Skip to main content

Outdoor Nebraska

September 1927


Official Bulletin Nebraska Bureau Game and Fish Vol. II SEPTEMBER, 1927 No. 4


Open Season on Pheasants 3 Nebraska Large Raw Fur Producer 4 Game Farming In Nebraska 5 Editorial 6 Uncle Sam to Take Census of Waterfowl 8 Federal Game Laws 9 Departmental Activities 10

Have you purchased your 1927 hunting and fishing permit?

The annual hunting and fishing permit which costs a dollar, is the means of support for the Bureau of Game and Fish.

It is your dollar that trapped and distributed 30,000 pheasants recently. It is your dollar which supports the four state fish hatcheries, keeps the fish car running, buys and maintains recreation grounds, keeps game wordens in the field to protect your fish and game.

If you have not purchased your permit, do so today. The earlier in the year you buy the more value it is to you.


A typical Sand-Hill Lake to be found in Northern Nebraska. Not only are these lakes splendid for fishing but they provide the breeding for thousands of waterfowl.



Vol. II SEPTEMBER, 1927 No. 4

Open Season on Pheasants in Several Counties Oct 6, 7, 8

FOR the first time in the history of Nebraska, sportsmen of the state will have an opportunity to try their luck in hunting the Chinese ring-neck pheasant. An open season of three days duration has been declared in Wheeler and certain parts of Sherman Counties.

The season will officially open at 7 a. m. on the morning of October 6 and close at 6 p. m. on the evening of October 8. All of Wheeler County will be open to hunting and all of Sherman County except three townships, namely, Scott, Harrison and Hazard.

The bag on birds will be five males. Under no circumstances can the hen pheasant be taken and anyone found with a hen pheasant in possession will be prosecuted. The male is highly colored "while the hen is smaller and dull in appearance so there can be little likelihood of error. The possession for the season will be five male birds.

All birds taken from either of the above counties must be tagged with special tags secured in the county. Sportsmen are warned not to use tags secured at home but to get the tag which will be available at the offices of the county clerks and banks etc. in both of the above counties. It is necessary that birds be tagged with special tags so that game wardens can prohibit the shooting of birds in counties not open, therefore all wardens have been instructed to hold for investigation all parties found outside the above counties with tags issued other than thru the dealers in these counties.

All sportsmen are urged to observe the rights of property owners and not to enter private land without permission. The action of the sportsmen this year will have a great bearing on the open season on these birds in other years, therefore it behooves every man to respect property and to treat the farmer and ranchman fair and honorably. If this is done, many of them will be glad to have the hunter come rather than dislike to see them near.

The following rules will govern the open season on pheasants this year. Read these carefully and then observe them to the letter.

NOTICE Open Season on Ring-Neck Male Pheasants

In accordance with Section 7346, Compiled Statutes, State of Nebraska, as amended by Chapter 127 of Session Laws of 1927, an open season on male Ring-Neck Pheasants is hereby declared to be effective in Wheeler county and in certain parts of Sherman County, Nebraska, as described below, subject to the following conditions:

1. The open season shall be for a period of three days, beginning at 7 A. M. October 6, 1927, and ending at 6 P. M. October 8, 1927. No hunting is permissable between sunset and one half hour before sunrise of each day.

2. The open season shall cover all of Wheeler County and all of Sherman County, Nebraska, except the Townships of Scott, Hazard and Harrison.

3. The daily bag limit during the above open season shall be five birds, and the possession limit for the season for each hunter shall be five (5) birds.

4. All birds killed during said open season and carried from the county must be tagged with special tags which shall be available from persons handling permits.

5. The ownership and title of all such birds rests in the State and the person taking or killing the same shall consent that the title thereto shall be and remain in the State for the purpose of regulating the possession, use and transportation thereof after taking or killing of same. The taking or killing of birds shall be deemed a consent on the part of such person that title to same rests in the State.

6. All persons taking or hunting birds on any land not public land must obtain the consent of the owner or person in charge of the same. It is unlawful for any person to trespass on duly posted land or to hunt on private land without the consent of the owner or person in charge. (iSec. 7338 Compiled Statutes, State of Nebraska). It is also unlawful to shoot game birds on or from a public highway. All such violations will be vigorously prosecuted.

Dated this 1st day of September, 1927 at Lincoln, Nebraska.

FRANK B. O'CONNELL, H. J. McLAUGHLTN, Chief Game Warden Secretary of Agriculture


The open season dates are October 6, 7 and 8.

The daily bag is 5 MALE birds.

The possession limit is five male birds.

The season is open ONLY in Wheeler and certain parts of Sherman Counties and it is unlawful to kill pheasants any other place in the state.

All birds taken from either of the above counties MUST be tagged with tags secured in these counties.

That it is unlawful to hunt on private land without the permission of the land owner.

That all game wardens have been instructed to rigidly enforce every regulation pertaining to the opening of this season and every sportsman can aid greatly by cooperating with the wardens.


Nebraska Large Producer of Raw Fur

NEARLY a million dollars worth of raw fur is produced in Nebraska annually.

The Nebraska Bureau of Game & Fish has recently completed a survey of the fur industry and finds that many thousands of pelts are marketed annually and that they bring a considerable income to the state.

The muskrat is the leader in the production of fur. According to the survey, which is fairly complete, around 400,000 rats were trapped and marketed during the season of 1926-27. The estimated value of these pelts is $600,000.

Next in number of pelts taken comes the skunk. The survey shows that 17,000 skunk were taken during the 19216-27 season and the estimated value is $25,000.

The coyote, a predatory animal, shows a good revenue in the production of fur. The survey discloses that close to 4,000 coyotes were killed in the last season and the estimated value of these hides is $40,000.

The opossum is no mean fur producer in the Goldenrod state. During 1926-27 over 7,000 of these sleepy little fellows were trapped and their hides were estimated to be worth $14,000.

A surprising feature of the survey was the number of beaver that were taken. Over 1,000 beaver were reported taken in 1926-27. It is possible that some of these animals were taken in adjoining states but the most of them came from Nebraska. The estimated value of the beaver is $20,000.

Other fur produced is as follows: 1900 mink, estimated value $26,000; 1800 raccoon, estimated value $20,000; 8,000 civit cats, estimated value $11,000; 500 badger, estimated value $2,500; 500 weasel, estimated value $500.

Nebraska licensed last year 5,000 trappers and issued fur-buying permits to over 500 persons. In making the survey the Bureau wishes to thank the fur-buyers and others who aided in getting the facts and figures.

The survey is fairly accurate, though of course, by no means complete. It is possible to get a fairly accurate record of furs purchased by Nebraska buyers but there is no way that a record can be obtained from the many mailorder houses in other states to which some of the trappers send their furs direct. Taking into consideration these houses and the resident buyers who failed to answer the questionaire, it is estimated that Nebraska produced around a million dollars worth of fur during the 1926-27 season.

While this industry is of considerable proportions the future is not altogether bright. It is very apparent to all the forward-looking trappers and fur dealers that they cannot continue to take these animals year after year at the rate they are being taken now. Every year sees more and more wooded land turned to agriculture, more and more of the prairie land broken. At the present everything is going out and nothing coming in. The fur-bearing animals are being trapped on every hand, but little is being done to save seed for future crops or to build up and better conditions for the future.

The muskrat fur business has great possibilities in Nebraska. Many of our marshes and lakes are ideally suited for rats. If these marshes and low lands were left in their natural state or dammed up rather than being drained, it would increase the breeding grounds for rats and at the same time increase production of agricultural products through sub-irrigation. As it is today, so much drainage is being done that the general water level is being lowered and the storage basins of water depleted.

The raccoon and opossum likewise are finding it more and more difficult to survive. Unfortunately for these animals, they are more or less unpopular with the farmer because of their proclivity for raiding chicken houses. However, like many other things, they are not without their good points and value in other ways. There are many lowlands along the rivers which are wooded that are ideal breeding grounds for these animals. Under proper development and planning these places could be made to produce a considerable revenue in the raising of raccoon and opossum.

Nebraska has a nice industry in raw fur that ranks well up with our leading states. A little planning and study and conservation today will keep this industry. It is a case today of the goose that laid the golden egg.


His Majesty The Muskrat


The life and accuracy of a shotgun, rifle or pistol depends upon the care taken of it. No matter how well it is made if proper care is not taken of it, it soon becomes worthless.

Immediately upon returning home or to camp from a hunting trip or a shoot, clean the arm thoroughly — never let it stand overnight.

A sure method is to render them chemically clean and dry and then apply an oil or grease to keep moisture away, and they are then safe for all times. Run a clean rag or patch soaked with oil or powder solvent through the barrel first.

The Protecting Coat. After the arm is thoroughly cleaned of lead and powder — so that a clean white patch, when run through, comes out dry and clean, saturate a clean patch wtih oil and thoroughly oil the bore; this protects it from rust. Should you put the firearm away for some time, it is better to use a grease than an oil for this purpose because after a month or so the oil

(Continued on Page 16)

Game Farming in Nebraska

CONSIDERABLE interest in Game Farming in Nebraska is now being taken.

During the present year—1927—permits have been granted to 103 persons to raise fur-bearing animals and to 230 to raise game birds.

Most of the persons who have taken out permits to raise fur-bearing animals are interested in the propagation with a view to farming. However, this is not the case with the majority of those holding game bird permits. Many of these are hunters who keep calls and mallards for hunting purposes. Probably about 50 of those holding such permits are interested in game bird farming.

Most of those who are holding fur-bearing animals farming permits are interested in the muskrat, raccoon and the mink. Several persons are planning to raise muskrats on a large scale in northern Nebraska and are now experimenting with these little fur producers.

Among those pioneering this work in Nebraska at the present time are Alfred H. Vrinders and George B. Butterfield, both of Norfolk. They are raising muskrats, using a lake and breeding them on a large scale. Their farm is located near Conterra, Nebraska.

The Omaha Mink Ranch, Omaha, owned by Dr. J. J. Warta and R. B. Hasselquist, are featuring mink. They have a breeding stock of around 100 pair on their farm and are successfully raising mink for breeding stock. This firm exhibited some of their stock at the Nebraska State Fair this year.


One of Nebraska's Game Farms. A. R. Golay of Kearney and some of his geese.

The Atkins & Osborn Farm at Cozad, Nebraska reports having on their farm 65 coyotes, 4 opossum, 2 raccoon and 5 skunk.

Muskrats are being raised on the game farm of F. C. Magnuson. He has 130 breeders and estimates his 1927 crop will be around 300 rats.

Donald Noring, Page, Nebraska, is raising skunks. He has on hand 10 breeders.

J. A. McReynolds, Omaha, is using the dry-pen method of raising muskrats. He has on "hand several dozen breeders at all times.

I. W. Merritt, Bassett, Nebraska, is experimenting with muskrats, having introduced new stock secured in another state.

C. W. Carlson, Norfolk, is breeding foxes and skunk. He has a pair of Alaska Blue fox with which he is experimenting.

R. V. Douglas, Maywood, is raising raccoon. He has on hand as breeders a number of the dark northern variety.

Among the game bird farmers are W. H. Lemburg, who is a pioneer in the raising of pheasants. He also has done considerable experimenting with waterfowl.

A. R. Golay, Kearney, is one of the state's oldest and best known game farmers. The pictures above will give some idea of his flock. He has over a hundred birds in his pens, most of which are ducks and geese. He has several varieties of each as well as pheasants.

Earl Haswell, Tekamah, is another well-known bird breeder. He has over a hundred birds in his pens, consisting of geese, ducks, calls and pheasants. He has some fine specimen of wood ducks.


Just to give the reader an idea of the extent of Nebraska's game farming the following figures are given.

Nebraska game farmer's have on hand over 500 geese, representing ten different varieties. Their stock of ducks number over 1,000, with another thousand of English calls. They have in their pens over 500 pheasants, among which are golden, silver and ring-necks. There are three wild turkeys, four pair of quail in the pens of Nebraska game farmers.

In the fur-bearing animal breeding pens are found several thousand muskrats, 105 raccoons, 132 mink, and a small number of opossum, skunk, foxes, coyotes, deer and squirrel. One farmer reports having a monkey, though the laws of Nebraska do not require a report on such animals.

Your fishing and hunting permit should be purchased early in the year. By so doing you will get more for your money, as all permits expire on December 31 of each year.

Abstracts of the new game laws are now available. The printer has just delivered 50,000 copies to the Bureau.



Published by Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fish and Game. Editorial Office, State Capitol, Lincoln, Nebraska FRANK B. O'CONNELLEditor DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Adam McMullenGovernor H. J. McLaughlinSecretary Prank B. O'ConnellWarden Vol. II. Lincoln, September, 1927 No. 4



Attention is invited to an article in another part of this magazine which gives facts and figures regarding a survey of the fur industry in Nebraska recently made by the Bureau of Game and Fish.

Few citizens of our state have realized the vast wealth to be found in our natural resources. Too many have taken our wild life as merely a plaything of little value and have dismissed the matter without further thought.

To the contrary, the wild life of Nebraska is of tremendous value. Not only is it valuable as a means of recreation for countless thousands of Nebraska boys and girls, but it is of considerable value from a commercial point of view. When one stops to realize that the raw fur alone produced in Nebraska each year is nearly a third as much as that of Alaska—that great game country —then he can begin to get some idea of the importance of wild life.

Nebraska is ideally situated for the production of raw fur. In the northern part of the state are many lakes and marshes well suited to the breeding of the muskrat. In the eastern river sections, especially along the Missouri, there is fine breeding grounds for the raccoon and opossum. In the more open places of the west the coyote, skunk and mink can be taken in considerable numbers to no mean profit.

However, the production of raw fur cannot go on indefinitely as it is at present. Everything is going out and nothing coming in. Lakes and marshes are being drained, wooded valleys are being turned into fields and pastures. The open places of the west are rapidly disappearing. Nebraska's production of fur is bound to drop each year unless constructive steps are taken to keep it.

There are many marshes and lakes and swamps in Nebraska adopted to muskrat culture. In fact these places are better suited to muskrat culture than to anything else. Yet many of these places are being drained with the mistaken idea that they will be worth more for agricultural purposes. It would be far better to keep these and to develop them into muskrat fur farms.

Nebraska has a million dollar a year income in its raw fur. Shall we let it slip from us as we have many of our other natural resources or shall we preserve and improve it ?


Considerable discussion has arisen regarding the new law controlling the shipping of game.

The old law required the sportsman to attach an affidavit to his game when he shipped it. The proposition was so clumsy and unworkable that the law was never enforced.

The new law does not change the old law except to provide a tag for shipping instead of an affidavit. And to make the matter easy for the sportsman, the tag is furnished by the state. All the sportsman need do is to go to a county clerk or dealer handling permits and secure a tag. One section of this tag he attaches to his game and the other half he mails to the Bureau at Lincoln.

Not only does this tag serve to help the game warden control the shipping of game but at the same time it gives the Bureau facts and figures regarding the taking of game. In other words, the present tag system not only serves as a regulatory measure but it is also a game survey.

In the old days game was shipped only by baggage and express. It was easy to regulate. Nowadays the automobile must be taken into consideration as more game is now carried that way than over the railroad. Hence it was necessary to include the automobile where used for carrying game.

Here are the rules regarding the shipping of game. All persons are urged to use the tags. It is believed that the system will work out nicely with hardship to no one.

1. Shipping is defined as carrying game over a considerable distance, i. e. thru several counties. It is not necessary to tag game where the person goes to a hunting or fishing place near his place of residence.

2. Persons using the railroad will find tags available at the offices of the baggage and express agents. Attach the tag at time of shipping as it is unlawful for the common carrier to accept game unless so tagged.

3. Persons using automobiles to carry game thru several counties or a considerable distance must tag the game. Such tags are secured from any one handling licenses or permits without charge. Put one half the tag on the game and mail the other half. Be sure to mail at or near place of taking game as the post mark is observed in computing the place of taking game.


A large number of inquiries are being made regarding rules and regulations governing blinds.

The Nebraska state law does not provide any regulation of blinds.

The federal law, however, does regulate to some extent the use of blinds.

A regulation was recently made which pertains to Nebraska. This regulation prohibits the use of sunken floating blinds. It would seem that if a blind was fastened and not allowed to float that it would come within the law.

Anyone desiring further information on the use of such blinds should address the Bureau Biological Survey, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. or John Q. Holmes, Federal Game Warden, Orleans, Nebraska.


QUESTION: Are there any quail left in Nebraska ?

ANSWER: The quail situation in Nebraska is better than for several years. The last two winters have been favorable and the birds have increased in many communities. However, it is doubtful if the quail will ever increase to such an extent that we can have an open season. The winter kills too many birds in these days when there is so little shelter.


Attention of Nebraska sportsmen is called to the fact that new regulations of the U. S. Government prohibit the killing of all shore birds except Wilson or Jack Snipe and Woodcock.

The Federal game wardens are instructed to prosecute persons killing shore birds other than the above mentioned.


Every year a number of persons lose their lives in Nebraska during the hunting season.

Most of the accidents are caused by firearms.

The hunter cannot be too careful. Always remember that not only your own life is jeopardized by carelessness but the lives of your comrades as well.

Never take chances with firearms. It simply doesn't pay. And mishandling a gun is unsportsmanlike as well.


Reports from all parts of the state indicate that the 1927 crop of prairie chicken is very short.

Several reasons other than heavy hunting in the past may be the cause of this. Last spring was an unfavorable season for the hatching of these birds. A wet, cold, changeable spring and early summer did not produce large coveys.

It is regrettable that the State Legislature did not close the season on the prairie chicken for a season or two. Some sportsmen feel that even a closed season would do little good, but the experiment would be worth trying.


As a game fish the bullhead does not rate very high. As a mattter of fact, the bullhead is poo-hooed and the victim of many fishing stories.

However, the lowly bullhead is a mighty important factor in Nebraska Ashing circles. There are thousands of Nebraska boys who look back to many pleasant summers spent in quest of the lowly bullhead.

Then he is a great revenue producer. It is estimated by the Bureau of Fish and Game that the lowly bullhead brings in more p erm it money than any other fish. Thousands of eastern Nebraska citizens take out permits each year to try their luck at landing the lowly bullhead.

It is about time we began to give the bullhead his just due. He is playing a big part in providing sport for Nebraska boys and grown-up boys, and should be given credit.

Did you ever meet this fellow?


"Some one is going to get badly mussed up!" writes Stephen J. Wilson, of River End, 111. "And I don't mean maybe!

"To give the person in question fair warning I am sending you herewith what I believe to be a very good likeness of him; and I hope you will publish it. It is from memory, but I am sure that both he and those who have seen him will recognize it. And I have faithfully determined that if I happen to meet him on one of my favorite fishing streams this season, one of us is going to go home in a very badly pummelled condition.

"The best description I can give of this party is that he is apparently a 'male off-spring by direct descent of a female canine'—if you get what I mean; and has all of the lowly attributes of what are commonly called swine." — Field and Stream.


Uncle Sam to Take Census of Waterfowl

THE U. S. Biological Survey is embarking upon a scheme to secure a census of migratory waterfowl, designed not only to estimate the number now in existence, but to indicate the fluctuations in numbers from year to year.

The plan is to secure as large a number of voluntary observers as possible, especially in the areas of greatest concentration, who will count or estimate the numbers of birds by species upon a given area and upon certain prearranged dates.

A great many conflicting opinions regarding the waterfowl supply have been advanced recently, and it will be of the greatest value to have some real statistics regarding it. The difficulties surrounding the contemplated work are obvious, and success depends largely upon securing observers who are sufficiently interested to devote the necessary time, who are suitably situated for the work, and who have a sufficient knowledge of species to be able to identify them readily under the adverse conditions which must sometimes obtain.

The Department has offered to help in securing observers in this State, and anyone interested in cooperating in the work is invited to write the Game Warden's office for further patv ticulars. A leaflet containing the following information has been issued by the Biological Survey:


In order to obtain accurate information regarding the numbers, distribution, and migration of waterfowl, for the purpose of aiding in the administration of the Migratory-Bird Treaty Act and the regulations thereunder, the Biological Survey is planning a monthly census of waterfowl throughout the United States. It is desired to establish as many voluntary observation stations as possible, particularly in those areas where there is great concentration of waterfowl in winter or during migration. In addition, it is desired to gather as much information as possible regarding the numbers and distribution of our waterfowl during the breeding season. In carrying on this work accuracy in the counts or estimates of numbers is of prime importance, as is also the taking of the census simultaneously thoughout the entire country. The following outline is for the information of those cooperating in this project:

1. Species to be considered.—For the purpose of these censuses the term "waterfowl" is held to comprise all ducks, geese, swans, and coots, but no other water birds.

2. Area to be covered.-—Each observer should select the best area in his vicinity, by which is meant the area that is frequented by the largest number of birds, and it should be extensive enough to comprise a large majority of the waterfowl occurring in the locality. For practical purposes, however, it should not be so extensive that it can not be covered in a single day or portion of a day, except possibly under special circumstances. Furthermore, exactly the same area should be covered on every day designated for the taking of the censuses, whether or not there are any birds present.

3. Dates for censuses.—The censuses should be taken each month on the exact days selected for the entire country, which dates will be supplied by the Biological Survey some time in advance, so that all necessary arrangements can be made for carrying on this work. Should unforeseen circumstances, such as violent storms, absolutely prevent the taking of a census on the date specified, it should be taken on the very earliest possible day thereafter.

Censuses at other times during the month would also be desirable, but these should not take the place of any of the censuses to be taken on specified dates.

4. Methods to be followed.—An actual count by species of all waterfowl present should be made, unless the numbers are too great to permit actual count, under which circumstances careful estimates of their numbers should be made, and as far as possible checked by a second estimate. In making estimates of flocks of waterfowl, it is a good plan to count all of a certain portion, and then, by using this as a unit of measure, estimate the remainder of the flock; 100 and 1,000 are convenient units for the purpose. Such estimates can be made either when the birds are on the wing or when they are resting on the water. In the latter case it is possible also to check the count by estimating the number of square yards covered by the flock and then determining the average number of birds to the square yard.

Where birds are scattered over a large area it is sometimes convenient 'to count the number present in a considerable portion of it, and from this to approximate the number in the total area. In large mixed flocks containing several species of ducks, it is manifestly impossible to count the numbers of each species, but the proportion of the entire flock made up by each species should be carefully estimated.

In making either counts or estimates of birds, each flock should be recorded separately as observed, and nothing left to the memory, since it is very difficult to carry in mind for any length of time the exact numbers in the successive flocks of birds that often appear. Care should likewise be observed not to count the same birds twice.

It should be noted also whether the birds observed are stationary in the locality or whether they are flocks on migration passing the observer in the air.

5. Reports.—A report of each census taken should be made promptly to the Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, on the cards supplied for the purpose. These are of two kinds, one bearing the names of a number of birds and the other with blank spaces for entering additional species. The exact area covered should be carefully described on the card, under "Remarks" if necessary, and, where possible, township, section, and range should be indicated, so that it will be possible for the area to be readily identified and comparisons made with censuses to be taken there in subsequent years. A sketch map of the area would be help-

(Continued on Page 16)

The Federal Game Laws

The Migratory Bird Act and Regulations

(Approved July 3, 1918. 40 Stat. 755) (Editor's note: The Federal game laws are continued herein from last month, as they were too long for one issue.) Regulation 6j—Shipment, Transportation, and Possession of Certain Migratory Game Birds

Waterfowl (except wood duck, eider ducks, and swans), rails, coot, gallinules, woodcock, Wilson snipe or jaeksnipe, and mourning doves and parts thereof legally taken may be transported in or out of the State where taken during the respective open seasons in that State, and may be imported from Canada during the open season in the Province where taken, in any manner, but not more than the number thereof that may be taken in two days by one person under these regulations shall be transported by one person in one calendar week out of the State where taken; any such migratory game birds or parts thereof in transit during the open season may continue in transit such additional time immediately succeeding such open season, not to exceed 5 days, necessary to deliver the same to their destination, and may be possessed in any State, Territory, or District, during the period constituting the open season where killed, and for an additional period of 10 days next succeeding said open season; and any package in which migratory game birds or parts thereof are transported shall have the name and address of the shipper and of the consignee and an accurate statement of the numbers and kinds of birds contained therein clearly and conspicuously marked on the outside thereof; but no such birds shall be transported from any State, Territory, or District to or through another State, Territory, or District, or to or through a Province of the Dominion of Canada contrary to the laws of the State, Territory, or District, or Province of the Dominion of Canada in which they were taken or from which they are transported; nor shall any such birds be transported into any State, Territory, or District from another State, Territory, or District, or from any State, Territory, or District into any Province of the Dominion of • Canada at a time when such State, Territory, or District, or Province of the Dominion of Canada prohibits the possession or transporting thereof.

(As amended October 25, 1918, July 9, 1920, March 8, 1926, and April 4, 1927.)

Regulation 7.—Taking of Certain Migratory Nongame Birds by Eskimos and Indians in Alaska

In Alaska Eskimos and Indians may take for the use of themselves and their immediate families, in any manner and at any time, and possess and transport auks, auklets, guillemots, murres, and puffins and their eggs for food, and their skins for clothing.

Regulation 8.—Permits to Propagate and Sell Migratory Waterfowl

1. A person may take in any manner and at any time migratory waterfowl and their eggs for propagating purposes when authorized by a permit issued by the Secretary. Waterfowl and their eggs so taken may be possessed by the permittee and may be sold and transported by him for propagating purposes to any person holding a permit issued by the Secretary in accordance with the provisions of this regulation.

2. A person authorized by a permit issued by the Secretary may possess, buy, sell, and transport migratory waterfowl and their increase and eggs in any manner and at any time for propagating purposes; and migratory waterfowl, except the birds taken under paragraph 1 of this regulation, so possessed may be killed by him at any time, in any manner, except that they may be killed by shooting only during the open season for waterfowl in the State where killed, and the carcasses, with heads and feet attached thereto, of the birds so killed may be sold and transported by him in any manner, except that they may be killed by shooting only during the open season for waterfowl in the State where killed, and the carcasses, with heads and feet attached thereto, of the birds so killed may be sold and transported by him in any manner and at any time to any person for actual consumption, or to the keeper of a hotel, restaurant, or boarding house, retail dealer in meat or game, or a club, for sale or service to their patrons, who may possess such carcasses for actual consumption without a permit, but no migratory waterfowl killed by shooting shall be bought or sold unless each bird before attaining the age of four weeks shall have had removed from the web of one foot a portion thereof in the form of a V large enough to make a permanent, well-defined mark, which shall be sufficient to identify it as a bird raised in domestication under a permit.

3. Any package in which such waterfowl or parts thereof or their eggs are transported shall have plainly and conspicuously marked on the outside thereof the name and address of the permittee, the number of his permit, the name and address of the consignee, and an accurate statement of the number and kinds of birds or eggs contained therein.

4. Applications for permits must be addressed to the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, and must contain the following information: Name and address of applicant; place where the business is to be carried on; number of acres of land used in the business and whether owned or leased by the applicant; number of each species of waterfowl in possession of applicant; names of species and number of birds or eggs of each species if permission is asked to take waterfowl or their eggs; and the particular locality where it is desired to take such waterfowl or eggs.

5. A person granted a permit under this regulation shall keep books and records which shall correctly set forth the total number of each species of waterfowl and their eggs possessed on the date of application for the permit and on the 1st day of each January next following; also for each calendar year during the life of the permit the total number of each species reared and killed, number of each species and their eggs sold and transported, manner in which such waterfowl and eggs were transported, name and address of each person from or to whom waterfowl and eggs were purchased or sold,

(Continued on Page 11)

Departmental Activities


The State Fish Hatchery at Rock Creek, Dundy County, will be greatly enlarged during the coming year. A recent purchase of 87 acres of land will immediately be developed into a series of nursery ponds for trout and bass.

The original site contained 20 acres. This has already been developed, having eight ponds, several small holding ponds, hatching house, residence, ice house, etc.

The new holdings are in two parcels, 77 acres above the old site and 10 acres below. B'oth parcels follow the creek and contain numerous springs of considerable volume.

Ponds will be constructed on both the parcels and connected up with the old site. Most of thsse ponds will be for trout, though several of the larger ones will be used for bass.

Rock Creek, when developed, will be one of the largest trout hatcheries in the middle west. It will not only be possible to hatch large numbers of trout but it will be possible to hold them in nurseries until they reach fingerling size.


One of the best fish exhibits ever arranged, according to those who saw it, was held at the Nebraska State Fair this year. Thousands of Nebraskans viewed the many fish on display.

The exhibit was arranged and under the supervision of W. J. O'Brien, veteran Nebraska fish eulturist.


A contract is being let for the construction of a spillway at Red Deer Lake in Cherry County. The Bureau is being assisted in the construction by the Red Deer Club, and the Wood Lake Community Club. The old spillway washed out last spring. The new construction will be much larger and according to the engineers will be adequate to handle any amount of water that might flow out of that lake.


Nursery Pond near Riverton which was built by the Riverton chapter of the "Ikes".


A nice bag taken last season by Harry Knapp, County Clerk of Custer Co.


The Bureau of Game & Fish has joined with the State Park Board and local citizens of Custer County in the construction of a large pond in the state park at that place. A ditch is being cut through the park, leaving an old bed of a creek nearly a mile in length. This bed is well fed with springs. The lake will be used for a bass nursery.


The wild animal life of today is not ours to do with as we please. The original stock is given to us in trust, for the benefit of the present and the future. We must render an accounting of this trust to those who come after us. It is the duty of every good citizen to promote the protection of forests and wild life, and the creation of game preserves, while a supply of game remains. Every man who finds pleasure in fishing and hunting should be willing to spend both time and money in active work for the protection of fish, game and forests.



(Continued from Page 9)

together with the number and species and whether sold alive or dead; and the date of each transaction. A report setting forth this information shall be annually furnished the Secretary during the month of January for the preceding calendar year.

6. A permittee shall at all reasonable hours allow any authorized employee of the United States Department of Agriculture to enter and inspect the premises where operations are being carried on under this regulation and to inspect the books and records of such permittee relating thereto.

7. A permit issued under this regulation shall be valid until revoked by the Secretary unless otherwise specified therein, shall not be transferable, and may be revoked by the Secretary, if the permittee violates any of the provisions of the migratory bird treaty act or of the regulations thereunder. A permit duly revoked by the Secretary shall be surrendered to him by the person to whom it was issued, on demand of any employee of the United States Department of Agriculture duly authorized to enforce the provisions of the migratory bird treaty act.

8. A person may possess and transport for his own use, without a permit live migratory waterfowl now lawfully possessed or hereafter lawfully acquired by him, but he may not purchase or sell such waterfowl without a permit. A State or municipal game farm or city park may possess, purchase, sell, and transport live migratory waterfowl without a permit, but no such waterfowl shall be purchased from or sold to a person (other than such State or municipal game farm or city park) unless he has a permit. The feathers of wild ducks and wild geese lawfully killed and feathers of such birds seized and condemned by Federal or State game authorities may be possessed, bought, sold, and transported, for use in making fishing flies, bed pillows, and mattresses, and for similar commercial purposes, but not for millinery or ornamental purposes.

(As amended October 25, 1918, July 9, 1920, April 10, 1923, and June 11, 1923.)

Regulation 9.—Permits to Collect Migratory Birds for Scientific Purposes

A person may take in any manner and at any time migratory birds and their nests and eggs for scientific purposes when authorized by a permit issued by the Secretary, which permit shall be carried on his person when he is collecting specimens thereunder and shall be exhibited to any person requesting to see the same.

Application for a permit must be addressed to the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, and must contain the following information: Name and address of applicant, his age, and name of State, Territory, or District in which specimens are proposed to be taken, and the purpose for which they are intended. Each application shall be accompanied by certificates from two well-known ornithologists that the applicant is a fit person to be intrusted with a permit.

The permit may limit the number and species of birds, birds' nests or eggs that may be collected thereunder, and may authorize the holder thereof to possess, buy, sell, exchange, and transport in any manner and at any time migratory birds, parts thereof, and their nests and eggs for scientific purposes; or it may limit the holder to one or more of these privileges. Public museums, zoological parks and societies and public scientific and educational institutions may possess, buy, sell, exchange, and transport in any manner and at any time migratory birds and parts thereof and their nests and eggs for scientific purposes without a permit, but no specimens shall be taken without a permit. The plumage and skins of migratory game birds legally taken may be possessed and transported by a person without a permit.

A taxidermist, when authorized by a permit issued by the Secretary, may possess, buy, sell, exchange, and transport in any manner and at any time migratory birds and parts thereof legally taken or he may be limited to one or more of these privileges.

Each permit shall be valid until revoked by the Secretary unless otherwise specified therein, shall not be transferable, and shall be revocable at the discretion of the Secretary. A permit duly revoked by the Secretary shall be surrendered to him by the person to whom it was issued, on demand of any employee of the United States Department of Agriculture duly authorized to enforce the provisions of the migratory bird treaty act. A person holding a permit shall report annually to the Secreatry on or before the 10th day of January during the life of the permit the number of skins, nests, or eggs of each species collected, bought, sold, exchanged, or transported during the preceding calendar year.

Every package in which migratory birds or their nests or eggs are transported shall have clearly and conspicuously marked on the outside thereof the name and address of the sender, the number of the permit in every case when a permit is required the name and address of the consignee, a statement that it contains specimens of birds, their nests, or eggs for scientific purposes, and, whenever such a package is transported or offered for transportation from the Dominion of Canada into the United States or from the United States into the Dominion of Canada, an accurate statement of the contents.

(As amended October 25, 1918, March 3, 1921, and June 11, 1923.)

Regulation 10.—Permits to Kill Migratory Birds Injurious to Property

When information is furnished the Secretary that any species of migratory bird has become, under extraordinary conditions, seriously injurious to agriculture or other interests in any particular community, an investigation will be made to determine the nature and extent of the injury, whether the birds alleged to be doing the damage should be killed, and, if so, during what times and by what means. Upon his determination an appropriate order will be made.

Regulation 11—State Laws for the Protection of Migratory Birds

Nothing in these regulations shall be construed to permit the taking, possession, sale, purchase, or transportation of migratory birds, their nests, and eggs contrary to the laws and regulations of any State, or Territory, or District made for the purpose of giving further protection to migratory birds, their nests, and eggs when such laws and regulations are not inconsistent with the convention between the United States and Great Britain for the protection of migratory birds concluded August 16, 1916, or the migratory bird treaty act and do not extend the open seasons for such birds beyond the dates prescribed by these regulations.

(Added by proclamation of October 25, 1918, as amended July 9, 1920.)


Much of romance and not a little fiction exists in the popular mind regarding natural history of the beaver. The manifestations of instinct or intelligence, whichever it may be called, by the beaver, has always been a subject of the keenest interest to everyone.

George L, Ramsey, owner of the North American Beaver ranch at Sylvan, Minnesota, and James M. Totten, a Minnesota game warden, have collaborated in a very interesting article embodying their observations of the family life of the beaver in the July issue of the American Game Protective Association.

Five pairs of beaver held in experiment pens, were under continuous observation by them, day and night last year for a period of ten months. As the beaver are to a large extent nocturnal in their habits, the artificial ponds and pens were so arranged and illuminated by artificial light as to permit observation at night as well as in the day time. The animals were readily tamed and did not object to handling. They soon learned to eat from the hand of their keepers, much the same as well domesticated animals. They were fond of fresh white bread, apples, carrots, and of course their natural diet of poplar, birch, alder and willow bark.

Some of the things learned in those observations were that the beaver could remain under water without breathing for seven minutes. They were seen to use only their hind feet for propulsion in swimming, using the tail as a rudder. Sticks, stones and mud for dams were carried against their breasts, held by their front feet. The largest beaver of the colony was a male weighing 90 pounds. The largest female, weighing 85 pounds, gave birth to six young, while the young females brought forth three each.

The mother beaver taught her young to swim, taking each, one at a time, into the water for that purpose. The young commenced to eat solid food at twenty days of age, and were not much over half grown at one year of age.

In view of the great and growing interest in fur farming, the intimate study of the life history of beaver and other fur bearing animals is of the greatest economic importance. Much must be learned about the food habits of these animals, their mating and breeding, their diseases, and various other facts relating to their general welfare and health, before the science of fur farming can be looked upon as a settled industry. Messrs. Ramsey and Totten have mdae an interesting contribution to the existing beaver literature.


Some of the "Sojourners" that stop on the Platte each year in their flights


Most Hungarian partridges imported to this country are released directly into coverts. The species has been successfully bred on game farms, however, and the business of propagating them may be extended. The Hungarian partridge exemplifies a difficulty to be overcome by the game farmer in the case of birds that will breed only with mates of their own choosing, or in which the sexes are so similar in appearance that arbitrary pairing is impracticable. To obtain natural pairs the following system has been developed:

The community pen in which the flock is kept is provided with small connecting pens, the outlets from which can be closed by a door released by a cord from a convenient blind, where an observer conceals himself as the mating season comes on. Pairs have a tendency to withdraw from the flock, and are likely sooner or later to wander into one of the small pens, and then the door can be dropped. Even then the birds should be watched, for should a third one come to the door seeking entrance to the small pen it is likely to be the mate of one of the penned birds. In such case the door must be lifted and another occasion awaited. When assured that a true pair is isolated from the flock, they can be caught and placed in a breeding cage similar to those recommended for quail.

Rearing equipment and methods may be much like those for quail, but some differences in procedure that have been found advisable are here noted. Cock Hungarian partridges are very devoted to the young, and on a game farm where surplus cocks are available the young are transferred to their care before being liberated on a rearing field or on a beat it is desired to stock. The transfer is accomplished by connecting the coop of the foster mother with another containing a cock partridge, by a board run fitting closely to the ground. The coops should be a few yards apart and gradually the young will go to the cock bird to be hovered. The cock with the young can then be domiciled in a coop in a rearing field or liberated in vermin-free cover as desired.

Feeding may follow, probably with equal success, either the plan recommended for pheasants or that for the bobwhite. One successful American breeder uses hard-boiled eggs and fine oatmeal for the first few days, after that adding partridge meal, and later millet, hemp, and canary seed. Adults prior to and during the breeding season are given millet, hemp, wheat, cut oats, and meat scrap. In winter buckwheat, millet, and wheat are fed.

Where game farming can be carried on in connection with a range stocked with Hungarian partridges, it is the   OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 15 usual practice to take the first clutch of eggs, particularly from nests that seem too exposed or otherwise liable to destruction, and set them under small hens. The female partridge will then lay another set of eggs. Young hatched at about the same time as those of wild birds sometimes are released close to the nests and they are quickly adopted by the wild pair.



Limited entirely to North America, the common skunk (Mephitis mephitis) with a thorough knowledge of the efficacy of his own peculiar means of defense, has held his own against the inroads of civilization upon his natural domain.

When good and bad qualities are present in a certain species of animal, the bad are noticeably on the heavy side of the fulcrum until the good are brought to light. This is quite true in the case of the skunk. The nearest a great many people have acquainted themselves with this odorif erious animal is by a sniff of the tainted atmosphere. Aside from this brandishing ever-present weapon, much can be said concerning the good qualities of the animal.

Resembling the badger to some extent in general appearance and the lengthened claws of the fore-feet, the skunk is found to differ decidedly from the weasel family (Mustelidae) to which it belongs. The habits, teeth, and hind feet of the skunk are also noticeably different from

Cats caught in the Loup by Emory Thompson and R. A. McCartney, both of Ord.


A nice bass taken in Lake Arterburn in Chase County

the weasel. The skunk is not built for speed. His ponderous body appears to weigh heavily on the small feet. In fact "haste" does not appear in his dictionary as is evidenced by his slow movements even when cornered. Why should he hurry? Apparently cognizant of knowing no master the skunk pursues his desultory course in a leisurely manner. About equal to a cat in size, one could hardly'suspect this beautiful harmless-looking creature as possessor of such a nauseating weapon. The soft, silky, jet-black, or brownish-black fur with one or more white streaks along the back might cause many an unitiated person to covet the animal for a pet. When caught young, skunks often make amusing pets. A party of pioneers making a pilgrimage to the west captured a young skunk under the impression that it was a cat. The skunk enjoyed domestication and occupied the place on the hearth; hunted mice, and shared all privileges normally accorded a house cat. The skunk had an insatible appetite for cream. One day the pioneers caught the skunk in the act of licking the dasher of the churn. Thinking that their "cat" should be taught better manners, they proceeded to cuff it. Since the skunk depends for defense on a fetid odor ejected with considerable force, he remonstrated in his usual manner which resulted in his untimely death. This liquid is not shaken from the tail in the form of spray. Those who have experienced it at close range describe it as "being a blue-yellow streak of liquid fire discharged with great force and causing temporary blindness." The fetid odor prevents this otherwise likeable creature from ostracizing the dog and cat as man's bosom friends.

The skunk presents a curious combination of industry and indolence. When making his nocturnal prowls for food he spares no effort to provide himself with the necessities of life. Patiently he works turning over innumerable small rocks to see if some cricket or other" edible   14 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA insect is not hidden beneath. Crickets and rodents, however, do not always completely satisfy the skunk. Occasionly he craves a more luxurious standard and bends his efforts toward chicken coops much to the wrath of poultry owners.

Marked as an industrious being of the animal kingdom when hunting for food, the same cannot be said concerning the construction of the home.

If the skunk would busy himself in building a home to the extent that he does in making the home snug there could be no reflection concerning his industriousness. Although loathing to d:g his own hole, Mr. Skunk sees apparently no reason why he should go without one. He is quite adept at appropriating some burrowing animal's quarters or by making his home under some residence. When the home is once selected the skunk is not sloven in making it comfortable. Regardless of the size of the apartment, dry leaves and grass are carried in until the home is made small enough to meet the needs of the one or more individuals occupying it.

The skunk is a gregarious being. Up to seventeen members have been known to occupy a single den. Hidden behind a thick layer of fat and dense coat of fur, the skunk is ready for his winter's quarters.

The mating season takes place early in March. The latter part of April or the fore part of May marks an important event in the home life of the prolific skunk. At this time four to ten of the future odoriferous members appear in the nest.

Although the skunk has cowed practically all living beings into adopting a "hands off" policy, man still stands out as an unrelenting foe. The lucrative trade in skunk hides can presage but a gloomy future for the skunk. In spite of increasing inroads on their ranks, skunks are still relatively common in the western hemisphere in North America.

Aside from the value of the fur there is considerable demand for skunk oil. There is a strong belief among many people that oil rendered from the fat on this animal has great medxinal values. Numerous sufferers from rheumatism place explicit hopes of obtaining relief from their affliction through the use of this "divine willow rod." However, the greatest value of the skunk is the service rendered to ranchers by r'dding their fields of mice and other destructive rodents.

Attempts have been made at different times to foster a skunk farming industry contemporaneously with silver fox farming. Although this industry has been nursed along for a number of years, more failure than success has marked its limited growth.

The chief contributing factor in having skunks placed on -the black-list in this section of the country is the danger of hydrophobia from their bite. Numerous stories have been circulated concerning the hazards one runs in sleeping on the ground. The Little Spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius) has been the principal offender in gaining such an ill-repute. In fact this skunk is known colloquially as the hydrophobia skunk. In reality, however, it is blood-poisoning rather than hydrophobia that results from the bite. The skunk feeds on carrion to some extent and its teeth, defield with the remains of its last meal, injects some of the putrescent material into the wound caused by its bite.


The Niobrara River on the Federal Game Reserve near Valentine.


Fontana, an Barnardino Count, California, has been selected by Secretary Jardine as the location of the new experimental rabbit farm, which is soon to be established by the Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the National Rabbit Federation and the Fontana Farms Company. The Bureau of Biological Survey, under a cooperative agreement with these two organizations, will finance the operation of the farm, and plan and conduct the experimental work to be done for the improvement of the rabbit raising industry throughout the country.

D. Monroe Green, associate biologist, who has been engaged in rabbit investigational work in the division of fur resources of the Biological Survey for the past two years, has been appointed to direct the experiments on the new farm and will leave Washington late in August to take up his new assignment at Fontana.

The farm will include 5 acres' of land, on which will be erected an administration building, a house for the caretaker, a feed storage shed, hutches, and other necessary buildings to care for a large number of breeding rabbits. The land, buildings and other equipment will be furnished by the local unit of the National Rabbit Federation and the Fontana Farms Company. The purpose of the experimental farm is to develop relable information for rabbit breeders and for those contemplating raising rabbits as to the best methods of breeding, feeding, and housing these animals to produce both meat and fur of high quality. The cooperation of local and national organizations interested in the industry will be sought in conducting the experiments.

This will be the third experimental station to be operated under the direction of the Biological .Survey, one being the (Experimental Fur Farm at Saratoga Springs, N. Y.; and the other the Reindeer Experiment Station at Fairbanks, Alaska. California was selected for the rabbit farm because of the representative conditions there, Fontana being about 50 miles from Los Angeles, the center of the industry, and because more rabbits are at present being raised in California than in any other State. The results of the experiments at the new station, however, will be for the benefit of rabbit raisers throughout the country.


Experimental Fur Farm of the Biological Survey


Bass Nursery at Sargent. Built by citizens of Sargent It was recently stocked by the state.

THE EXPERIMENTAL FUR FARM maintained by the Biological Survey in the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains, Saratoga County, N. Y., is the outgrowth of similar farms established by the bureau between 1913 and 1923 in other sections of the country. One of these was operated for a time near Pritchard, Idaho, and the other near Keeseville, N. Y. Not only is the present site in a region noted for the quality of fur produced in the wild, but it also meets all the requirements for raising fur animals in captivity, and in addition is quickly accessible for bringing in stock, building materials, and other supplies.

The tract on which the present fur farm is located is leased by the Government and comprises 20 acres of well-drained soil, 15 acres of which are covered with an excellent forest growth. The trees include pine, hamlock, beech, oak, black and white birch, fcasswood, locust, maple, hickory, butternut, white ash, and ironwood. The farm is within less than 4 miles of Saratoga Springs on an excellent State road running to Corinth. An auto- mobile bus line runs between these places, and stops are made at the farm.

The farm is open to the public from June 1 to December 1, from 10. a. m. to 4 p. m. on Wednesdays and Sundays. Many visitors from all parts of the United States, from Canada, and from European countries have already inspected it and have been interestsd in noting the experiments in progress. The funds for operating the farm are provided in annual appropriations made by Congress to the United States Department of Agriculture, for expenditure by the Bureau of Biological Survey in its "investigations, experiments, and demonstrations in connection with rearing fur-bearing animals.

The prime object of the experimental fur farm is to determine the best methods of producing fur animals in captivity. The farm is not run for commercial profit through the scale of either breeding stock or pelts, all energies being directed to developing the best methods for producing fur of fine quality, insuring sanitary surroundings, and preventing diseases and parasites. Surplus animals are pelted, however, and the proceeds from ths sale of the skins revert to the United States Treasury. No live animals are sold for any purpose.

The fur animals with which experiments are being carried on at present are red, cross, and silver foxes, martens, and rabbits of various breeds. Other species will be included as the work develops and funds permit. The equipment includes modern pens, dens and nest boxes for the animals, a- laboratory and office building, a utility house containing cookroom, feed room, and carpenter shop, a watchtower for observing animals during periods of breeding, gestation, and whelping, a storehouse for miscellaneous supplies and equipment, a building for housing utility rabbits, a large stone garage, and a comfortable house of eight rooms for the caretaker of the farm and his family.

There are two large guard-fence inclosures, each more than an acre in size. In one of these are fox breeding pens, fox pup pens, marten breeding pens, and the watchtower. The other, called the "furring pen," is used as a place where the foxes may exercise and develop their fur.

Wholesome feeds are supplied to all the animals, and the water used is pumped from a deep well. As a rule the animals are fed once daily, but there are certain periods when the foxes are fed both morning and evening. Practically all of the feed is given raw and in individual aluminum pans. The main ration consists of a mixture of 2 parts by weight of ground raw meat, 1 of a cereal mixture, 2 of milk, 1 of water, and one-fourth part of cod-liver oil. The cereal mixture consists of 1 part each of kiln-dried bread, shredded - wheat waste, wheat germ, and corn oil cake meal, one-half part each of fish meal and edible bone meal one-fourth part of alfalfa meal, and one-eighth part of iodized salt. The ground meat and the cereal are mixed together with the milk, water, and cod-liver oil and then fed to the animals. The quantity of feed consumed daily by each fox ranges from 0.6 to 0.9 pound (about 9% to 14% ounces). The rabbits are fed dry cereals, chiefly whole and rolled oats, carrots or rutabagas, and alfalfa hay.

The necessity for cleanliness and sanitation can not be over-stressed if fur animals are to be produced profitably. Sannitary surroundings are most essential to success in fur farming. Cleanliness and common-sense methods of management are relied upon to keep the animals in health and vigor. Dens and pens are at all times kept as clean as possible, so that the surroundings may be healthful. Feeding and drinking dishes are kept clean, and the water supply is pure and fresh. After each feeding all the dishes are collected, cleaned, and thoroughly sterilized.

Experiments conducted at the farm have shown that the same general principles of feeding, breeding, and sanitation followed with domestic animals can be applied to the production of fur-bearing animals. The wrong kinds of food and feeding methods, as well as parasitic infesta-tion, have been found to be determining factors in producing   16 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA inferior pelts. Studies are being made of fur animals during the mating, gestation, and whelping periods, and improved methods of handling diseased animals during treatment have been devised. Investigations of diseases and their treatment have been in progress, and in this work the Bureau of Animal Industry has cooperated by examining diseased organs in the laboratory and inspecting live animals on the farm. Further experiments are necessary to determine how parasites and diseases affect the quality of fur. Breeding experiments at the farm tend to prove that the characters of a "samson" fox (one that lacks guard hairs and thus produces a nearly worthless pelt) are inherited and can be transmitted, thus rendering such animals valueless as breeders.

Various kinds of dens have been constructed at the experimental farm to ascertain the types best suited to the production of fur animals in captivity. Drawings of those found most practicable have been prepared, and blue prints have been made available for free distribution through the cooperation of the Bureau of Public Roads.

The information obtained by experimental studies on the fur farm, together with observations made in the field, is assembled in the form of leaflets and bulletins for free distribution to those who request it, and for use in answering correspondence.

The majority of persons who plan to engage in the new industry of producing fur-bearing animals in captivity know little about the business. Prospective breeders, as well as those engaged in fur farming, are benefited by the experimental work of the Biological Survey. State agricultural colleges and experiment stations, State game commissions, and conservation societies have been given assistance in the solution of their problems. The benefits derived from the work under way at the experimental fur farm do not end with the actual raising of animals in pens. The data obtained aid also in furnishing necessary information for the formulation of uniform trapping laws and in determining breeding and prime-fur periods and thus form the basis for important conservation measures.

LAWS IN OTHER STATES Kansas Open seasons: Dates Inclusive Fox squirrel Aug. 1-Jan. 1. Quail Nov. 20-Nov.30. Prairie chicken Oct. 20~Oct.30. Dove Sept. 1-Oct. 15. Duck, goose, brant, Wilson snipe, coot, gallinule Sept. 16-Dec.31. Rail, other than coot and gallinule Sept. 1-Nov. 30.

No open season: Deer, antelope, red, gray, and black squirrels, ruffed grouse (partridge), pheasant (English, Mongolian, Hungarian); woodcock; swans, wood duck, eider ducks, bitterns, little brown, sand-hill, and whooping cranes, grebes, gulls, herons, loons, terns, upland plover, and all shore birds (except Wilson snipe or jacksnipe).


Never wear rubber boots to wade in the summer months. An old pair of heavy soled shoes with spikes in the bottom, and a pair of heavy woolen socks are less rtinig and just as serviceable.

In mountain streams during the summer look for bass in deep holes where the current is swift, around sunken logs. Also on the shoals.

Never let your rod lay on a rock or log if you are tired fishing. Remember, when the bass takes the minnow, you must be there to hook him. Give the fish time when he takes the minnow. Wait until you feel him, then with a quick movement of the wrist, not too hard, hook him.

There are several kinds of fishing tackle — one that is good to decorate the walls of the clubhouse, another the practical kind that is used in catching game fish.

A cheap split bamboo rod will soon lose its spring. The best is the cheapest in the long run, in fishing tackle as in everything else. The best does not mean the fanciest.

Don't take too much luggage on a fishing trip. It is in the way. Always be provided with a change of clothing and footwear.

Your tackle box should not be overcrowded. Take a sufficient supply of hooks, sinkers, flies, leaders, spinners, an extra line.

After the day's fishing dry your line. Never leave a wet line on your reel.


(Continued from Page 4)

may evaporate, not longer affording protection, whereas a good grease will last indefinitely.

Dressing the Woodwork. Do not forget to give the stock and other woodwork an occasional dressing with a good gun oil. Put a little on and rub it in well, not allowing it to dry on the wood, and you can soon give the woodwork a fine grained appearance.


(Continued from Page 8)

ful to supplement the description. On the back of the card, note. should be made of the general weather conditions, and also, if possible, the general condition of the natural food available for waterfowl. Any other particulars that are of interest in connection with the censuses should be added under the heading "Remarks."

Save game today of you want game tomorrow.


Digest Nebraska Game Laws

The 1927 session of the State Legislature made the following changes in the Nebraska game laws which are now effective:


Prairie Chickens—No change in season.

Pheasants—Allows Department of Agriculture to open season in certain counties where too many birds, upon recommendation of county board.

Waterfowl—No change in open season.

Mink—Opened season entire year.

Bass—Closed season from May 1 to June 10.

Pickerel—Closed season from January 1 to May 1.

Frogs—Closed season entire year on bull frogs.


Prairie Chickens—Reduced bag to five, possession five.

Waterfowl—Reduced bag for ducks to twenty, possession forty. Reduced bag for geese to five, possession five.

Fish—Reduced bag for game fish (perch and bullhead excepted) to fifteen, possession twenty-five. On perch and bullheads the bag twenty-five, possession twenty-five.


SHIPPING GAME: Authorizes new system of all game to be tagged with special tags issued by Department. Report must be made on all game leaving state.

COLD STORAGE: Requires all game taken in or outside state to be tagged. Makes cold storage plant owner liable if game not tagged. Makes it unlawful for game to be placed in cold storage unless killed and placed therein by one taking same.

SHOOTING FROM AUTOS: Prohibits shooting or hunting with auto.

FISH: Limits size of bass taken to 9 inches, trout to 8 inches, bullheads to five inches. Prohibits "bottle" or "jug" fishing and limits number of hooks for set lines to 5 lines or twenty-five hooks.

BLACK BASS: Prohibits sale of black bass whether taken in state or shipped in.

PRIVATE HATCHERIES: Allows private hatcheries to raise and sell game fish.

TRAPPING: Requires all persons who trap to have permits.

LICENSES: Discontinues issuing of hunting and fishing and trapping licenses and authorizes the issuing of permits for hunting and fishing and trapping.

BUYING FUR: Requires all individual buyers of fur to have permit. Increases price of permit for non-resident buyers from $1. to $10. Allows fur dealers to keep fur purchased during open season in possession during closed season, provided same is reported to Department of Agriculture at close of season.

ILLEGAL FISHING: Discontinues the issuing of permits for commercial fishing and provides a severe penalty for any one operating seines, traps and nets.

BEAVER: Closes the season on beaver the entire year.

(Keep this for future reference or post in conspicuous place)



Attention of all persons hunting in Nebraska during the 1927-28 season is called to the following:

LICENSE. All residents of Nebraska must have a Resident Hunting and Fishing License. Price $1.10. All non-residents must have a Non-Resident Hunting and Fishing License. Price $25.10. All licenses must be carried on person. Penalty for failure to secure license, Resident, $15.00; Non-Resident, $50.00.

WHERE TO HUNT. It is unlawful to hunt on private land without consent from the owner thereof or person in charge. Artificial light must not be used. Hunting is not permissable before one-half hour prior to sunrise or after sunset. It is unlawful to buy, sell or barter game. It is unlawful to hunt game in an automobile.

WHAT TO HUNT. The state law governing Nebraska game is as follows and must be strictly observed:

(a) Water Fowl: Season open from September 16th to December 31st, inclusive. Don't kill more than five (5) geese, twenty (20) ducks, five (5) brants, or twenty (20) coots in any one day. No person can have more than fifty (50) game birds in possession, of which there shall be no more of any one kind than five geese, forty ducks, five brants or forty coots.

(b) Prairie Chickens and Grouse: Season open from October 1st to November 1st, inclusive. Don't kill more than five (5) chickens or grouse in any one day. No one can have more than five (5) prairie chickens or grouse in possession at any one time.

PENALTY. The penalty for violation of Nebraska game laws is severe and all such laws are strictly enforced. Your cooperation in the observance of game laws is requested.


State of Nebraska