful while 23 are, highly beneficial. These four destructive hawks are the Cooper's hawk, sharp shinned hawk; goshawk and prairie falcon. A few years ago the state of Ohio paid a bounty of 25 cents each on all hawks killed; today it assesses a fine of $25.00 for the killing of any hawk. Not until a rodent invasión swept the state did it realize the loss it had suffered through this promiscuous killing of hawks.
Persons who take the field against bird and animal pests should thoroughly familiarize themselves with their habits and be able to identify the harmful species. Canadians have created 800,000 square miles of fire devastation, aocbrding to the Canadian Forestry Association, by acts of personal recklessness while only 100,000 square miles of forest have been cut by the axe since Confederation.Predatory Animals
Predatory animáis cost the farmers and stock raisers of the United States more than $10,000,000 every year. These animals are coyotes, wolves, v/ild cats, mountain lions, and a few bear, together with smaller animals commonly termed "vermin" which include foxes, weasels, mink, and skunks. Of these losses, the permittees grazing livestock on the national forests in 1926 lost more than 150,000 head of sheep and cattle, valued at more than $2,000,000. This loss occurred in spite of constant warfare against the predatory animáis by Federal and State offirials, hunters, and trappers.Fish Distribution
The following list includes only the fish distributed during the fall season of 1927. Several million, of which the most were fry, were placed in nursery ponds and distributed throughout the state during the spring season of 1927:(Continued on Page 10.)
A Page for Young Conservationists
I. THE BEAVER
FEW of the native animals of the middle west have had a more important bearing on the history and development of the country than the beaver Originally the beaver inhabited the greater part of Nebraska and at one time produced fur of considerable value. They were to the Indians an important source of food and warm clothing. Later the beaver became a unit of barter between the Indian and the white man and were much in demand. They were taken by the thousands until today only a few are found along the rivers in our state. There would be none today had the state notpassed laws prohibiting the indiscriminate taking of this fine little animal.Description
Beavers are compact, heavy-bodied animals, with strong frames and powerful muscles. They have broadly flattened, naked tails, and dense coats of fine, soft, waterproof underfur hidden by coarse outer guard hairs. The underfur varies from buffy yellow to brownish black, and the coarse outer hairs vary from light brown to dark chestnut.
The hind feet are large, and the five long toes are fully webbed for swimming. The two inner toes on each foot are provided with remarkable double combing claws. The front feet are small and unwebbed and are used mainly as hands for holding food or carrying and handling building material.
The eyes are small, and the vision not very keen except under water. The ears are short, fur lined, and valvular, closing as the animals dive and opening instantly as they come to the surface, and the sense of hearing is remarkably keen. The nostrils are small and also close under water, thus keeping out water and providing a keen sense of smell when open. The mouth, with hairy lips closing perpendicularly back of the broad, protruding, chisellike incisors, also is valvular, so that the water cannot enter it when the teeth are used in cutting or tearing up roots or sticks below the surface. The molars, or grinding teeth back of the lips, can be used for chewing while the lips are closed in front of them to keep out water.
Beavers weigh from about one pound at birth to as high as 70 pounds when fully developed. Those one year old or thereabouts weight around 25 pounds. Two year olds weigh around 40 pounds and three year olds around 50 pounds. Occasionally old fellows weigh as much as 70 pounds and once in a great while one is found that will weigh 100 pounds.Intelligence and Disposition
Beavers are widely famed woodcutters and builders and, though not endowed with the degree of intelligence sometimes ascribed to them, are remarkably expert along their own lines and quick to adapt themselves to changed conditions. Patience, persistence, strength and industry are more important factors in their work than quick wit.
In their own families and colonies beavers are generally friendly and sociable. The young are especially playful and affectionate with one another and with anyone wishing to win their confidence. Strangers, whether beaver or human, are likely to be treated as enemies. It is not true as sometimes stated that the young are driven away from the colony. The decrease in easily obtainable food is what causes part of a colony to move.Habits
The beaver is a fine and graceful swimmer. While not a rapid swimmer they can move large objects along through the water. When alarmed they can swim under water as fast as an otter or seal. They can swim under water as far as half a mile. In the winter they frequently swim under the ice, getting air through airholes or from air bubbles.
The beaver's tail is of great use to him, not only as a rudder in swimming and diving, but as a propeller when moving large sticks or objects through the water. It is also used as a signal of alarm by means of slapping it against the surface of the water. On land the tail is used in building activities.
In cutting trees beavers usually work independently, although several sometimes work on the same tree. A smll tree is generally cut through from one side, but as a rule a larger one is cut all around. One old beaver in one night can fell a poplar tree 3 or 4 inches in diameter, cut it into sections 4 to 8 feet in length and drag it into the water. Trunks of trees more than 5 inches in diameter are rarely cut up or moved from where they fall, but the branches stripped off. Often a tree a foot in diameter is cut down and occasionally a tree as large as 2 feet in diameter is cut down.House Building
The beaver is a good builder of dams working from the upstream side. Sticks, leaves, grass, sod and mud are used. These are laid across the stream and are added to until the water is checked and the level begins to rise. Then as it rises, sticks are pushed over the top and allowed to lie crisscross on the lower slope, bound in and securely held by mud and earth added to the top and upper slope until the dam is high and strong enough to hold water in the pond. Many of these dams stand hard floods and are very old, serving several generations of these animals.
Beaver houses are usually close to their burrows leading from deep water up through the edge of a marsh or the bank of a stream,. Sometimes they rise from the bottom of a pond in open water 5 or 6 feet deep. They are constructed of sticks and mud, with a living room above the surface of the water. A new house is simple and not very tight, but with the approach of winter the walls are made thick and strong. Some houses have walls several(Continued on Page 15.)
OUTDOOR NEBRASKAPublished by Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fish and Game. Editorial Office, State Capitol, Lincoln, Nebraska FRANK B. O'GONNELL Editor DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Adam McMullen Governor H. J. McLaughlin Secretary Frank B. O'Connell Warden Vol. Ill Lincoln, January 1928 No. 1
EDITORIALATTENTION OF TEACHERS
In each issue of OUTDOOR NEBRASKA published during 1928 you will find a page for young conservationists.
This material will deal with the wild life of Nebraska and it is arranged for practical use in the school. Each issue will deal with a particular animal or bird native to the state.
It is hoped that this material will be used as much as possible. Boys sometimes destroy wild life. This is done usually through ignorance. These lessons are aimed to acquaint them with our wild life and to teach them the need of conservation.
This material has been prepared by the Chief of the Nebraska Bureau of Game & Fish from a study of the beaver made by Vernon Bailey of the Division of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture.
There will be no pheasants trapped in Nebraska this coming spring.
It is felt that where proper protection has been given, the birds are taking hold nicely in many counties and that it would be better to spend money for the propagation of other game this year-
During the coming year the Bureau expects to make a complete survey of the state to ascertain exactly how many pheasants are thriving. Many counties report excellent increases. However, in some counties the birds are being killed and the seed stock wiped out.
It is believed that four or five counties in central Nebraska have sufficient birds for an open season during the fall of 1928, and it is hoped that the county boards of these counties will make recommendation for such a season.
A new non-resident fishing permit was issued this year.
The new permit is much like the non-resident hunting and fishing permit now in use and carries the shipping tag and report for taking fish out of the state.
Where holders of this permit return to the state it is necessary to secure a "Class' B" coupon. These will be issued free on request.
During the past the non-resident fishing permit has caused dealers' considerable trouble, since it greatly resembled the regular resident hunting and fishing permits and many of them were issued in error. Now that the new permit is being used, dealers will not have this trouble.
The 1928 hunting, fishing and trapping permits were on sale in all parts of the state on January 1 this year.
While it was impossible to have the new permits in the hands of all the 1,000 dealers in the state, they were in the hands of many by the first of the year.
While the work at the bureau office is exceedingly heavy at the first of the year, many dealers handling permits would be able to get their new supply much quicker if they would check in the old books promptly at the end of the year. In many cases the old books and fees do not come in until March and some drag until July.
However, more dealers than ever before checked in promptly at the end of the year and thus enabled the Bureau to place new 1928 permits in their hands early in the new year.
The new system of tagging game that is shipped or stored in cold storage is working out very nicely. Fine cooperation on the part of sportsmen has been had by the bureau.
In only a few cas'es has it been necessary to prosecute for violation of this law. Game wardens were instructed to be lenient inasmuch as it was a new law and a great many people did not know about it.
During the hunting season of 1928 plenty of tags will be available in all parts of the state and all persons will be expected to use the tags' for shipping.
Back up your Game WardensBy Paul S. Redington, Chief U. S Bureau, Biological Survey
Since 1918, no less than nineteen serious assaults have been made upon United States Game Wardens by persons who had violated or were attempting to violate the laws protecting migratory birds'. One Federal warden has been murdered by two outlaws, and several of the remaining attacks have had murder as their evident motive.
No attempt is made here to recite the list of crimes of this nature that have been committed against game wardens in the employ of various state game commissions or departments, but the record of such assaults and assassinations' is long and significant. Scarcely a year passes without its tale of the murder of a game conservation officer.
United States Game Wardens operating in the Illinois River district have many times been threatened by outlaws defiant of the laws against spring shooting and the marketing of wild fowl— the two wild fowl regulations of all others most important in maintaining our existing Supply of ducks and geese. Two of these wardens were fired upon by thugs who shot from ambush on March 3, 1925. Both officers were shot down and terribly injured by loads of duck shot deliverd at close range by two men armed with repeaters. A third individual, concealed at some dis'.ance, encouraged his murderously-minded friends by shouting, "Kill the—!"
The assailants escaped punishment owing to lack of evidence. Persons believed to have knowledge of the affair were most reluctant to disclose facts', possibly through fear of reprisals by the outlaws or their sympathizers.
More recently, in the same section, a United State Game Warden, one of the victims of the previous piece of thuggery, found his motorboat tampered with. The work had been done cunningly enough. The gasoline tank had been drained into the hull and the ignition wiring so arranged that an attempt to start the motor would produce a back-fire that would fire the boat and, in all probability kill the operator.
The amiable plot was discovered in time, due to the warden's vigilance. He must, however, continue to work under conditions that would be intolerable to a less courageous man. He lives in the knowledge that at any moment a bullet or a charge of heavy shot may reach him from some adder's den in the marshes. He is a target for the rifle of any pot-hunter who can waylay him in the vast labyrinch of the river bottom.
The recital of similar cases would serve no purpose here. These men, whether they are employes of state governments or of the Federal organization, are the infantry game-conservation forces. They are literally upon the firing-line in the obscure, many-sided battle that is going on between those who believe in the perpetuation of wild life and the regulated sport of gunning, and those others—the pot-hunter, the market shooter and the dealer in illicit game—who would callously destroy the living resources entirely in order to fill their pockets with the silver of Judas, or to gratify a degenerate lust for killing.
The sportsmen themselves, individually and collectively, have a responsibility to the honest game warden that they cannot ignore or evade. Believing in the conservation of wild life; believing, as any true follower of rod and gun must believe that the wholesome blessings of stream, forest and field belong as much to future generations as to our own, the American sportsman can not in decency stand aside to let a 'few men fight these battles for him. Given game wardens who are honest and conscientious in the enforcement of regulations that are reasonable an necessary, there remains no valid reason why any American community should permit isolated groups of outlaws' and river rats to attempt by thuggery to take the wild creatures into their own merciless charge.
Game law enforcement is decried by some as futile, exasperating interference with personal privilege. The old question of control by state or Federal Government is introduced to confuse the(Continued on Page 16.)
A pool, even though small, adds beauty to a landscape scene. Here is a beautiful pool in the grounds of Mr. Ed Holstens, Dodge, Nebraska. A few goldfish give it a touch of color.
DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIESConservation Work in 1927
A great deal of conservation work was accomplished by Superintendent O'Brien and his State Seining Crews during 1927. In fact, more of this work was done than ever before. The lakes and ponds seined are as follows:
Swift's Lake, National Guard pond, Jardine's slough, Eailroad ponds, Ashland.
Gerecke lake, Minicipal ponds, Country Club lake, Stire's lake, Bass nursery pond, Shady Lake, Kyle's lake, Fitch lake, Columbus.
Stone Quarry pond, Louisville.
Sand Pit lake, Meadow.
McAllister lake, Gilbert's pond, Schuyler.
Preston lake, Monroe.
Greek's lake, Genoa.
LoVal Club lake, Laurel.
Schimmer's lake, Grand Island.
Lake Minatare, Minatare.
Winter Creek, Minatare.
Spotted Tail lakes, Rice lake, Mitchell.
Angora lake, Angora.
Fair Grounds lake, Bridgeport.
Cresent lake (partial) Oshkosh.
Lake Helen, Gothenburg.
Curtis Lake, Curtis.
Maywood lake, Maywood.
Platte River Drying-Up ponds, Central City.
Edgewater ponds, Overflow ponds, Waterloo.
Diamond Bar lake ponds, Flats.
Kilpatrick's lake overflow, Alliance.
Irrigation lake ponds, Kimball.
Irrigation lakes, Crawford.
Major's Slough, drainage ditch, Peru.
Below Dam, Minatare.
De Vry's pond, St. Paul.
Loup River overflow, Burwell.
Beale's Slough, Calhoun.
Nathan's lake, Calhoun.
A booth prepared by the West Point Chapter of the "Ikes" and exhibited at the Cuming County Fair.
This beautiful dog belongs to Mr. J. A. Norris, Fairbury, whose likeness you see in the picture. Once when Mr. Norris accidently fell in the river the dog came to his aid
Horseshoe lake, Calhoun.
Bunn's lake, Blair.
Big Eddy Flats, Jackson.
Roadside overflows, South Sioux City.
Nemaha sloughs, Nemaha.
Clark's lake, Bellevue.
Bid Eddy, Jackson.
Swift's lake, Major's slough and Bid Eddy were seined twice during the summer. In most of the above lakes and ponds rough fish were removed. However, a number of the above were seined to rescue game fish where the ponds were drying up.Improvements at Valentine Hatchery
J. M. Merritt, Superintendent of the Valentine Hatchery, is making a number of improvements at that place.
A new building to house hatchery equipment and a new pumping plant has been erected. The old hatching house has been re-arranged and more aquariums added. A new water supply, with an enlarged reservoir, well, and electric pumping apparatus has been installed. Drainage of the ponds is being worked over and drainage channels deepened and faced with rock to prevent wash from floods. A sewerage line has been laid and numerous other smaller improvements made.OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 9
One of Madison County's scenic spots
A large game reserve, embracing over 6,000 acres and located near Niobrara, is now being organized. Mr. Prank J. Brady, President of the Nebraska Izaack Walton Division and Mr. H. A. Rinderspacher, of Niobrara, have been working on the project for some time.
It is believed that this reserve will be one of the finest in the middle west. It is located on the Niobrara river and the land is all covered with timber, some heavy with brush and grass. There are numerous islands and low marshes.
A small planting of wild turkey will be made on this reserve in the spring if it is set aside.Rock Creek Growing
Since the purchase of 87 acres more of land at the Rock Creek Hatchery, Superintendent Runion has had a crew at work developing ponds.
Three ponds were constructed before the cold weather stopped activities. The work will be resumed early in the spring. One large pond of about 20 acres was completed, as well as two smaller ones. The large pond will be used for bass and the smaller for trout.
Owing to a big hatch of bass at Rock Creek last summer, it is now planned to raise bass as well as trout at this plant. Some 42,000 fingerling bass were raised in a very small pond. Conditions at this place seem to be ideal for both bass and trout.
The new tract is now being fenced.Plant Hungarian Partridges
A small shipment of Hungarian Partridges were received by the Nebraska Bureau of Game and Fish in November and released in the state. Only a few states were able to get these birds this year owing to the restrictions governing the exportation of same from central Europe.
Seven crates were received. The birds were in good condition, only three being dead. The birds in several crates were injured somewhat, probably due to carelessness in trapping or shipping.
It is believed much more effective to plant these birds in large coveys, rather than scattering a few pair here and there. They differ from the pheasant in that they mate. The mating cannot be forced and for that reason better breeding results where a large group of birds gather during the mating season.
One crate was planted at each of the following game reserves:
National Forest, Halsey.
Federal Game Reserve, Valentine,
State Reserve, Lincoln County.
State Reserve, Nebraska City.
State Reserve, Superior.
State Reserve, Valparaiso.
State Reserve, Lancaster County.New Game Reserve
A new game reserve was set aside on January 1. This reserve, while small, is well wooded and nicely suited for birds.
This reserve comprises the holdings of Linoma Beach, Lyman Richey Sand & Gravel Co., the Henderson Farm and the Goodfellow estate. The tract is located just east of the Platte River bridge at Ashland in Sarpy County.
Hunting is strictly prohibited in this reserve under penalty of a fine of $100 for each offense. Fishing can be done anytime, as there are no restrictions on that sport, other than observance of the closed season and bag limits.Magazine Articles
Recent magazine ''articles by Frank B. O'Connell, Chief of the Nebraska Bureau of Game & Fish, are as follows:
"The Buffalo in History," Hunter, Trader & Trapper.
"Trapping Pheasants," Popular Mechanics.
"Nebraska's Fur-Bearing Animals," Nebraska Educational Journal.Fish Car Remodeled
The Nebraska Fish Car, "Waltonian" is now in the shops at Chicago where it is being remodeled.
Present plans call for radical changes in the car. The old observation room is being torn out, the drawing room, heater and toilet moved back, and four new tanks added. The new car will have practically twenty per cent more capacity for hauling live fish.
The engine room is being enlarged and a new air pump of the latest design installed. New wheels will be placed on the car as the old ones were no longer serviceable. Many minor repairs are being made, such as painting, changing electrical equipment, installing ventilators, etc. A new roof is also being put on the car since the old one leaked badly.
The proposed changes will cost approximately $5,000.(Continued on Page 16.)
W. K. Green, West Point, and a party of raccoon hunters. Coon hunting is a popular pastime in Nebraska
FISH DISTRIBUTION (July 1, 1927 to December 31, 1927)PLACE STOCKED Blk Bass Rock Bass Trout Croppie Perch Sunfish Catfish Bullhead Pike Goldfish Frogs Hastings Pond Sand Pits, Louisville Lake Helen Gothenburg Y. M. C. A., Norfolk Kilpatrick Lake, Alliance 10000 Sand Pit Lakes, Central City Swifts Lake, Ashland Park Ponds, Crawford Elkhorn River, Waterloo Swift's Lake, Ashland Nat. Guard Pds., Ashland Blue River, Crete Sand Pit Lakes, Louisville Crys. Lake, So Sioux City 2000 Sumnicks Lake, Waterloo Elkhorn River, Waterloo Loup Sloughs, Columbus Linoma Beach Ponds, Ashland Sand Pit Lakes, Fremont South Reservoir, Kimball 3000 Keif ers Dam, Colon J. S. Weaverling, Ewing 400 O'Donnels Lake, Inman 400 Mill Pond, Atkinson 400 Willow Lake, Enderslake 600 Enders Lake, Enderslake 600 Marsh Lake, Wood Lake, 600 Mill Pond Valentine Pole Creek Lake, Lavaca 500 Hoover Lake, Gordon 600 Choke Cherry Lake, Gordon 500 Frye Lake, Gordon 500 Gay Lake, Gordon 500 Wahlgren Lake, Rushville 600 Fawn Lake, Rushville 500 Whitney Lake, Chadron 1000 Milit'yLake, Ft. Robinson 600 Clear Lake, Ainsworth 600 Rowells Lake, Tilden, 400 Wendts Lake, Mead Gr'v 500 Wendts Lake, Battle Crk 500 No. Fork Dam, Norfolk 500 Davis Lake, Pierce 500 Spring Lake, Bloomfield Synovec Pond, Monowi Niobrara Lake, Lynch 600 Niobrara Lake, Butte 800 Niobrara Lake, Spencer 2000 Whalgren Lk, Hay Spg. 500 Reids Lake, Flats 100 Whitney Lake, Whitney Chain Lakes, Inman 500 Gotches Lake, Clearwater 500 Clearwat. Crk., Clearwater 300 Circle Slough, Neligh 500 Lee Harvey, Wisner 500 State Lakes, Fremont 1000 Community Pond, Gresham Mill Pond, Milford Blue River, Seward Lincoln Creek, Utica Community Pond, Waco St. Michael Slough, Cairo 500 Muddy Creek, Litchfield Muddy Creek, Litchfield Ash Creek, Broken Bow Ash Creek, Broken Bow 500 Campon Lake, Thedford 500 Minatare Lake, Minatare 1000 600 500 600 500 5000 1000 3000 1000 200 10000 15000 4000 3000 15000 200 3000 5000 20000 3000 10000 4000 50000 5000 5000 1Q000 20000 2000 5000 8000 3000 10000 200 10000 5000 500 3000 5000 1000 40000 3000 10000 5000 8000 10000 15 100000 50000 20000 100 800 400 100 800 300 500 400 600 500 500 800 500 600 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 1000 100 1000 1000 1000 800 1000 600 400 600 400 300 400 500 600 500 300 1000 500 400 500 300 300 300 200 800 800 200 400 400 2000 1000 500 5000 3000 500 300 500 300 500 500 1000 200 200 100 300 500 300 500 200 400 100 100 1000 500 100 500 500 100 500 300 100 400 50 50 50 1000 1000 1000 500 1000 1000 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 11 FISH DISTRIBUTION—(Continued) PLACE STOCKED Blk Bass Rock Bass Trout Croppie Perch Sunfish Catfish Bullhead Pike Goldfish Frogs Burlington Pond, Ravenna Bull Lake, Seneca St. Michael Slough Ratmann Lake, Gd. Island Seier Pond, Doniphan Community Pond, Waco Blue River, Seward Blue River, Milford Linoma Lakes, Ashland Sand Pit Lake, So. Bend Harris Lake, Oshkosh Winter Crk. Lake, Minatare Sweet Lake, Bridgeport Spotted Tail Lk, Scottsbluff Spot'd Tail Lk, Scottsbluff 1000 Minatare Lake, Minatare Lewis Lake, Mitchell Bartzat Pond, Raymond Mill Pond, Crete G W Nichols, DeWitt Blue River, Beatrice Spring Lake, Beatrice 300 kossell Lake, Rockford Clayton Lasher, Wymore Elkhorn Mill P'd, Atkinson 500 Fish Lake, Bassett 500 Cameron Lake, Bassett 500 Beaver River, Loretto 500 Bazile Creek, Creighton LoVal Lake, Laurel 500 Cyrs. Lke, So. Sioux City 8000 Walton Lake, Auburn Blue River, York Sand Pit Lake, Schuyler 500 Municipal Lakes, Columbus 600 Sand Pit Lakes, Columbus R. H .Preston, Monroe Cedar Sloughs, Ced. Rapids 500 Osterman's Lke, Cen. City 100 Clear Creek, Columbus 500 Keester's Pond, Gr. Island Stobbe Pond, Gr Island Thomsen Pond, Gr. Island Seier Pond, Doniphan 100 W'd Riv. Ponds, Wood Riv 500 W'd Riv. Dam, Wood Riv. W. W. Tesch, Lexington Spring Creek, Gibbon Chris. Rosenberg, Maxwell Trego Lake, No. Platte 800 Lodge Pole Lakes, Lodge Pole R. S. Oberfelder, Lodge Pole Lodge Pole Lakes, Lodgepole Quants Lake, Gr. Island 100 C. C. Gilbert, Schuyler Mill Pond, Crete 600 C. H. Meacham, Dorchester Markworth P'd, McCool Jet. Blue River, McCool Jet. Lit. Blue Riv., Clay Center Lit. Blue Riv., Fairfield Lit. Blue Riv., Spring Ranch Lit. Blue Riv., Pauline Newcastle Pond Goose Lake, Clearwater Swan Lake, Amelia 600 200 Mill Pond, Valentine North Cody Lake, Cody 600 Eli Lake, Eli 600 Metzger's Lake, Merriman 600 Gay Lake, Irwin 400 Gay Lake, Irwin 1000 Choke Cherry Lake, Gordon 500 400 10000 2000 4000 4000 3000 400 600 3000 3000 3000 2000 8000 20000 500 6000 10000 300 300 500 500 500 400 100 500 500 200 1000 500 200 1000 500 500 200 200 200 200 1000 200 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 1000 tooo 500 50 100 6000 500 1000 500 500 200 2000 500 400 1000 2000 500 400 500 100 100 100 100 500 1000 1000 1000 200 500 100 300 50 100 300 600 400 600 600 400 1000 500 1000 600 600 100 1000 100 500 1000 2000 1000 500 200 1000 400 200 500 200 600 200 600 6C0 200 800 800 200 1000 200 1000 100 2000 600 600 400 500 800 600 200 200 800 600 1000 200 200 600 400 100 1000 12 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA FISH DISTRIBUTION—(Continued) PLACE STOCKED Blk Bass Rock Bass Trout Croppie Perch Sunfish Catfish Bullhead Pike Goldfish Frogs Fawn Lake, Rushville 400 Wahlgren Lake, Rushville COO 400 Kane Lake, Wisner 400 States Lakes, Fremont 2000 1000 Sand Pit Lakes, Valley 1500 1000 Scotts Lake, Morse Bluffs 500 Haynes Branch, Denton Mill Pond, Dorchester 500 Blue River, Fairmont Sand Pit Lake, Minden 500 Oxford Lake, Oxford 500 Sand Pit Lake, Arapahoe 400 Larsen Pond, Arapahoe 100 Crowleys Lake, Bartley 500 Lodge Pole Dam, Sidney 800 Fair Grounds Lake, Bayard 1200 Reservoir, Harrisburg 600 Pumpkinseed Creek, Harrisburg Reeds Lake, Flats 100 Swifts Lake, Ashland Vertiska & Watzek Lake, Humboldt 200 Forest Res. Ponds, Halsey 1000 High School, Spalding City Park Ponds, Lincoln Salt Creek, Saltilo Cut-off Lake, Kearney 600 Y.M.C.A. Pool, Norfolk Wahlgren Lake, Hay Spgs. 1000 State Park Ponds, Chadron 500 Irrigation Ponds, Wayside 200 Municipal Lake, Imperial 1000 Larsh Pond, Union State Ponds, Fremont 2000 Goose Lake, Clearwater Swan Lake Amelia Moon Lake, Johnstown State Ponds, Valentine Cedar Creek, 500 Boy Scouts Lake W. D. Kittlerr, South Bend 500 Walton Lakes, Auburn 600 Sandy Creek, Alexandria 300 Spring Creek, Yutan Drainage Ditch, Peru Champion Lake, Imperial Kirkpatricks Lake, Imperial Minatare Lake, Minatare Uni.Lake Scottsbluff 1000 Sepp Ditches, Scottsbluff Lewis Lake, Mitchell 1000 Spring Creeks, Mitchell Seep Ditches, Morrill Pumpkinseed Creek Bridgeport Lodgepole Creek, Kimball Willow and Clear Lakes Blue River, Surprise E. K. Husbands, Gresham Rifle Range, Ashland Carter Lake Club, Omaha 18000 Clarks Pond, Beaver Crossing Smiley Pond, Beaver Crossing Mill Pond, Staplehurst Mill Pond, Ulysses Mares Slough, Dwight 800 200 200 600 400 400 600 2000 2000 1000 503 500 400 500 1000 500 600 400 400 100 100 600 400 300 300 100 400 600 1000 1000 300 2000 1000 800 400 500 Pickerel 250 Pickerel 250 Pickerel 250 Pickerel 260 300 1000 4000 200 200 400 400 1000 1000 2000 2000 1000 500 200 500 500 500 50000 2000 4000 6000 100 50 50 200 2000 500 5000 500 100 800 1000 500 10000 500 200 500 200 000 1500 1500 200 700 1000 1500 800 35000 300 100 300 300 100 300 400 800 800 200 500 500 2000 1000 1000 200 100 200 100 600 1000 1000 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 13 FISH DISTRIBUTION—-(Continued) PLACE STOCKED Blk Bass Rock Bass Trout Croppie Perch Sunfish Catfish Bullhead Pike Goldfish Frogs Cody Lake, Stapleton 800 400 Eagle Creek, Atkinson Long Lake, Amelia Coon Creek, Bassett Elk Creek, Bassett Shubert Lake, Shubert 500 Blue River, Stockliam Keester Bond, Gd. Island Stobbe Pond, Gd. Island Thomsen Pond, Gd. Island Clarks Lake, Virginia Steele Creek, Star Ash & Coon Creeks, Bassett Sand Pit Lakes, Louisville 500 Lt. Blue River, Fairbury 500 Busing Pond, Powell 100 Sandy Creek, Fairbury Spring Swamp, Chadron Sumincks Lake, Waterloo Elkhorn River, Waterloo Crystal Lake, So. Sioux City 6000 Horseshoe Lake, Ft. Calhoun Willow Lake, Enderslake 800 Chain Lakes, Enderslake 800 Hagans Lake, Long Pine 1000 Sand Pit Lakes Central City 2000 Lincoln Creek, York Loup Sloughs, Loup City 400 Calamus Sloughs, Burwell 2000 500 Grade Creek, Burwell Calamus Sloughs, North Loup 600 Ice House Pond, Ord 400 Swifts Lake, Ashland Prime Pond, Brainard Blue River, Polk Blue River, Osceola Harry Parker, Valparaiso 200 400 Blue River, Shelby Blue River, Osceola Smiley Pond, Seward Rawhide Creek, Valley 400 State Lakes, Fremont 3000 Walton Lake, Tecumseh 500 Walton League Lake, Auburn 1000 Hooks Pond, Blair Goose Lake, Clearwater 1000 Wilkins Pond, Blair O'Donnells Lake, Inman 1000 Fish Lake, Bassett 1000 Cameron Lake, Bassett 1000 Blasks Lake, Columbus 2000 Shell Creek, Columbus Rock Creek, Rockville 600 Cotton Mill Lake, Kearney 800 Sand Pit Lake, Lexington 600 600 Sand Beach Lake, Tryon 1000 500 Samuelson's Lake, Lemoyne 100 Harris Lake, Oshkosh 3000 1000 Beaver Creek, Wikonville Medicine. Creek, Curtis Maywood Lake, Maywood 1000 Maywood Lake, Maywood 1000 Red Willow Creek, Culbertson Red Willow Creek, McCook Frenchman River, Culbertson 300 600 800 1000 200 200 400 600 100 600 600 500 200 100 503 100 5000 400 600 1000 1000 100 50 200 200 100000 10000 800 800 600 500 400 100 2000 10000 10000 15000 2000 400 2000 500 1000 1000 400 500 200 2000 1000 1000 500 1000 1000 500' 1000 400 15000 18003 200 200 100 100 100 200 400 100 100 300 300 400 200 500 200 200 400 200 300 100 200 100 100 1000 500 500 100 100 100 100 500 1000 1000 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 5000 500 200 1000 500 600 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 100 1000 2000 500 1000 300 300 300 300 1000 2000 1000 1000 1000 2000 10C0 1000 2000 2000 1500 1200 5000
THE COTTONTAIL (Sylvilagus floridanus)By ERNST SCHWARZ
The Cottontail has one thing in common with the Bobwhite, king of game birds—he likes to dwell in the brushy borders of cultivated ground. There he is at home in the thickets and brambles which are produced by the settler's cutting the large timber, making places to his liking. Here he is protected incidentally by his greatest enemy, man, against wolves, minks, wildcat, hawks, owls, crows, skunks and weasels.
Early in the spring, cottontails bring forth a litter of four or five young which are born blind and naked. The nest, in a depression of ground, is laid out with hair from the under part of the mother's body. When leaving the nest the mother covers it with grass and fine sticks and only through accident can this nest be discovered as it blends so perfectly with the surroundings.
The young rabbits leave the nest when about three weeks old and they are then the cutest little beings imaginable, with their large eyes and trusting ways. One can almost put his hands on them, but only "almost" unless he is like the whirlwind. Little bunny has to rely on himself from now on. There is no maternal care for him. His eye-sight is poor but his ears and legs make up for this deficiency. He does not have to worry about his meals as he is herbivorous and lives entirely on plant life. If he can have no clover he makes a meal of the bark of a tree. As a retreat, a hollow tree serves the purpose. Frequently he will make a hole in the ground, digging it himself. This hole unfortunately has only one point of ingress and egress and in many instances it spells his doom, or he is no match for minks, weasels or skunks which like to make a meal of him, and if it were not for his great fertility the rabbit could not hold its own as it is one of those creatures least protected by nature.
Bunny is not gregarious, lives mostly a solitary existence with the exception of his family life, and never goes far from home. Two miles is the furthest he ever strays from the home circle and then only to find a mate. This, too, is generally done under cover of night as he is far more nocturnal than diurnal. He slips from his resting place at dusk to enjoy life by trotting his well-beaten paths, nibbing here and there on tidbits as it suits his fancy, and minding his own business.
His kind is well distributed. They roam in sun-scorched desert, in the far north, the west and south. They are at home all over the northern part of this continent. By this we can imagine what enormous benefit men derive from him with respect to sport and food. Not only this, but just think of the joys he brings the youngsters at Easter, for the Easter Rabbit really rivals Santa Claus where the happiness of the children is concerned.COST OF RAISING PHEASANTS
The excessive cost of rearing ringneck pheasants has deterred many state game departments from engaging in the enterprise, says an American Game Protective Association bulletin. The knowledge of these costs is not very complete or accurate and has varied radically, depending upon economy and skill of management, scale of operations, quality of brood stock, suitability of location, and many other factors. No general standard cost has been ascertained. Individual instances have varied from $1.00 to $10.00 per bird.
In this connection, the experience of Michigan during the season of 1926 is enlightening and encouraging. According to the figures of Thomas McClure, gamekeeper for the conservation commission, the 7,887 pheasants reared and liberated in the state in 1926 cost $2.07 each, which is a very moderate cost, and he insists that figure can be materially reduced by increasing the capacity of the game farm.
The total cost of operation of the farm was $23,350.00. Credits were allowed for eggs shipped out to sportsmen and farmers at current prices and for care of pet animals and other stock at the farm, leaving a net cost of birds actually distributed of $16,358.00.
The total amount spent by the state on theintroduction of pheasants, since beginning the introduction of this bird, has been over $150,000. It has been expected that provision would be made for increased production next year, but it now appears that such expansion is contingent on reaching some agreement with farmers, who have been disposed to post their lands against pheasant shooting the past season.New Leaflet Tells How To Raise Minks in Captivity
Comparatively few persons are raising minks in captivity, even though the fur has sold for high prices during the past 10 years, according to Frank G. Ashbrook, biologist of the Biological Survey, in a leaflet on "Mink Raising," just issued by the United States Department of Agriculture. A keen interest has been manifested in mink farming, he says, since the beginning of the present century, but it has been spasmodic rather than sustained. Mink farming is not altogether in the experimental stage, however, for minks have been raised successfully in captivity, and the quality of fur produced on farms is in no way inferior to that trapped in the wild.
Mink are very prolific, and when fed and handled properly they breed and produce young regularly, their litters numbering usually six, seven, or eight. Young minks born in captivity are much superior for breeding stock, and consequently the prices asked for ranch-raised minks are often higher than prospective mink farmers care to pay. Those who have made money in mink raising thus far have sold the animals chiefly for breeding purposes. Further experiments will be required before it can be determined whether raising these animals in captivity as fur producers can be made profitable.
The new leaflet No. 8-L, describes minks and their habits and gives information on selecting a ranch site, making pens and dens, breeding, mating, feeding, and killing and pelting. Copies may be had free upon request addressed to the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
A PAGE FOR YOUNG CONSERVATIONISTS(Continued from Page 10.)
feet thick. When well frozen these houses are difficult to break open and even bears and wolverines, which are credited with being enemies of beaver, find it hard to enter. The living rooms in the houses are lined with grass, twigs or shredded wood. One or two passages lead through the floor of the house down into the deepwater.Course of Study
It is suggested that the student be required to study the above text as a lesson, using any other material he may find, and then be graded on his answers to the following questions:
1. Where were beavers originally found and in what part of Nebraska are they found today?
2. Give two uses made of beavers by the Indians.
3. Why is the beaver in demand today?
4. Briefly describe the beaver.
5. What is the tail used for in water? On land?
6. Why can a beaver hear and smell keenly while on land but see poorly?
7. How large do beavers sometimes become?
8. Give four virtues of the beaver.
9. Describe briefly the family life of beavers.
10. Can beavers swim under water?
11. Describe briefly the method of felling trees.
12. What is the size of the trees beaver prefer to use for their houses?
13. Describe briefly how beavers build dams.
14. Describe house building.
15. Why does the state protect beaver today?SCHOOLS INSURE FUTURE WILD LIFE
An outstanding example of what may be done in enlisting the active participation of children in effective measures for the conservation of birds is furnished by Wilmington, Delaware, where the Department of Nature Study of the public schools, in co-operation with civic bodies, has made the park system of that city a paradise for bird life, reports the American Game Protective Association in its news service.
Miss Violet L. Findlay, supervisor of nature study, takes the ground that the future of all places of natural beauty and the fate of the living wild creatures that should inhabit them are in the hands of the children of the present generation.
Realizing this the children of the public schools are all taught to love the trees, the flowers, and the birds, and to co-operate intelligently in their preservation. They learn to appreciate the beauty of the massive oaks, spreading maples and graceful willows, and they are taught that wild flowers and plants are more beautiful as they grow in their natural settings than when plucked and destroyed. They learn of the useful service of the birds in preserving forest and fruit trees from destructive insect pests.
One of the most effective means of arousing interest among the children in birds has been an annual bird house contest, the work of constructing bird houses and feeding stations being made a project in the manual training department of the schools.
The city park commission has set aside an appropriation from which it pays prizes of $2.50 each to children whose bird houses in the parks are actually occupied by nesting pairs. The park commission has also distributed before Christmas a large number of "feeding sticks" three feet in length with six holes bored in each which are filled by the children with food consisting of suet and peanuts ground together, also furnished by the park board, which are placed in the parks to furnish a Christmas dinner for the birds.
No city need have fear as to the future of its trees and birds so long as such work is carried on among its children.DO QUAIL REQUIRE WATER?
The experience of State Game Warden Doze of Kansas does not coincide with that of Dr. Joseph Grinnell of California, who was recently quoted in this service as having come to the conclusion that young quail, without access to water, perish. In a bulletin of the American Game Protective Association^ Mr. Doze says:
"Recently considerable has been said about young quail perishing in the southwest due to dry weather. This may be true in certain sections but what is true of game in one place, is not necessarily true in another. For instance the kingfisher is supposed to be a terrible menace to the fish but we find at the Kansas fish hatchery his principal diet is young crawfish, although occasionally he does take fish.
"Quail and the lesser prairie hen are hatched, grow up, mate and produce young in certain sections of the southwest where it does not rain for months at a time. Probably these birds are acclimated to these conditions. This I do know:
"Our quail live in the sand hills of the southwest four or five miles from any water for long periods of time. It is so dry in these sand hills that there is no dew on the grass yet the quail and prairie hen seem to exist and increase.
"I do not mean to assert that they can get along without moisture. They get it from moist sand in the low spots or probably from the leaves of sage or grama grass. No doubt the prickly pear affords some moisture.BIG GAME CENSUS
Big game animals on reservations of the federal government is as follows:Area National Bison Range, Mont Wind Cave, Preserve, S. Dak. Sully Hill Preserve, N. Dak. Niobrara Reservation, Nebr 625 308 67 37 149 1,186 158 143 22 16 35 80 100 10 323 61 191 Total_______ 879 586 41 67 39 149 1,761
THE OUTLOOK FOR 1928(Continued from Page 3.)
dred more pair of partridges were placed in favored places last year and this work will continue.Many Refuges
The game reserves and refuge situation is very encouraging. A number of fine reserves were set aside and stocked during the past year and a number more will be established during 1928. A very large one is being established in northern Nebraska and undoubtedly this will encourage more in that part of the state. A wild game refuge, as created by the last session of the Legislature, will be established in western Nebraska as soon as proper land at reasonable prices can be obtained.Recreation Grounds Developed
Work will continue in the developing of state recreation grounds. The Fremont holdings will be given considerable attention during the coming year, as will the property at Goose Lake and at Rat and Beaver lakes in Cherry County. The latter will probably be fenced and a lease given to some reliable party who desires to establish a camp for the accommodation of sportsmen.
Not least, the work of law enforcement and education will continue, being enlarged and improved where possible.
There is no reason why 1928 should not show splendid results in the improvement and development of Nebraska's wild life resources.
BACK UP YOUR GAME WARDENS(Continued from Page 7.)
issue; laws and regulations are debated - heatedly and uselessly by this faction or that—and meanwhile men who serve the disputants in good faith and without fear or question are murdered in cold blood.
It is a difficult matter to ignore an honorable cause which has been dignified by the shedding of blood, and it is an ignoble thing to disregard the sacrifices so generously made in our behalf. It is cowardly to withhold from these men who are fighting conservation's battles our deserved support and sympathy. It is fatal to the success of the task in hand to quibble and equivocate over detail; to stir up endless dissension in the ranks of those clean sportsmen, nature lovers and conservationists who see the same goal and whose harmonious support of the game-law enforcement officers is so vitally required at this time.
It is time to realize that the successful enforcement of sensible regulations to protect game is dependent upon the attitude of that part of the public interested in these things. Individually and through their organizations, the sportsmen should report violations, furnish evidence and stand with the wardens who are endeavoring to do their duties. If this is done, these attempts to kill or cripple wardens and destroy the resources that they guard will not be so lightly undertaken, for no gang of outlaws is so large, powerful or reckless that it can successfully defy the sentiment of a community.
Unity of thought and purpose among the right sort of Americans will remove these threats that, in some degree, menace every warden in the field. Such cooperation will insure adequate game-law enforcement and clear the field for progressive action in the way of restocking game covers, the control of vermin and disease, and in the establishment of the essential game refuges. If these things are accomplished so that we may hand down a restored heritage to our sons, this sacrifice of human life will perhaps not have been in vain.
DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES(Continued from Page 9.) Fish Trucks Into Service
Designs are now being made for two trucks for the hauling of live fish. The Nebraska Bureau of Game and Fish expect to have two of the most modern units for the handling of fish over the highways,
One of the trucks will be of considerable capacity and will be used for long runs over gravelled roads. The small truck will be used for a "feeder" to the big one and will transport fish from lakes and places where roads are difficult to travel.
The large truck will be equipped with air pump and storage with connections to the varous tanks. The tanks will be centered on the trucks with working platforms on eash side.NEBRASKA UNIVERSITY GETS ELK
Three elk have been shipped from Wind Cave Game Preserve, S. Dak., to the Experiment Substation of the College of Agriculture of the University of Nebraska at North Platte. The elk arrived in fine condition, and an effort will be made to determine how these animals thrive under conditions at this substation. The animals will also be used for propagation and exhibit purposes. The inclosure in which they have been placed is said to be well sodded with native grasses. Near-by canyons will furnish them protection against the wind.GAME BIRDS IMPORTED
Importation of game birds during 1927 included 85,141 Mexican quail, 5,518 Hungarian partridges, and a few waterfowl.
A considerable demand developed for Hungarian partridges, much more than could be supplied by available stock. The birds received were distributed mainly in Nebraska, Alabama, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota and Virginia.
Nebraska Game and Fish Laws
Black Bass: (Not less than nine inches in length) : Season open from January 1 to May 1 and from June 10 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Bass, Rock, White, Striped: Not less than six inches im length) : Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Catfish: (Not less than 11 inches in length) : Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Croppies: (Not less than six inches in length) : Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Perch: (Not less than six inches in length) : Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 25, possession 25.
Sunfish: (Bluegills, Pumpkinseed, etc.) (All lengths): Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Trout: (Not less than eight inches in length) : Open season April 1 to October 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Pickerel: (Not less than twelve inches in length) : Open season May 1 to- December 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Bullheads: (Not less than five inches) : Open season January 1 to December 31. Bag 25, possession 25.
Pike: (Not less than 12 inches in length): Open season April 1 to October 31. Bag 15, possession 25.
Frogs: Bull frogs protected, all sizes, during all season. Grass frogs may be used for bait.
Minnows: Minnows may be used for bait. Take same only with minnow seines not more than 20 feet in length nor more than 4 feet in depth. Minnow seines and traps MUST have one-fourth (1-4) inch mesh.
Carp, Buffalo, Suckers, Gar (all lengths) : Open season January 1 to December 31. May be taken with spears during months of March to November, inclusive. These fish under Nebraska law classified as coarse fish and not game fish.
Prairie Chicken, Grouse: Open season October 1 to November 1, inclusive. Bag 5, possession 5.
Waterfowl (Ducks, Geese, Coots, Brants): Open season September 16 to December 31. Bag, 20 Ducks, 5 Geese, 20 Coots, 5 Brants. Possession: 40 Duaks, 5 Geese, 40 Coots, 5 Brants. Waterfowl are also protected by federal laws.
Pheasants: No general open season. From time to time short season may be opened by order Department of Agriculture.
Squirrels: Open season from September 16 to December 31. Bag 10, possession 20.
Raccoons, Muskrats, Opossums, Foxes and Otters: Open season on raccoons and opossums November 1 to February 15. Open season on muskrats, foxes and otters, November 16 to March 1.NO OPEN SEASON
Elk, Daer, Antelope, Mountain Sheep, Beaver, Minnows (except for bait), Bull Frogs, Wood Duck, Doves, Quail, Swans, Imported Game Birds, Song and Insectivorous Birds, oxcept Sparrows, Crows, Bluejays and HawksBAG LIMITS
IN ONE DAY—5 prairie chickens, 20 ducks, 5 geese, 15 rails, 25 snipe, 20 coots, 15 game fish, except bullheads and perch which are 25.
AT ANY ONE TIME—5 prairie chickens, 40 ducks, 5 geese, 25 rails, 25 snipe, 40 coots, 25 game fish.PERMIT FEES
Permit required for all persons over 16 years of age for hunting or fishing. Permit required for ALL persons trapping regardless of age.
Permits necessary for women same as men.
Permits must be carried on person.
Resident—To Hunt and Fish $1.10. To Trap $2.10.
Citizens of the United States but not a resident of Nebraska—To Hunt and Fish $25.10. To Trap $25.10. To Fish $2.10.
Aliens—To Fish $5.10. To Trap $25.10. (No alien hunting permits issued because illegal for alien to carry firearms in Nebraska.)SPECIAL PERMITS
To breed and raise game birds, $1.00.
To breed and raise game or fur-bearing animals, $2.00.
To buy furs, resident $1.00, non-resident $10.00.
Private fish hatchery, $25.00.
To sell coarse fish taken in Nebraska with hook and line, $2.00.GENERAL LAWS
Unlawful to use artificial light, or spot light in hunting protected game birds and animals.
Unlawful to hunt on private land without owner's consent.
Unlawful to shoot game from automobiles.
Unlawful to put game in storage without tags issued by Bureau of Game and Fish.
Unlawful to keep game in storage more than 10 days following close of season.
Unlawful to ship game by auto, train, private car or express without tagged with tags issued by Bureau of Game and Fish.
Unlawful to use nets, seines or traps to take fish.
Unlawful to have seines, nets and traps in possession.
Look Out Sor the Cheater!
He is the fellow who violates the game and fish Laws and thus cheats every real sportsman and every good citizen.
To insure future hunting and fishing, the perpetuation of our wild bird and animal life, HELP US ENFORCE THE GAME LAWS!
If you are a GOOD sportsman you will buy your permit and report violations of this Law to the
BUREAU GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LINCOLN, NEBRASKA or To the Nearest Game Warden