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Outdoor Nebraska

Published By Department of Agriculture Bureau of Game and Fish Lincoln NEBR. Vol. I. June, 1926. No. 1

There's no music like a little river's. It plays the same tune (and that's the favorite) over and over again, and yet does not weary of it like men fiddlers. It takes the mind out-of-doors; and though we should be grateful for good houses, there is, after all, no house like God's out-of doors. And lastly, sir, it quiets a man down like saying his prayers.

—Robert Louis Stevenson


OFFICIAL BULLETIN NEBRASKA BUREAU GAME AND FISH VOL. I. JUNE, 1926 NO. 1 CONTENTS Camping in Nebraska, by Dr. C. E. Condra - Frontispiece The Pheasant in Eastern Nebraska - 3 State Recreation Grounds For the Future, by Frank B. O'Connell - 4 Valentine Hatchery Enlarged for Greater Bass Propagation, M. E. O'Brien - 5 Editorial - 6 Our Migratory Wild Fowl Conditions, by Edward W. Nelson - 8 The Halsey Forest Reserve, by J. T. Link - 9 Game Preserves for Nebraska Wild Life, - 10 Departmental Activities - 12 Notes on Fins, Feathers and Fur - 13

Camping in Nebraska

By G.E. Condra

I have camped many times at beauty spots on river bluffs and observed a sunset, a sunrise or the birth of day. One place in particular remains in my mind. We were in a small open space on the forested bluffs of southeastern Cass county and had a view across the Weeping Water and the Missouri with its bottom lands, bars and wooded islands and to the uplands on the Iowa side.

With twilight came the musical sound of the whippoorwill and later the more somber notes of the owl. We lay on the ground under the light of a half moon and contemplated upon the starry universe. Then came sound sleep followed by awakening at early break of day when darkness began to give way to light. The sky was partly overcast along the eastern horizon. Its upper part had some glow; above the eastern horizon were patches of dark gray, yellow, and crimson, while below the Iowa bluffs and wooded areas, were dark banks. The objects on the higher places formed silhouettes. Crows, leaving their roosting places with considerable noise, made their way down the valley. A field sparrow was heard in a grassy spot to the right. Sounds from chickens, cows and dogs echoed from farm yards. Birds of several kinds moved to their feeding and watering places. Events came too fast for record. Light on forest and river, reflected from cloud and sky, was deepenng and changing. The rumbling of a train on tre Iowa side was distinctly heard, also noises from the towns. Native life and industry were awakening. Light increased, and the color scheme changed, especially for the clouds and river. The sun began to rise, large and red, though somewhat dimmed by the feathery clouds. High lights showed on the river. Then there was the full brightness of a new day. Birds returned from feeding, cattle were grazing, farmers were at work, and everything seemed alive in response to the sun.

This was an experience to be remembered, but I did not have the knowledge and ability to describe the picture. I knew that the earth, rotating eastward, carries places through shadow, twilight and direct rays of the sun, and that it requires about twenty-five minutes for the sun to rise on the whole of Nebraska. I could see that one thousand miles eastward the sun was an hour high, and that in Western Nebraska it was yet night but on the way toward day. I was long on cause and human relations but short on art. So let those who know nature's art paint the picture and express in verse and music the birth of day in Nebraska.


The Pheasant in Eastern Nebraska

CIVILIZATION has its price!

A few years ago eastern Nebraska was still Ian unbroken prairie land, with abundant cover "for its native wild life. But that was before the pioneer turned his face westward and brought civilization into a wilderness.

Today, eastern Nebraska is a checkerboard of splendid farms, dotted here and there with growing cities. Within the span of half a century the breaking plow has wrought wonders. It has brought about a marvelous transformation, turning the prairie into a rich agricultural land, with many thousands of people getting a livelihood from the soiL

But, unfortunately, there were some things which the breaking plow took from us that can never be returned. One of these things was the prairie chicken. Slowly but surely and like the Indian, he had to give way to the plow which year after year turned under more and more sod1. Today, there are very few of these native birds left in eastern Nebraska, so few that they are almost a curiosity.

But the true pioneer does not despair when nature's laws do not fit in exactly with, those of civilization. He looks for something to take its place—perhaps it can never be as good as the original, but, nevertheless, something to take its place.

And that is the part the pheasant is playing in Nebraska today. It has been introduced into the state to take the place of the prairie chicken in the densely populated sections of the state.

The work began some ten or fifteen years ago when the state brought in the first Chinese Pheasants, commonly known as ring-neck pheasants was not an easy matter to find a bird that would take the place of the native stock. Several considerations had to be taken into account. First of all, the newcomer had to have game qualities, he could not be destructive to other native game, and he had to be hardy enough to stand the weather and food conditions that prevail in eastern Nebraska.

But after considerable investigation, it was found that the ring-neck pheasant measured up to these demands better than any other game bird known and therefore the first stock made the long journey to Nebraska from the old world.

The first birds received were put out in various parts of the state in order to ascertain what particular section, might be the best. From time to time more stock was brought in and liberated. In addition to the work of the state, certain sportsmen secured private stock and began hatching pheasants.

Before long it was found that the pheasants had taken hold exceptionally well in a certain section of the central part of the state comprising the counties of Howard, Sherman, Greeley, Valley, Hall and Buffalo. Here they thrived and covey after covey grew to maturity until by 1925 there were thousands of these birds in those counties. In fact, there were so many that the farmers in many instances found them a nuisance.

In the spring of 1926 it was decided that rather than

import more foreign stock into the state, it would be cheaper and better to trap some of the birds in the central part of the state and redistribute them in the eastern sections. This was undertaken in the winter of the present year. Several contracts with farmers were let for the trapping of the birds. It was believed fair and just to allow the profit, if any to go to the communities that had sheltered the birds.

It was not until March that any results were had. The Bureau of Game and Fish first offered 50 cents for each bird trapped, but none were forthcoming. Then the offer was raised to $1.00 per bird. Presently Mr. A. J. Lemburg of Howard county became interested and devised a method of trapping the birds. His method proved to be successful and soon others secured permits from the Bureau and began to trap. It was only a matter of a few weeks until 88 persons were trapping and pheasants were coming into Lincoln by the thousands.

Many problems in handling the birds arose, but these were met and means devised to overcome them. One of the hardest tasks was to get general distribution throughout the eastern and southern part of the state where it was desired to place the birds. However, many local chapters of the Izaak Walton League and farmers agreed to help in the work and soon thousands of applications were coming in.

During the month of March over 15,000 birds were

(Continued on p. 14.) 369593

State Recreation Grounds For the Future


WILL the Nebraska boys and girls of tomorrow have a place where they can go to hunt and fish? Will the countless thousands of Nebraska citizens-to-be have adequate room for recreation?

These are important questions before our state today. Like many other important problems of life, the welfare of these myriad boys and girls depend on what we do today. Their welfare and happiness is in our hands. We can go on and exploit all our natural resources if we wish, let the wild life and natural beauty of Nebraska become a thing of the past, or we can conserve these things and pass them on to our children and our children's children. It all depends on what we do today.

Generally speaking, Nebraska has been an unselfish state. Our ancestors came to the prairie a half century ago and with much hardship and privation to themselves, broke the sod and established farms and cities for their children. They built not so much for themselves as for others. These hardy citizens were unselfish and far-seeing. Not only did they conquer the wilderness and establish a new state that today ranks high among those of the union, but they built for us fine churches and schools and public buildings—all paid for out of their own meager means. Nebraska stands today with a debt so small that if all the state owes were to be paid tomorrow it would cost each of us something like thirty cents, while if all the wealth of the state were to be divided tomorrow, each of us would receive something like $4,000.

That is what others have done for us. Now the challenge before us today is, WHAT ARE WE GOING TO DO FOR POSTERITY?

The people of the middle west are just now awakening to the fact that unless something is done—and done quickly—the wild life and natural beauty of the prairie will have vanished before the ever-grasping hand of commerce. With our population rapidly increasing and more and more mouths to feed, our workshop must necessarily be widened. And whenever our workshop is widened, just so much is our playground narrowed.


A Nebraska Park Possibility.

That the people of Nebraska are now aware of the problems before them and are ready to accept the challenge and conserve our natural life and scenery as well as provide adequate play and recreation for future citizens, is seen in recent legislation enacted into law. It was only a short time ago that a state park board was created and the problem of how to conserve the natural beauty of Nebraska pi iced before them. And it was only in the last few months that the first steps have been taken by the state to secure recreation grounds for future citizens.

(Continued on p. 16.)

Dewey Lake, in Cherry County. This is a typical northern Nebraska Lake, where splendid recreation may be found.


Valentine Hatchery Enlarged for Greater Bass Production

By M. E. O'BRIEN Supt. Valentine Hatchery

(Upper)—Main part of the Hatchery.


(Below)—New ponds farther up the canyon.

THE Valentine Fish Hatchery has been in operation for about fourteen years. It is located about two miles northeast of Valentine, in a little valley surrounded on three sides by hills covered with young oak, ash, elm, box elder and western pine. The latter are clothed in a garb of green the year-round.

Two and one half miles north of the hatching house, bubbling up out of the earth, is the main spring which is the source of the water supply for the hatching ponds. Below this are numerous smaller springs. These springs feed fourteen ponds, each built below the other and extending down the canyon for a distance of one and one half miles. These ponds are devoted principally to the propagation of black bass.

Below the canyon, spreading out over a wide area, is a second system of ponds. Here rock bass, crappie, ring perch and the sun fishes are propagated. Then there are seven small ponds or pools, in which fish are held temporarily for shipping.

In the hatching house trout are hatched. This is done artificially, most of the work taking place during the winter and the young fish distributed to nursery ponds in the spring. The annual producton of trout from the Valentine Hatchery is about 600,000 fish. In the past most of these have been planted in the fry stage, which is the earliest period that fish may be planted in open wiaters with any degree of safety. In such planting it is estimated that only about five per cent of the fish reach maturity.

The nursery pond is something new, and in the future it is likely that most of the trout from hatcheries will go there rather than direct to open waters. The nursery pond is a long step forward in trout culture. It is simply a small pond built on a trout stream, usually on some small spring-fed branch, which can be dammed at the lower end. A drain pipe is placed under the dam so that the pond may be emptied of the fish in the fall. At such time they will have attained a length of four to five inches.

It has been proved that the nursery pond method of trout propagation saves sixty percent of the fry. The Nebraska Fish and Game Department recognizes the advantages of the nursery pond system and is giving assistance to local sportsmen in the construction of these pond's. In fact, a number of such ponds are already in operation and others are under construction. These ponds are going to be a great help in improving trout fishing in Nebraska.

Perhaps right here would be a good place to put

(Continued on p. 16.)


Published by Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fish and Game. Editorial Office, State Capitol, Lincoln, Nebraska. FRANK B. O'CONNELL, - Editor. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Adam McMullen Governor H. J. McLaughlin Secretary Frank B. O'Connell Warden Vol. 1. Lincoln, June, 1926. No. 1

The Bureau of Game and Fish takes pleasure in presenting to the citizens of Nebraska the first number of OUTDOOR NEBRASKA.

It is the purpose of the Department to publish this bulletin from time to time for two reasons:

(a) To inform the sportsmen and other citizens of the state who are interested in the work of the Department just what is being done.

(b) To inculcate a greater appreciation for the wild life and the natural beauty of Nebraska.

It is hoped that our first efforts meet with the approval of all citizens. And we hope that all who are interested in outdoor Nebraska will cooperate with us in the great work in which your state is engaged.

Conservation Through Education.

Conservation can.only come about through education. Legislation is only a handyman of education and unless accompanied by favorable public sentiment, will fail of its object.

Game wardens may use every diligence, may gather evidence and may arrest many violators of the law in an effort to conserve our wild life, but unless their efforts are backed by a profound respect for the necessity of conservation by the public with which they are dealing, little permanent benefit will be derived from their activity. In communities where there is an awakened public consciousness for the need of conservation, the work of the game warden is comparatively easy.

If education can do nothing more than call attention to that which we would conserve, it is a step forward. The mention of fish and game and forests creates an interest for most people. To think about our wild life and to acquire knowledge concerning it is bound to compel respect for it. And when one is interested in something and respects it, he is likely to want to conserve it.

To bring about a realization of wrongdoing to those who destroy is possibly the most important side of education in conservation. There are two classes of people who destroy: those who do so wilfully and those who do so thoughtlessly. To both the appeal must be the same, though perhaps administered in different ways. At any rate, love for the outdoors, respect for rights of others, understanding and appreciation for law, and the desire to build up for the future must be the foundation upon which the proper appeal can be built. And in most cases education can accomplish all of these.


The Nebraska Bureau of Game and Fish has grown to be a big business concern. Each year thousands of dollars are collected and thousands of dollars are now being spent to build up the fish and game of the state.

During the present biennium it is estimated that the license fees collected will total around $300,000. This is derived from fees collected on eleven different kinds of licenses and permits. It is no small task to print, distribute, sell and keep books on the thousands of licenses which are now sold annually. Over 900 accounts are maintained in the selling of licenses.

On the other hand, it requires even greater judgment and skill in the spending of the funds entrusted to the Bureau. During the present administration it is the policy to use the fees exactly for the purpose for which they are collected—to build up and maintain and control game and fish. It is desired to give every buyer of a license just as much for his money as possible.

The estimate for 1925-26, made early last year, call for the expenditure of $200,000. Since that time it has been found that fees will run considerably over that figure and therefore additional expenditures are being made. For example, the distribution of pheasants last spring was not in the original estimate and such expenditure was added to the original estimate. It is planned to put right back into fish and game all the money which the people of Nebraska pay for the privilege to fish and hunt and trap. And it is desired to do this economically and in a business-like way.

Just how is this money being spent? The following, taken from the estimate for 1925-26, will give the reader an idea of the purpose for which funds are being used.

For improving and enlarging fish hatcheries for greater production of fish, $38,000.

For conservation work and the distribution of game and fish, $40,000.


For buying and improving recreation and hunting and fishing grounds, buying nursery ponds, sinking wells in lakes, etc., $42,000.

For the enforcement of game laws, $60,000.

For administration and the maintenance of hatcheries, etc., $60,000.

For the purchase of new equipment, $20,000.

The Game Warden.

Too long have too many of us regarded the game and fish laws as something to make hunting and fishing more difficult. Too long have we considered the game warden as an officer to be circumvented and outwitted if possible. We believe the tide is turning. Apparently sportsmen everywhere are awakening to the realization that game and fish laws are designed to make hunting and fishing more pleasant and that the game warden is their best friend.

In a laudable effort to promote the growth of this healthy sentiment the DuPont Powder Company is circulating a folder entitled "The Game Warden and the Sportsman." The author of this excellent article says :

"Some time ago a New Jersey Game Warden was ambushed and shot dead, through the back. The crime was fastened on a gunner, who pleaded guilty and remarked that the Warden had threatened to arrest him.

"For what?

"Violating the law?

"Game Wardens are officers of the State, selected and sworn to do a duty that is none too pleasant.

"In other walks of life peace officers usually have to do with humans because of their short-comings with other humans. The Game Warden makes arrest because a man armed with a gun commits his crime against a bird or an animal. He hunts out of season, he exceeds his bag limit, he trespasses on forbidden property, he shoots at night, or does any one of a dozen things that are forbidden by statute. The crime committed is in reality against a fellow sportsman, because it is the sportsman who put the law on the books and the game in the field and then engaged the services of a Warden to see that these laws are obeyed.

"Without these laws there would be no game, without the services of the Warden game would live a precarious life and in time cease to exist.

"The average Game Warden of today is a sincere sort of a fellow, serious-minded in his work and generally willing to overlook an innocent mistake. His job is a thankless one, his work hours never cease once he has taken the oath of office; he can't satisfy everyone and he shouldn't try. The laws he is paid to enforce insure an equal right to every sportsman. They do not favor the rich and take away from the poor; they aim to give a square deal. The average Warden does not make an arrest except when necessary; he collects no part of the fees; he has no incentive to put obstacles in the way of the gunner who is properly conducting himself. The average Warden moves about a great deal in his territory; he knows where the game is; he will impart this information gladly and freely if there is no reason why he should not.

"The average Warden is a sportsman and as such enjoys the thrill of a good clean shot as well as anyone else, but his duties seldom permit him a day in the field for real pleasure. The average Warden is a gentleman through and through, ready and willing to render a worth-while service to the sportsman. The Warden's duties are

(Continued on p. 15.)
An Appreciation.

(Editor'snote: The following message was recently sent to M. E. O'Brien, Superintendent of the Valentine Fish Hatchery by the Lincoln Chapter of the Izaak Walton League.)

"Yesterday at a meeting of the Lincoln Chapter of the Izaak Walton League, it was called to the attention of those present that you have just completed fifty years of service in your great work. We also read a sketch written by yeu from a little yellow pamphlet called the "Sportsman Directory." It is wonderful that pour love of the game should have kept you so long at this work rather than remuneration, and that is in part I believe the reason of your success.

"It is doubtful if any man in the state of Nebraska has done so much for the cause of conservation, more toward building up our streams and lakes, and more toward development of our hatcheries and pond than have you, Mr. O'Brien. Ana so at this time, when you have just passed the fifty-year mark in the work you love, let the Lincoln Chapter of the Izaak Walton League congratulate you on this service. We sincerely hope you will enjoy more years of this pleasant work."

L. M. CAMPBELL, Secretary and Treasurer Lincoln Chapter, Izaak Walton League.

Our Migratory Wild Fowl and Present Conditions Affecting Their Abundance.

ByEDWARD W. NELSON, Chief U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey.

(Editor's Note;—We take pleasure in publishing the following extracts from an address made by Mr. Nelson before the Outdoor Recreation Conference, held at Washingtcn D. C, on January 21, 1926. Mr. Nelson is the Chief of the Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture, which is charged with the enforcement of the federal laws relative to birds and game.)

MIGRATORY wild fowl have always held a high place in the marvelous wealth of wild life with which America was endowed. A magnificent continental system of streams, lakes, ponds, and marshes extended for their use from the Valley of Mexico to the shores of the Arctic Ocean. From ancient days these waters have furnished homes for countless millions of the beautiful and varied forms of wild) fowl, which include two kinds of swans, thirteen kinds of wild geese, and forty kinds of ducks, with cranes, waders, and many others.

Twice each year, in spring and fall, the mighty hosts of these birds wing their way to and from the northern breeding grounds, The majority breed north of the United States,and probably more than 90 per cent of them winter in the southern half of the United States and the, northern half of Mexico. Not a single species of goose has ever been known to migate south of the latitude of the Valley of Mexico, and only a comparatively small number representatives of the ducks winter farther south. Conspicuous among these migrating hordes are swiftly moving flocks of ducks and the more deliberate bands of geese and cranes, whose raucous cries never fail to quicken the pulse of the observer and bring entrancing visions of far wild places.

With the growing occupation of the continent, the increase in the number of hunters, and the disappearance of great areas of marshes and waters through drainage, the adverse effect on the supply of migratory wild fowl became more and more evident. Finally, in 1904, George Shiras 3d, naturalist-statesman, prepared and introduced in Congress the first bill for the Federal protection of migratory birds. After years of effort, in 1913, this act, then termed the Weeks-McLean Bill, was passed by congress, and in 1916, in view of mutual interest in this country and Canada in the protection of these birds, a treaty for their conservation was consummated between the United States and Great Britain. In 1918 the migratory bird treaty act was passed by Congress to carry out the obligations of this country under the terms of the treaty. These successive enactments were the result of the deep interest taken in our splendid migratory bird life by the general public as well as by by sportsmen. Practically everyone desires the perpetuation of these habitants of our woods and waters.

The administration of both the original migratory bird law and the act to enforce the migratory-bird treaty was placed in charge of the Bureau of Biological Survey, in the Department of Agriculture. With the cooperation of conservationists, state game commissions, and others in all parts of the country, and of officials having to do with the conservation of wild life in Canada, regulations to safeguard our migratory birds, including the wild fowl, were made and put into effect.


The sale of migratory game birds was made illegal, since it was recognized that with the increased population of the country game could not survive if market hunters were allowed to continue. The shooting of wild fowl in spring was prohibited by closing the open hunting season throughout the United States after January 31, thus leaving the survivors of the hunting season and of the winter storms and other seasonal perils to serve as breeding stock to bring back the following autumn the necessary surplus birds to maintain their kind. Hunting was limited to a period not exceeding 3 1/2 months in any state, and definite, reasonable daily bag limits were established.

These fundamental restrictions authorized under the migratory-bird treaty act, the states were authorized still further to increase the protection of migratory birds within the limits set by thee Federal regulations.

The Biological Survey has continued studies of wild fowl conditions, and as additional information has been obtained bearing on the need of changes in the protective measures, due to changed conditions, amendments have been made from time totime in the Federal regulations, and others are certain to follow in the future.

It is gratifying to acknowledge here the fact that many states have by law increased the protection of migratory birds and have been helpful in assisting in the enforcement of the treaty act, so that much of the success of this conservation measure must be credited to them.

Abundance of Migratory Wild Fowl.

The hunting season of the fall of 1925 and early winter of 1926 has presented some of the strangest and most difficult problems to understand of any season for which there are records of the numbers and distribution of migratory birds. Migratory wild fowl have been scatterd rather irregularly over the country. Many of these variations are readily explainable by extraordinary weather conditions.

J. B. Harkin, director of Canadian national parks, advises the Biological Survey that in British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario the migratory wild fowl have

(Continued on p. 15.)

The Halsey Forest Preserve,

By J. T. LINK Conservation and Survey Division the University of Nebraska.

NEBRASKA has two national forest reserves, the Halsey and the Niobrara. The former, situated between the Dismal and the Middle Loup Rivers in Blaine and Thomas Counties, comprises an area of about 150 square miles, of which 10,000 acres have been planted with trees.

Here, about 25 years ago, the federal government began experiments in foresting the sand hills with the view of producing posts, poles, ties, and lumber. The nursery part of the reserve, near Halsey, is known as the Bessey Nursery. It was so named in honor of Dr. Bessey of the University of Nebraska, who did much to encourage the establishment of the reserve. The young trees are here grown from seed collected in the Rocky Mountains, the Black Hills, Pine Ridge, and other places. As soon as the saplings reach the proper age, they are transplanted to different parts of the nursery. Later they are again transplanted to different parts of the reserve or used for free distribution to the ranches of the sandhill region, as far as the supply reaches. Their perpetual green helps to beautify the homes, and they are also utilized as windbreaks in this otherwise treeless region, thus giving protection to man and beast and furnishing posts so much needed in connection with the cattle industry. Besides adding scenic beautyj supplying posts for the ranches, and serving as windbreaks, the trees also help to stabilize the soil.

The reserve is also a refuge for wild animals and will thus contribute toward the preservation of game threatened with extermination. The millions of buffalo, elk, deer, and other large and small game animals that once roamed over Nebraska, where they found a congenial home, have almost entirely disappeared. In the reserve many of these will again increase in number, due to the protection afforded them and the suitable environment provided.

Some of the trees in the reserve are 30 to 40 feet high, making a dense forest, bearing cones and completely shading the grounds. The forest litter, shade, and moisture conditions resulting from forestation greatly affect the biological habitat of this section. Plants not indigenous to this section have invaded it, thereby giving variety and charm to the landscape and funishing food, shelter, and protection for various species of of wild life.

In the fall and winter grouse in considerable numbers are seen here, and prairie chickens and quail have found a protected home where they are not molested by man. Pheasants have also been brought into the reserve and are rapidly increasing. One of the most interesting things to be seen by the good sportsman is a herd of about 50 deer, an animal that has almost become extinct in the state. The encouraging feature about this matter is that the herd seems to be increasing. However, some further protection should be offered this animal. During the mating season the deer wander from the reserve and being without the pale of protection, some never return, being killed by unscrupulous persons. It would seem that parts of the reserve should be fenced in to prevent the deer from wandering away and becoming a prey to hunters. The elk could probably also be introduced, for within the Dismal River region this animal once found its habitat. Mr. Buckingham, an old time hunter living near DuBois, Wyoming, while talking with a well-known Nebraskan, who visited him in that state and who expressed surprise at the great number of elk found there, stated with some degree of emotion, that the best hunting grounds for elk that he had ever found was not in Wyoming, but In the state of Nebraska, in the Dismal River region. The numerous elk horns picked up in this section testify

(Continued on p. 14.)

The Halsey Forest Reserve. First trees now 17 years old.


Game Preserves For Nebraska Wild Life

WITH the population increasing rapidly, low lands being drained, prairie lands being broken into farms, the problem of conserving wild life grows more and more difficult.

The Nebraska Bureau of Game and Fish has come to the conclusion that the only answer to this important problem is adequate game preserves for both animal and bird life, and therefore quite extensive plans are being made along this line.

There are several game and bird preserves in Nebraska, established by the Legislature. A large bird refuge was established by the last session of the Legislature when an act was passed setting aside all that portion of the State of Nebraska on the North Platte River and for ten rods on each side ofthe banks of said stream in Garden County. All that portion of Nebraska embraced within the boundaries of the Niobrara and Bessey divisions of the Nebraska National Forest, is also set aside for a bird and game refuge. These forests comprise over 200,000 acres.

During the past several months two new refuges have been established and several more are now in process of completion. These preserves were set aside by the Secretary of Agriculture, as provided by the State law. The biggest of these comprises some 3,500 acres near Nebraska City. The tract is along the Missouri River and is well wooded, therefore making it an ideal place for land and shore birds. Mr. Bert Swalley, now president of the Nebraska City Izaak Walton League, headed a group of sportsmen who gave a great deal of time to the establishing of this preserve.

The second preserve recently established is the Keifer estate, near Bostwick, in Nuckolls county. This tract contans 2,300 acres on the Republican river. It, too, contains sufficient timber to be attractive to most land birds and furnished the necessary cover for breeding.

It is not a difficult or complicated matter for a group of citizens to establish a game and bird refuge. The Bureau of Game and Fish will gladly cooperate with anyone who may be interested. Owing to the cost of establishing a preserve and the need for a large acreage to attract birds and animals, it is not deemed advisable to set aside small tracts and therefore less than 2,000 acres should not be considered. Preserves to be of real value should have not less than 25,000 acres and better 50,000 or 100,000 acres.

A group of land owners can petition the Bureau of Agriculture and agree to lease their land for a game and bird refuge. When this is done, the Bureau issues an order setting aside such tract as a preserve, makes proper publication of such order, and then posts the tract with proper signs. It is not deemed advisable to set aside a tract for less than three years.

The state law pertaining to game and bird preserves reads as follows:

"Game and Bird Preserves, Regulation.—Every school section and other tract of educational land, within the state, whose title is vested in the State of Nebraska and all that portion of the State of Nebraska embraced within the boundaries of the Niobrara and Bessey Divisions of the Nebraska National Forest, is hereby declared to be a game reserve and bird refuge. Other game reserves and bird refuges or reservations may be established by the department of agriculture in any county where they shall be deemed necessary for the protection and propagation of game, or as a refuge or sanctuary for song and insectiverous birds. The land for such reserve or reservation established by the department of agriculture, shall be leased at a nominal rental of one diollar per year for each parcel. On every reserve or bird refuge the department may have planted suitable grain or other food for birds and game.not to exceed five acres for each 40 acre reservation, and for each parcel so planted the department may, if required to do so, pay a rental not to exceed the usualrent of similar land in the vicinity or locality.

"Notice Required to be Posted on Game and Bird Reserves, Form.—At each section corner and in full sight of the traveled highway at each game reserve or bird refuge shall be placed, by the department of agriculture, a conspicuous, permanent sign as follows:


or with such other notice as the department of agriculture may deem advisable. Anyone removing or defacing such signs shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor."

Where the Preserves Are.

Bessey Division, Nebraska National Forest, 94,670 acres.

Niobrara Division, Nebraska National Forest, 123,138 acres.

Fontenelle Forest Reserve, near Omaha, 2,543 acres.

Garden County Preserve, 10 rods each side of Platte River.

Game and Bird Preserve No. 2, near Nebraska City, 3,500 acres.

Game and Bird Preserve No. 3, near' Bostwick, 2,309 acres.

Pictures Wanted.

The editor of Outdoor Nebraska desires good pictures of fish and game. If you have a good picture of your fishing trip, send it in. Or, if you have a picture of a Nebraska lake or stream or bit of scenery, send it in. All pictures not used will be returned.

An Essay on Frogs. (By a Young Norwegian.)

What a wonderful bird the frog are. When stand, he sit, almost. When he hop, he fly, almost. He ain't got no sense, hardly. He ain't got no tail, hardly, either. When he sit, he sit on what he ain't got, almost.

OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 11 Nebraska Leads.

When the roll of states reporting on their progress in the establishment and extension of state parks and forests during the past year is called at the sixth national conference on state parks, at Hot Springs, Ark., Nebraska will be. among the leaders in this phase of conservation, according to John Barton Payne, chairman of the conference's executive committee.

Its delegation will show that the Cornhusker state is moving ahead to the attainment of the ideal of a state park every hundred miles and the acquisition of land and water areas suitable for recreation and preservation of wild life.

"Nebraska's first park," says Mr. Payne, "Arbor Lodge, formerly the home of J. Sterling Morton, secretary of Agriculture under President Cleveland, is notable as a memorial to a man who had a big idea, an idea which has had a large effect in restoring our trees, for it was he who conceived the idea of Arbor Day. Her largest state park at Chadron, is an interesting region of hills and pine woods, like the Black Hills of her neighbor, South Dakota, which gives increasing recreational value to her people and to visitors from other states.

"Nebraska is also making another contribution to conservation and outdoor recreation through the fish and game department, in the purchase for public fishing grounds, of several of the attractive lakes in the northern part of the territory. Many of these lakes were being acquired by private organizations and closed to general use, and the department adopted a policy of devoting the surplus of the receipts from the fishing and hunting licenses to the purchase of such water and strips of shore, so that they will serve as parks for picnicking and camping, as well as for fishing, thus giving double use to the people."

Crow Trap Devised—Biological Survey Offers Blue Prints

In many places crows become so numerous that measures are necessary to reduce their numbers. Specialists of the Biological Survey of the United! States Department of Agriculture for many years have observed the feeding habits of crows as thy fly about the fields and have studied under the microscope the contents of thousands of their stomachs collected in all parts of the country. They find from these studies that not all of the habits of the com™on crow are to be understood as blacker than the bird itself, for its size, virility, and almost omnivorous appetite make the crow a great influence for good at certain seasons in many localities.

Recently a highly effective trap for capturing crows was devised on the Miner Bird refuge, Ontario, Canada, anld offered to the Biological Survey, for use in any part of the United States, and its operation has been so successful that as many as 500 crows have been caught in it at one time. The Biological Survey recently sent F. C. Lincoln, of its scientific staff, to Ontario to note the operation and effectiveness of the trap and to report on the practicability of using duplicates of it in places where local anti-crow campaigns might be recommended: by the bureau. The trap, which is about six feet high and the size of a large room, is covered , with poultry wire and operated by a wire from a blind. It was found that its construction would cost the builder approximately S100, but Mr. Lincoln reports that there are undoubtedly some localities in which its use would be profitable in the local control of crows. The Biological Survey plans to furnish blue prints of the trap for use in such places.


The Lowly Bullhead Has its Place.

Where there has been an over abundance of crows and their regular food supply has been depleted, both the common crow and its smaller brother, the fish crow, have been observed preying upon nests and eggs of various birds, Depredations of the fish crow have been especially noted at breeding colonies of herons, pelicans, terns, rails, and others in the south. In the interior and as far north as southern Canada, the larger common crow frequently turns its attention to the nests and eggs of upland game birds and waterfowl, when its regular food fails, and then it is destructive also to poultry. In some places these birds even kill larger animals that have become too weakened through injury to defend themselves against gangs of crows.

The Department of Agriculture issues the cautionary statement that, in spite of the objectionable habits of crows under certain conditions, where they are beneficial to the farmer in preying upon the pests of his crops, and that even in areas where their injurious habits seem pronounced, preventative measures rather than destructive will often put an end to complaints against crows and still allow the birds to continue their useful work of devouring injurious insects.

The photographs presented in this issue of Outdoor Nebraska are sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that Nebraska has some wonderful sport for the followers of Isaac Walton.



Arrests for First Five Months.

During January, February, March, April and May of this year 109 persons were arrested in Nebraska for violation of the game laws. Over $2,500 was assessed in fines, besides the court costs. A large number of fish traps, nets, of various kinds, traps and guns were confiscated. Out of the 109 arrests over 100 convictions were secured.

While more arrests have been made during the first five months of this year than duringj the first five months of any year for the last four or five years, it is believed that there was actually less violation this year than heretofore. The reason for this lies in the fact that greater cooperation than ever before is being given the Department by citizens who are interested in our game and fish. Many men and women who did not heretofore see the need for strict enforcement of the law and careful conservation are now backing the work of the Department and aiding in the task of law enforcement.

Many Licenses Examined.

If a game warden steps up to you and asks to see your hunting and fishing license, do not feel offended. He is simply carrying out his orders and has to account to his chief for all licenses examined.

Under a new policy recently adopted each warden reports the number of each hunting and fishing license examined during the month. The fact that he desires to see your license does not mean that he distrusts you. It simply means that he is making a report to headquarters of work done.

During May nearly 3,000 persons had their licenses examined. Quite a few had purchased licenses but did not have them on their person as the law provides. The license should be carried when hunting or fishing, as it saves the wardens a great deal of time and inconvenience. Very few of the 3,000 were found to have failed to purchase a license. That speaks well for the attitude of the public generally.

Excise Tax Repealed.

Congress has repealed the excise tax on arms and ammunition, which during the six years in which it prevailed, it is estimated to have cost the sportsmen approximately $18,000,000.

The tax was held unjust by manufacturers of sporting arms and ammunition, trapshooters and other sportsmen, who conducted an aggressive campaign to have it repealed. To this the Ways and Means committee of the House agreed last fall and subsequently the law was repealed by Congress. President Coolidge signed the bill February 26.

Bunney Promoted.

Loren Bunney, Holdrege, who has served the past several years as a deputy game warden, has recently been promoted to the position of Field Superintendent.

Mr. Bunney is well known among Nebraska sportsmen, having taken part and won many honors in trap shooting. His work with the Department has bean highly satisfactory, both to the state and to the several communities where he has worked.

Superintendent Bunney will have charge of all deputies and will spend most of his time in the field in a supervisory capacity. He will train new men, investigate conditions and assist the Chief Warden generally in all matters pertaining to inspection and control.

Bass in Nebraska.

Talk about your black bass fishing up in the fascinating wilds of Minnesota and Wisconsin, why there isn't a bass grounds in either of these states— and I have fished in them all—that can hold a candle to Pelican Lake, or a dozen other equally good out among our Cherry county sandhills.

The only allurement that the north woods possess over that of the wondrous fishing grounds in western Nebraska, is their beautiful scenery, with their fine encompassed lakes, their marvelous woods and interesting tradition. But if it is simply bass you want, you can catch more in a day at any one of Nebraska's numerous sandhill lakes, than you can catch in the north woods in a week.

-SANDY GRlSWOLD, In Omaha World-Herald.
Quinnebaugh Seined and Stocked.

Lake Quinnebaugh, near Tekamah, was seined by the Department in cooperation with the Tekamah chapter of the Izaak Walton League, early in the spring. Over 10,000 pounds of course fish were taken from the lake and sold.

Recently this lake was stocked with bass, perch and croppie. A fencing project was put in by the Department and the League chapter. This fencing was designed to keep course fish from coming in from the Missouri River overflow.

Champion Lake Seined.

Among the many projects handled this spring by Superintendent of Conservation, Wm. O'Brien and his coworkers, was one at Imperial, in Chase county, where a number of lakes were seined.

The work was done in cooperation, with the Izaak Walton League of Imperial, who, according to Charley Pilford. in charge of the seining crew, "took off their coats and helped do the job." Many course fish were taken from Champion Lake, near Champion. Some of the carp captured weighed better than twenty pounds.


Notes on Fins, Feathers and Furs.

Many Young Fish Planted.

Four and a quarter billion fish fry and fingerlings and more than a billion fish eggs were planted in the waters of the United States by the United Bureau of Fisheries during the fiscal year endng June 30, 1925, according to a report by Henry O'Malley, head of the bureau. The human mind cannot visualize such large numbers, the bulletin of the American Game Protective association surmizes, but some conception of the magnitude of the Bureau's operations may be grasped by translating the figures into familiar terms. If each fish planted should survive, should grow to a weight of 5 pounds, and be caught and transported, it would require a train of box cars reaching half way around the world to carry them. It is a wise provision ofnature which guards against the overpopulation ofthe waters that would result if all the fish hatched reached maturity.

Possibly the sportman's first impulse would be to attempt to conceive the numbers of fish planted by the Federal Bureau in terms of trout and bass, but this would be a mistake.

The larger number of fry propagated and planted by the bureau are of the salt water commercial species such as cod, flounder and pollock, and fresh water food fishes including whitefish, cisco, lake trout and pike perch. This strictly game fish varieties, including the stream trouts and basses, are produced in comparatively limited numbers, but the operations of the bureau in production of game fish cover the entire country and supplement the work of the several states effectively.

In calling attention to the necessity for cooperation by anglers in the preservation of the fish supply, Commissioner O'Malley says:

"The angler should refrain from taking more fish than he can use merely for the purpose of displaying his prowess. All should aid in the protection of a sufficient number of spawning fish to insure a continuing supply, and should do everything possible to prevent the pollution with noxious materials of the waters which sustain our fisheries. The bottomlands, bayous and swamps which constitute the nurseries for the young fish and provide their food supply, should not be reclaimed unless it is assured that they will be more productive when put to other uses."

Notwithstanding the large extent to which fish culture is carried on, it cannot be relied upon solely to maintain the supply of game or food fishes. Natural propagation must be encouraged and safe guarded by maintaining adequate spawning grounds, clean, pure water, a natural food supply and protection during the period of spawning, and until maturity is reached.


Nebraska Trout, caught near Minatare.

Bass From Pelican Lake.

Fifty bass weighing from one to four pounds, taken from Pelican Lake in April by Harold Meyers, Newport, Nebraska.

Friend Fishermen:—I want to tell you about a wonderful fishing trip this spring. It took place in April, when, according to my fisherman's calendar it was time to go out for the big bass. I am one who believes the big fellows strike early in the year.

Though I invited several friends to accompany me, none believed in my calendar, so I started out alone. I drove up to Wood Lake. Not knowing the road to Dewey Lake, I requested information and found that a party was going down that way and that they would show me the road. These fellows were mighty fine chaps, too—Nick Utt, Ben Mickey and William Parker —three good sportsmen. They invited me to stay at their club at Willow Lake the first night, which I did.

I had a good time the first evening, but the bass didn't strike. I tried it again the next morning, but again wthout success. Then that evening I went up to Dewey Lake and met Mr. Cale, who runs the Dewey   14 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA Lake Club—One of the most accommodating persons I have ever met. I decided to go over to Pelican Lake.

At Pelican things began to happen. It wasn't long until I had the limit on bass and I was ready for supper. Mr. Cale had told me to come back over when I got hungry, and supper would be waiting.

The next afternoon I went back to Pelican and again got the limit. They were all alive the following morning, when I started for home with my wonderful catch. I had never felt quite so happy in my life.

Arrived at my home I showed my catch to some of the boys who wouldn't go with me. I never enjoyed anything more than showing them what they had missed.

But laying all jokes aside, I had a real fishing trip. I have since been up there again and expect to make a third trip in June.

I hope the Nebraska sportsmen get enthusiastic about these Nebraska lakes. As a matter of fact, there are a lot of good lakes in northern Nebraska, with plenty of good fish in most of them. If any of you ever want to get in touch with Cale, his address is, Ed Cale, Simeon, Nebraska.

Yours very truly, Harold Myers, Newport, Nebraska.


(Continued: from p. 9)

that this animal was once plentiful in this part of the state. Why not habilitate this noble animal that once grazed on the'nutritious grasses of Nebraska?

The experiment in forestation thus far has shown conclusively that certain species of trees can be successfully grown on these lands. Among the trees planted are the yellow pine, the Austrian, and the Jack pine, the latter producing the best results, due to its deeper rooting system. Several broad leaf or hardwoodl trees have also been grown.

Parts of the prairie on the reserve have been changed to forest, thus lending variety and adding an additional touch of color to the hills and slopes that blends well with the landscape of this country. The forest litter of needles and twigs makes a nearly continuous covering under the oldest trees.

The Halsey reserve is reached "by the Potash Highway. This road has been greatly improved in recent years. Parts of it are as good as any roadl in the state. You may also get there by means of the Burlington Railway in traveling to or from Alliance. From the railroad a beautiful view may be had across the Middle Loup skirted by ash, box elder, willow and a few hackberry trees on the lowland, with the pines covering the slopes and cresting the hills of the reserve as a background. You have here a sight that leaves a permanent impression.

The reserve is a favorite center of recreation for the people of this section. Thousands of them go there to enjoy the shade, the odor of the pines, to rest, and to cast aside the cares of every day life. Picnics, dinner parties, and other forms of amusement are occurrences during the summer. Tourists in increasing numbers along the Potash Highway stop and enjoy the features of the reserve.

The Niobrara reserve is south of the Niobrara and west of Snake River in Cherry County, its eastern edge being about 18 miles southwest of Valentine. This reserve has an area of 196 square miles, of which about 500 acres are planted with trees. It hasi not been developed to the extent the Halsey reserve has, for tree planting was here started at a later date.


(Continued from p. 3)

trapped and redistributed. This was by far the bigest movement of game birds ever undertaken in the middle west. A few of the birds were lost in shipping, but the percent was very small. The state paid only for birds received alive at Lincoln. Fom Lincoln they were reshipped to the various sections of the state.

Reports coming in from all counties at the present time would indicate that the 1926 re-stocking is doing well and a fine crop of young birds will be had. It is believed that by careful stocking and good protection, the pheasant can be raised in sufficient numbers to give the people of eastern and southern Nebraska a good game bird. Several other nearby states already have pheasants sufficient to have a short open season. It is possible to fix an open season, once the birds are sufficient in number, to regulate the supply. Good judgment in fixing an open season will keep the birds from becoming too numerous and at the same time leave enough stock for breeding purposes. Most of the states which have an open season allow only the taking of the males.

Pheasants shipped to eastern and southern counties in the spring of the present year as follows:

Saline 510 Gage 494 Holt 492 Saunders 471 Douglas 442 Lancaster 436 Dodge 436 Richardson 420 Otoe 427 Johnson 396 Pawnee 315 Nemaha 398 Cass 397 Sarpy 345 Washington 380 Burt 326 Cedar 307 Platte 207 Knox 356 Antelope 320 Jexerson 304 Madison 341 Cumming 321 Red Willow 296 Harlan 255 Webster 279 Franklin 293 Frontier 227 Fillmore 286 Seward 234 Colfax 288 Stanton 266 Thurston 235 Dakota 232 Dixon 246 Wayne 200 Pierce 281 Nuckolls 245 Boyd 154 Adams 190 Clay 158 Thayer 184 Furnas 181 Hitchcock 181 Lincoln 104 Dawson 90 York 171 Phelps 104 Butler 111 Fish Nuts.

"What is an oyster?" the teacher asked a small boy.

There was a painful pause, and then:

"An oyster is a fish that is built like a nut, teacher."

OUTDOOR NEBRASKA 15 THE GAME WARDEN. (Continued from p. 7.)

many and his knowledge must be varied. He must be able to name the principal game birds and animals in his country and give the open seasons for each; he must know how to issue licenses: the bag limit, the right of search, sale of game, gunning at night, and every rule and regulation that covers hunting, fishing and trapping. He must investigate alleged violations of the state fish and game laws, place game posters and signs, prosecute violators of the law, prevent the pollution of streams, assist in the collecting of fish for propagating purposes, and other duties that call for keen-sighted vision, a cool head and a judicial mind.

"Real sportsmen appreciate the work the Game Wardens are doing—those who want to evade the law do not. "That's why we have the Game Wardens."—Courtesy of Oregon Sportsman.


Carp taken from Champion Lake in Chase County. These fish weigh better than 20 pounds,


about held their own, while from Alberta conflicting reports have been made, giving increases in some parts and decreases in others. The opinion is held that unfavorable weather during the breeding season may account for the decreases reported in Alberta, as was the case in Manitoba. From Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island' come encouraging reports of increases. This coincides with information from the New England States and northern New York It may here be stated that reports from nearly all parts of the country indicate that the flight of geese during the present season has been large.

Local Decreases.

As against the reports of abundance of migratory wild fowl, are others from numerous places widely scattered over the country, concerning an unusual scarcity of birds and poor hunting. Reports of this kind have come from Back Bay, Virginia; Currituck Sound, North Carolina; from Alabama, and from numerous western states, especially California, Idaho, and North Dakota.

An unusually heavy northward migration of wild fowl during the spring of 1925 and the known presence during the winter of 1925-26 of millions of birds in many of the great wintering places of the country indicate that scarcities in many localities do not mean that the birds have actually decreased as the local number would make it appear, but that either unusual weather, failure of food supply, or temporary changes in flight routes have produced the abnormal conditions reflected in the distribution of the birds.

The mild weather in the fall and early winter of 1925 in southern Canada and along much of the northern border of the United States caused great numbers of birds to linger in their migration. In many parts of the west an unusually early andl abundant fall flight took place, apparently of birds hatched on southern breeding grounds. They remained only a short time, and following that the coming in of the usual heavy winter flight was delayed and straggling. The abundance of birds on southern wintering grounds, however, shows that they still exist in vast numbers.

One of the most puzzling situations has been that the very unusual scarcity of ducks in California and some of the neighboring states, although from California comes information that the scarcity is not so noticeable among the geese. This, situation is probably wholly due to extraordinary weather conditions on the coast of southern Alaska and northern British Columbia. Most remarkable and unprecendented weather prevailed throughout the fall and early winter in that region. Telegrams from Juneau, dated January 17 and 19, stated that there was practically no snow below 1,000 feet elevation along the entire southern coast of the territory and that and geese were reported unusuually plentiful on thet Capper and Bering River Flats. From Wrangell, Alaska, it was reported that many ducks and geese had been frequenting the flats near there. A wireless fram the Alaska Game Commission advised the Biologgical Survey that large numbers of mallards and thousands of geese were on the Stikine River Flats, which were free from snow and ice, a remarkable occurrence for this time of the year. On January 20, a telegram stated that ducks and geese were plentiful in the Yakutat region in south eastern Alaska, contrary to the usual conditions at this season. A telegram from the secretary of the Game Conservation Board of the Province of British Columbia, advised the Biological Survey that as late as February 6, 1926, the weather conditions along the coast had been without precedent, with no cold spells of any consequence. As a result, large numbers of migratory wild fowl were remaining all winter in the numerous inlets along the west coast, in contrast with conditions later in the season a year previously, when the shooting was poor. The same telegram reported that in the interior of British Columbia the weather was much milder than in other years and that various migratory insectivorous birds also were staying there all winter. These doubtless are the birds that ordinarily would be wintering in California and adjacent states, and the reduced number of birds in these states is largely explained by the fact   16 OUTDOOR NEBRASKA that the wild fowl were remaining in the north.

In sharp contrast with these conditions in Alaska, it may be stated that just a year ago the Biological Survey was receiving urgent telegrams from the territory asking for help to save the starving deer that had been forced down to the beaches along the southeastern coast by an extraordinarily heavy snow, which was from two feet deep along the shore to fifteen feet deep farther inland. The amazing climatic situation during the present season has been accompanied by a marked decrease in the early winter rains on the west coast, especially in California, a condition unfavorable for waterfowl.

The responsibility for the enforcement of the migratory-bird treaty act carries with it the necessity for a continual study of conditions affecting migratory birds throughout the country. The Biological Survey is enforcing the law and making these studies as far as its funds permit. Through its investigations came the first appreciation of the danger to migratory wild fowl from the apid and progessive drainage of water areas. Attention once drawn to this menace, the public promptly awoke and, having been convinced of the real danger from this source, has actively favored measures to meet the situation.

Later investigations, especially during the past year, have shown such rapid and destructive effects, based primaily on the loss of water areas by drainage or from climatic conditions, that this appears to be an opportune time to bring them to the attention of all interested. Conditions in several states typify the general situation in the country at large.


(Continued from p. 4.)

The Bureau of Fish and Game of Nebraska has taken up this problem and is making an earnest endeavor to secure hunting and fishing and camping grounds for the future. With hunting and fishing facilities rapidly falling into the hands of private parties who lease such places to persons of means, the Bureau realizes that prompt action must be taken if the average Nebraskan of modest means shall have a place for recreation—a place far from the crowded cities where he may go to enjoy some of the natural beauty of his state.

Four holdings have already been purchased by the Bureau and thrown, open to the public. The largest of these is Goose Lake, in Holt County. In years gone by, Goose Lake was a famous hunting and fishing ground. The water of the lake was full of pickerel and the wild fowl came down to it by the thousands.

Goose Lake today, while confronted with some perplexing problems, can be developed into a splendid recreation ground. All that is required is careful planning and patience. Just now the lake is short of water. Wells are now being put down and if sufficient water can be found,that problem can be readily solved.

Goose Lake comprises some 350 acres. It is the plan of the Bureau to make this a recreation park of natural beauty—a touch of the old Nebraska of pioneer days. Nothing will be done to bring about an artificial effect. Since this project was acquired late in 1925, wells have been put down, th land fenced, and a landscape survey made. A test for course fish was made, but none of large size found in the lake. Had the water been of sufficient depth, the lake would have been stockd with game fish this year, but this must necessarily be delayed until the water level is higher and sufficient acquatic vegetation is grown. It is the desire of the Bureau to develop this project as fast as possible, but always with permanency in view.

The second important holding secured by the Bureau is known as Walgren Lake or "Alkali Lake." This is located in Sheridan County, not far from Hay Springs. This project contains some 130 acres, part of which is water. Work is now under way to construct an adequate ditch to control the water of the lake. Local organizations are aidng the state in the planting of suitable trees. Here the fishing is already good and many anglers go there for recreation. Development of this project is also being pushed and the same will be developed along the lines as at Goose Lake.

Holdings on two other good lakes have been obtained by the bureau. Both of these are located! in Cherry County. This project comprises 444.42 acres, part of which fronts on Rat and Beaver Lakes, both well-known fishing waters.

It is the plan of the Bureau to buy other recreation parks when funds are available and! suitable projects can be found. Every effort will be made to obtain and hold hunting and fishing grounds that the Nebraska citizens of tomorrow shall have the opportunity to know and enjoy something of the natural beauty and life of his state.


(Continued! from p. 5.)

in a word of caution: Do not attempt to build nursery ponds for other species of fish without the advice of an expert, or you are likely to meet with disappointment. Do not waste your means experimenting. The conditions necessary for a nursery pond for bass are more expensive, more complicated and of a more uncertain nature. Hence you should investigate the possibilities before starting your project. Few places will be found where bass may be propagated successfully in a nursery pond, therefore careful consideration should be given to such ventures. It is better to get advice of some one experienced in the business than to go about the matter blindly.

The production of fish now propagated in the pond system at the Valentine Hatchery is about 300,000 annually. These consist of large mouth black bass, small mouth black bass, rock bass, crappie, ring perch and the pumpkinseed and blue gill sunfish. These fish are distributed in the fall when there are from three to four inches long. When such fish are planted in our fresh water lakes or streams, ninety-five per cent will live to maturity.

During the last year and a half, considerable work has been done at the Valentine Hatchery to increase fish production. Last year four new propagating ponds were built, and two new ones this spring. This gives six new ones, all of whichhave been stocked with adult bass. When it is realized that each of the female bass will produce from 2,000 to 3,000 youngsters, it will readily be seen that rapid strides in fish production in Nebraska are being made. Because of the large acreage in the Valentine pond system it makes the largest production of game fish for inland waters of any similar hatchery in the country. And it makes it possible to produce fish in large numbers at a comparatively small cost.